Raymond of Poitiers

Raymond of Poitiers was Prince of Antioch from 1136 to 1149. He was the younger son of William IX, Duke of Aquitaine and his wife Philippa, Countess of Toulouse, born in the year that his father the Duke began his infamous liaison with Dangereuse de Chatelherault. Following the death of Prince Bohemund II of Antioch in 1130, the principality came under the regency first of King Baldwin II King Fulk, Princess Alice, Bohemond's widow; the reigning princess was Constance. Against the wishes of Alice, a marriage was arranged for Constance with Raymond, at the time staying in England, which he left only after the death of Henry I on 1 December 1135. Upon hearing word that Raymond was going to pass through his lands in order to marry the princess of Antioch, King Roger II of Sicily ordered him arrested. By a series of subterfuges, Raymond passed through southern Italy and only arrived at Antioch after 19 April 1136. Patriarch Ralph of Domfront convinced Alice that Raymond was there to marry her, whereupon she allowed him to enter Antioch and the patriarch married him to Constance.

Alice left the city, now under the control of Raymond and Ralph. The first years of their joint rule were spent in conflicts with the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus, who had come south to recover Cilicia from Leo of Armenia, to reassert his rights over Antioch. Raymond was forced to pay homage, to promise to cede his principality as soon as he was recompensed by a new fief, which John promised to carve out for him in the Muslim territory to the east of Antioch; the expedition of 1138, in which Raymond joined with John, and, to conquer this territory, proved a failure. The expedition culminated in the unsuccessful Siege of Shaizar. Raymond was not anxious to help the emperor to acquire new territories, when their acquisition only meant for him the loss of Antioch. John Comnenus returned unsuccessful to Constantinople, after demanding from Raymond, without response, the surrender of the citadel of Antioch. There followed a struggle between the patriarch. Raymond was annoyed by the homage which he had been forced to pay to the patriarch in 1135 and the dubious validity of the patriarch's election offered a handle for opposition.

Raymond triumphed, the patriarch was deposed. In 1142 John Comnenus returned to the attack, but Raymond refused to recognize or renew his previous submission, John, though he ravaged the neighborhood of Antioch, was unable to effect anything against him. When, however Raymond demanded from Manuel, who had succeeded John in 1143, the cession of some of the Cilician towns, he found that he had met his match. Manuel forced him to a humiliating visit to Constantinople, during which he renewed his oath of homage and promised to acknowledge a Greek patriarch. In the last year of Raymond's life Louis VII and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine visited Antioch during the Second Crusade. Raymond sought to prevent Louis from going south to Jerusalem and to induce him to stay in Antioch and help in the conquest of Aleppo and Caesarea. Raymond was suspected of having an incestuous affair with his beautiful niece Eleanor. According to John of Salisbury, Louis became suspicious of the attention Raymond lavished on Eleanor, the long conversations they enjoyed.

William of Tyre claims that Raymond seduced Eleanor to get revenge on her husband, who refused to aid him in his wars against the Saracens, that "contrary to royal dignity, she disregarded her marriage vows and was unfaithful to her husband." Most modern historians dismiss such rumours, pointing out the closeness of Raymond and his niece during her early childhood, the effulgent Aquitainian manner of behaviour. As the pious Louis continued to have relations with his wife, it is doubtful that he believed his charge of incest. Louis hastily left Raymond was balked in his plans. In 1149 he was killed in the Battle of Inab during an expedition against Nur ad-Din Zangi, he was beheaded by Shirkuh, the uncle of Saladin, his head was placed in a silver box and sent to the Caliph of Baghdad as a gift. Raymond is described by William of Tyre as "a lord of noble descent, of tall and elegant figure, the handsomest of the princes of the earth, a man of charming affability and conversation, open-handed and magnificent beyond measure".

For his career see Rey, in the Revue de l'orient latin, vol. iv. With Constance he had the following children: Bohemond III Maria, married emperor Manuel I Komnenos Philippa Baldwin Catlos, Brian A.. Infidel Kings and Unholy Warriors: Faith and Violence in the Age of Crusade and Jihad. Farrar and Giroux. Hamilton, Bernard. "Ralph of Domfront, Patriarch of Antioch". Nottingham Medieval Studies. 28: 1–21. Luscombe, David; the New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, C.1024-c.1198, Part II. Cambridge University Press. Tyerman, Christopher. God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Harvard University Press. Murray, Alan V.. Van Houts, Elisabeth. "Constance, Princess of Antioch: Ancestry and Family". Anglo-Norman Studies XXXVIII: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 2015; the Boydell Press

Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox)

The Fourth Council of Constantinople was held in 879–880. It confirmed the reinstatement of Photius as Patriarch of Constantinople; the result of this council is accepted as having the authority of an ecumenical council by Eastern Orthodox Christians, who sometimes call it the Eighth Ecumenical Council. The Council settled the dispute that had broken out after the deposition of Ignatius as Patriarch of Constantinople in 858. Ignatius, himself appointed to his office in an uncanonical manner, opposed Caesar Bardas, who had deposed the regent Theodora. In response, Bardas' nephew, the youthful Emperor Michael III engineered Ignatius's deposition and confinement on the charge of treason; the patriarchal throne was filled with a renowned scholar and kinsman of Bardas. The deposition of Ignatius without a formal ecclesiastical trial and the sudden promotion of Photios caused scandal in the church. Pope Nicholas I and the western bishops took up the cause of Ignatios and condemned Photios's election as uncanonical.

In 863, at a synod in Rome the pope deposed Photios, reappointed Ignatius as the rightful patriarch. However, Photius enjoined the support of the Emperor and responded by calling a Council and excommunicating the pope; this state of affairs changed when Photius's patrons and Emperor Michael III, were murdered in 866 and 867 by Basil the Macedonian, who now usurped the throne. Photios was deposed as patriarch, not so much because he was a protégé of Bardas and Michael, but because Basil was seeking an alliance with the Pope and the western emperor. Photios was removed from his office and banished about the end of September 867, Ignatios was reinstated on 23 November. Photios was condemned by a Council held at Constantinople from 5 October 869 to 28 February 870. Photius was barred from the patriarchal office, while Ignatius was reinstated. After the death of Ignatius in 877, the Emperor made. Another Council was convened in 879, held at Constantinople, comprising the representatives of all the five patriarchates, including that of Rome.

Anthony Edward Siecienski writes: "In 879 the emperor called for another council to meet in Constantinople in the hopes that the new pope, John VIII would recognize the validity of Photius's claim upon the patriarchate. This council, sometimes called the eighth ecumenical in the East was attended by the papal legates and by over 400 bishops, who confirmed Photius as rightful patriarch." The granting of a pallium is a sign of papal approval and the pope's legates "immediately" confirmed Photius without awaiting a decision of the council. The council implicitly condemned the addition of the Filioque to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, an addition rejected at that time in Rome: "The Creed was read out and a condemnation pronounced against those who'impose on it their own invented phrases and put this forth as a common lesson to the faithful or to those who return from som kind of heresy and display the audacity to falsify the antiquity of this sacred and venerable Horos with illegitimate words, or additions, or subtractions'."

Eastern Orthodox Christians argue that thereby the council condemned not only the addition of the Filioque clause to the creed but denounced the clause as heretical, while Roman Catholics separate the two and insist on the theological orthodoxy of the clause. According to non-Catholic Philip Schaff, "To the Greek acts was afterwards added a letter of Pope John VIII. to Photius, declaring the Filioque to be an addition, rejected by the church of Rome, a blasphemy which must be abolished calmly and by degrees." Whether and how far the council was confirmed by Pope John VIII is a matter of dispute: The council was held in the presence of papal legates, who approved of the proceedings, Roman Catholic historian Fr. Francis Dvornik argues that Pope accepted the acts of the council and annulled those of the Council of 869–870. Other Catholic historians, such as Warren Carroll, dispute this view, arguing that the pope rejected the council. Siecienski says. Philip Schaff opines that the Pope, deceived by his legates about the actual proceedings, first applauded the Emperor but denounced the council.

In any case, the Pope had accepted the reinstatement of Photius as Patriarch. However in the wake of further conflicts between East and West in the 11th century, the council was repudiated. On 8 March 870, three days after the end of the council, the Papal and Eastern delegates met with the Bulgarian ambassadors led by the kavhan Peter to decide the status of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. Since the Bulgarians were not satisfied with the positions of the Pope after prolonged negotiations, they reached favorable agreement with the Byzantines and the decision was taken that the Bulgarian Church should become Eastern Orthodox; the Photian Schism that led to the councils of 869 and 879 represents a break between West. While the previous seven ecumenical councils are recognized as ecumenical and authoritative by both East and West, many Eastern Orthodox Christians recognize the council of 879 as the Eighth Ecumenical Council, arguing that it annulled the earlier one; this council is referred to as Ecumenical in the Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs of 1848.

The Roman Catholic Church, recognizes the council of 869 as the Eighth Ecumenical Council and does not place the council among Ecumenical Councils. At the

Johan Driza

Johan Driza is an Albanian retired footballer who played for Flamurtari Vlorë, Wacker Burghausen, KF Tirana, Bylis Ballsh, Dinamo Tirana and Teuta Durrës as well as the Albania national team. He made his debut for Albania in an August 1998 friendly match away against Cyrus and earned a total of 4 caps, scoring no goals, his final international was a February 2000 Malta International Football Tournament match against tournament hosts Malta. Kategoria Superiore: 22000, 2002 National Football Teams