Bush (British band)
Bush are an English rock band formed in London, England in 1992. Their current lineup consists of lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Gavin Rossdale, drummer Robin Goodridge, lead guitarist Chris Traynor, bassist Corey Britz. In 1994, Bush found immediate success with the release of their debut album, Sixteen Stone, certified 6× multi-platinum by the RIAA, they went on to become one of the most commercially successful rock bands of the 1990s, selling over 10 million records in the United States and 20 million in the world. Despite their success in the United States, the band were less well known in their home country and enjoyed only marginal success there. Bush have had numerous top ten singles on the Billboard rock charts and one No. 1 album with Razorblade Suitcase in 1996. The band broke up in 2002 but reformed in 2010, have released three albums since then: The Sea of Memories, Man on the Run, Black and White Rainbows. After leaving his band Midnight, Gavin Rossdale met former King Blank guitarist Nigel Pulsford in 1992.
The two bonded over an appreciation of the American alternative rock group the Pixies. The two formed a new band. Describing the early sound of the group, one British record label executive said years "They weren't what they are today – they were a little like the more commercial side of INXS"; the pair recruited bassist Dave Parsons and drummer Robin Goodridge to complete the line-up. The group soon chose the name "Bush", naming themselves after Shepherd's Bush, where the band members used to live. In 1993, the band was signed by Rob Kahane, who had a distribution deal with Disney's Hollywood Records; the band completed recording its debut album Sixteen Stone in early 1994. However, the death of Disney executive Frank G. Wells eliminated a supporter for Kahane, executives at Hollywood deemed Bush's album unacceptable for release; as a result, the members of Bush took jobs performing menial labour. Interscope Records decided to release the album, at the end of 1994, Kahane sent an advance copy of the album to a friend at influential Los Angeles radio station KROQ-FM, which added the song "Everything Zen" to its rotation.
On the Billboard Music Charts, Sixteen Stone peaked at No. 4 on the Heatseekers and Billboard 200 charts. The album spawned two Top 40 singles. After about six months of promotion for Sixteen Stone, the album began to sell well, once "Comedown" and "Glycerine" struck America. Additionally, "Little Things" and "Machinehead" both charted well in North America. In Canada, the band were forced to release Sixteen Stone under the name BushX, as the 1970s Canadian band Bush still held the rights to that name in the Canadian market; the dispute arose after the British band's lawyers threatened to intervene to prevent the Canadian band from reissuing its 1970 album, although it was between the bands' lawyers as Rossdale and Domenic Troiano, the leader of the Canadian band, both expressed a willingness to negotiate a solution. In 1997, after the band's second album Razorblade Suitcase bore the X, Rossdale and Troiano directly negotiated an agreement under which the British band were allowed to drop the X in exchange for donating $20,000 each to the Starlight Foundation and the Canadian Music Therapy Trust Fund.
Both Sixteen Stone and Razorblade Suitcase were reissued without the X. In late 1996 Bush released the first single "Swallowed" from their second album titled Razorblade Suitcase; the song spent seven weeks on top of the Modern Rock Tracks chart. This was followed by single "Greedy Fly"; the album placed high in many European countries. Razorblade Suitcase featured American recording engineer Steve Albini, a move, viewed negatively by critics. Albini had worked with Nirvana on their final studio album, In Utero, three years before. Bush released the remix album Deconstructed; the album saw Bush re-arranging their songs into techno stylings. The album went platinum less than a year after release. Following the completion of touring, Rossdale went into seclusion in Ireland, where he worked on material for the group's next album. Rossdale periodically sent demo tapes of his works in progress to his bandmates; the group convened to record in London in August 1998, where the band reteamed with Sixteen Stone producers Clive Langer and Alan Winstanley.
The release of The Science of Things was held up by a court battle between the band and Trauma Records. The case was settled in early 1999 and the album was released that October; the Science of Things was a major departure in several forms from Bush's first two albums. Like the multi-platinum successes of Bush's first two albums, this album reached platinum status. While the band's previous albums were influenced by grunge, The Science of Things featured some electronic music influences in addition to the sound defined by Bush's earlier work. For example, although lead single "The Chemicals Between Us" had a prominent guitar riff, it had many electronic elements found in dance music. Although the album had a few hit songs, it failed to chart in the top 10; the band's performance at Woodstock'99, helped The Science of Things achieve platinum status despite its slow start. Three singles were released from The Science of Things, most notably "The Chemicals Between Us", which spent five weeks at No. 1 on the Modern Rock Tracks and peaked at No. 67 on the US Hot 100."Warm Machine" was the second single released.
"Letting the Cables Sleep," the third single, reached No. 4 on the Modern Rock Tracks and received considerable airplay. In October 2001, now on the Atlantic Records record label, Bush released its next album, Golden State. While the al
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in 1990 in Seattle, Washington. Since its inception, the band's line-up has included Eddie Vedder, Mike McCready, Stone Gossard, Jeff Ament. Since 1998, the band has included drummer Matt Cameron. Boom Gaspar has been a session/touring member with the band since 2002. Drummers Jack Irons, Dave Krusen, Matt Chamberlain, Dave Abbruzzese are former members of the band. Formed after the demise of Gossard and Ament's previous band, Mother Love Bone, Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream with its debut album, Ten, in 1991. One of the key bands in the grunge movement of the early 1990s, its members shunned popular music industry practices such as making music videos or giving interviews; the band sued Ticketmaster, claiming it had monopolized the concert-ticket market. In 2006, Rolling Stone described the band as having "spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame."The band had sold nearly 32 million albums in the United States by 2012, by 2018, they had sold more than 85 million albums worldwide.
Pearl Jam outsold many of its contemporary alternative rock bands from the early 1990s, is considered one of the most influential bands of the decade. AllMusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine referred to Pearl Jam as "the most popular American rock & roll band of the'90s". Pearl Jam was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7, 2017, in its first year of eligibility, they were ranked at number 8 in a reader poll by Rolling Stone magazine in its Top ten live acts of all time issue. Stone Gossard and Jeff Ament were members of pioneering grunge band Green River during the mid-1980s. Green River toured and recorded to moderate success but disbanded in 1987 due to a stylistic division between the pair and bandmates Mark Arm and Steve Turner. In late 1987, Gossard and Ament began playing with Malfunkshun vocalist Andrew Wood organizing the band Mother Love Bone. In 1988 and 1989, the band recorded and toured to increasing interest and found the support of the PolyGram record label, which signed the band in early 1989.
Mother Love Bone's debut album, was released in July 1990, four months after Wood died of a heroin overdose. Ament and Gossard were devastated by the resulting demise of Mother Love Bone. Gossard spent his time afterwards writing material, harder-edged than what he had been doing previously. After a few months, Gossard started practicing with fellow Seattle guitarist Mike McCready, whose band, had broken up. After practicing for a while, the trio sent out a five-song demo tape in order to find a singer and a drummer, they gave former Red Hot Chili Peppers drummer Jack Irons the demo to see if he would be interested in joining the band and to distribute the demo to anyone he felt might fit the lead vocal position. Irons passed on the invitation but gave the demo to his basketball friend, San Diego, California singer Eddie Vedder. Vedder was the lead vocalist for a San Diego band, Bad Radio, worked part-time at a gas station, he listened to the tape shortly before going surfing. He recorded the vocals to three of the songs in what he described as a "mini-opera" entitled Momma-Son.
Vedder sent the tape with his vocals back to the three Seattle musicians, who were impressed enough to fly Vedder up to Seattle for an audition. Within a week, Vedder had joined the band. With the addition of Dave Krusen on drums, the band took the name Mookie Blaylock, in reference to the then-active basketball player Mookie Blaylock; the band played its first official show at the Off Ramp Café in Seattle on October 22, 1990. They opened for Alice in Chains at the Moore Theatre in Seattle on December 22, 1990, served as the opening act for the band's Facelift tour in 1991. Mookie Blaylock soon renamed themselves Pearl Jam. In an early promotional interview, Vedder said that the name "Pearl Jam" was a reference to his great-grandmother Pearl, married to a Native American and had a special recipe for peyote-laced jam. In a 2006 Rolling Stone cover story however, Vedder admitted that this story was "total bullshit" though he indeed had a great-grandma named Pearl. Ament and McCready explained that Ament came up with "pearl", that the band settled on "Pearl Jam" after attending a concert by Neil Young, in which he extended his songs as improvisations of 15–20 minutes in length.
Pearl Jam entered Seattle's London Bridge Studios in March 1991 to record Ten. McCready said that "Ten was Stone and Jeff. Krusen left the band in May 1991 after checking himself into rehabilitation. After playing only a handful of shows, one of, filmed for the "Alive" video, Chamberlain left to join the Saturday Night Live band. Chamberlain suggested Dave Abbruzzese as his replacement. Abbruzzese played the rest of Pearl Jam's live shows supporting Ten. Released on August 27, 1991, Ten contained eleven tracks dealing with dark subjects like depression, suicide and murder. Ten's musical style, influenced by classic rock, combined an "expansive harmonic vocabulary" with an anthemic sound; the album was slow to sell, but by the second half of 1992 it became a breakthrough success, being certified gold and reaching number two on the Billboard charts. Ten produced the hit singles "Alive", "Even Flow", "Jeremy". Interpreted as a
In Utero (album)
In Utero is the third and final studio album by American rock band Nirvana, released on September 21, 1993, by DGC Records. Nirvana intended for the record to diverge from the polished, refined production of its previous album, Nevermind. To capture a more abrasive and natural sound, the group hired engineer Steve Albini to record In Utero during a two-week period in February 1993 at Pachyderm Studio in Cannon Falls, Minnesota; the music was recorded within that time with few studio embellishments. The song lyrics and album packaging incorporated medical imagery that conveyed frontman Kurt Cobain's outlook on his publicized personal life and his band's newfound fame. Soon after recording was completed, rumors circulated in the press that DGC might not release the album in its original state, as the record label felt that the result was not commercially viable. Although Nirvana publicly denied the statements, the band opted to remix parts of the album. Albini declined to alter the album further, the band hired R.
E. M. producer Scott Litt to make minor changes to the album's sound and remix the singles "Heart-Shaped Box" and "All Apologies". Upon release, In Utero entered the Billboard 200 chart at number one and received critical acclaim as a drastic departure from Nevermind; the record has been certified five times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, has sold 15 million copies worldwide. Nirvana broke into the musical mainstream with its major-label album Nevermind in 1991. Despite modest sales estimates—the band's record company, DGC Records, forecast sales of 50,000 copies—Nevermind became a huge commercial success, popularizing the Seattle grunge movement and alternative rock in general. All three members of Nirvana—singer and guitarist Kurt Cobain, bassist Krist Novoselic, drummer Dave Grohl—later expressed dissatisfaction with the sound of the album, citing its production as too polished. Early in 1992, Cobain told Rolling Stone that he was sure that the band's next album would showcase "both of the extremes" of its sound, saying "it'll be more raw with some songs and more candy pop on some of the others.
It won't be as one-dimensional ". Cobain wanted to start work on the album in the summer of 1992, but the band was unable as Cobain and his bandmates lived in different cities, as the singer and his wife, Courtney Love, were expecting the birth of their daughter, Frances Bean. DGC had hoped to have a new album by the band ready for a late-1992 holiday season release. In a Melody Maker interview published in July 1992, Cobain told the English journalist Everett True that he was interested in recording with Jack Endino and Steve Albini. Cobain said he would choose the best material from the sessions for inclusion on the group's next album. In October 1992, Nirvana recorded several songs during a demo session with Endino in Seattle. Endino recalled that the band did not ask him to produce its next record, but noted that the band members debated working with Albini; the group recorded another set of demos while on tour in Brazil in January 1993. One of the recordings from this session, the long improvisational track "Gallons of Rubbing Alcohol Flow Through the Strip", was included as a hidden track on non-U.
S. CD copies of In Utero. Nirvana chose Albini to record its third album. Albini had a reputation as a principled and opinionated individual in the American independent music scene. While there was speculation that the band chose Albini to record the album due to his underground credentials, Cobain told Request magazine in 1993, "For the most part I wanted to work with him because he happened to produce two of my favorite records, which were Surfer Rosa and Pod." Inspired by those albums, Cobain wanted to utilize Albini's technique of capturing the natural ambiance of a room via the usage and placement of several microphones, something previous Nirvana producers had been averse to trying. Months before the trio had approached Albini about the recording, rumors circulated that he was slated to record the album. Albini sent a disclaimer to the British music press denying involvement, only to get a call from Nirvana's management a few days about the project. Although he considered the group to be "R.
E. M. with a fuzzbox" and "an unremarkable version of the Seattle sound", Albini told Nirvana biographer Michael Azerrad he accepted because he felt sorry for the band members, whom he perceived to be "the same sort of people as all the small-fry bands I deal with", at the mercy of their record company. Before the start of recording sessions, the band sent Albini a tape of the demos it had made in Brazil. In return, Albini sent Cobain a copy of the PJ Harvey album Rid of Me to give him an idea of the acoustics at the studio where they would record; the members of Nirvana and Albini decided on a self-imposed two-week deadline for recording the album. Wary of interference by DGC, Albini suggested the band members pay for the sessions with their own money, which they agreed to. Studio fees totaled US$24,000. Despite the suggestions of Nirvana's management company Gold Mountain, Albini refused to take percentage points on record sales though he stood to earn about $500,000 in royalties. While a common practice among producers in the music industry, Albini refused to take royalties because he co
Pukkelpop is an annual music festival that takes place near the city of Hasselt, Belgium, in mid-to-late August. It is held within a large enclosure of fields and woodland—between a dual carriageway called Kempische Steenweg—in the village of Kiewit 7 km north of Hasselt, it is the second largest music festival in Belgium after Rock Werchter, with an attendance rate of 180,000 over the course of the event in 2009. The program is noted for its wide variety of alternative music, spanning styles such as rock, electronic, hip-hop and heavy metal; the event's organizers aim the festival to be a "contemporary" musical event. Notable acts that have performed at previous editions include Sonic Youth, Nirvana, Red Hot Chili Peppers, The Smashing Pumpkins, Foo Fighters, Metallica, PJ Harvey, Green Day, Blink-182, Guns N' Roses, Daft Punk, The Prodigy, Nine Inch Nails, Iron Maiden, Björk, The Stone Roses and Eminem; the term "pukkel" is the Dutch word for "pimple". The festival was founded in 1985 by youth organisation Humanistic Youth of Leopoldsburg.
It originated as a single day event, held on July 21—a national holiday in Belgium—in the village of Leopoldsburg, located 25 km north of the event's current home in Kiewit. The inaugural event in 1985 took place at the village football grounds of Complex Excelsior Heppen and featured seven acts, with English songwriter Anne Clark headlining; the first year was attended by 3,000 people. In 1988, the festival moved to the village of Hechtel-Eksel; the festival was moved to late August. In 1989, the festival was cancelled after the two headliners, The Pogues and The Sugarcubes, cancelled their appearances a few weeks before the event; the festival returned in 1990, again taking place in Hechtel-Eksel, reached a peak of 10,000 attendees. Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds headlined. In 1991, the festival moved to its current home in Kiewit. In its first year, the event took place on the grounds of the children's petting farm located in the village. Ramones headlined on a bill which included Nirvana, who performed at the festival a month prior to the release of the group's breakthrough album Nevermind.
In 1992, the festival site was moved to the fields by the Kempische Steenweg motorway, where it has been held since. In 1993, a new indoor stage called The Marquee was added, supplementing the outdoor Main Stage and doubling the amount of performers over the previous year. A second indoor stage, the Dance Hall, was added in 1994. In 1995, for the festival's tenth anniversary, the event became a two-day event for the first time, with Neil Young and The Smashing Pumpkins as the headlining acts; the festival reached a peak in attendees at 60,000. In 1996, two new stages were added: the outdoor Skate Stage, a smaller-sized marquee called Club. Another marquee, named the Boiler Room, was added in 1997, bringing the total number of stages to six. From 1998 to 2001, the Skate Stage was renamed to the Hip-hop Stage for one of the two festival days focused on rap and hip-hop artists such as Jurassic 5 and The Pharcyde. In 1999, the dance event Creamfields was amalgamated into Pukkelpop on the first day of the event.
1999 saw the debut of the Experimental Stage, renamed to ChateauXCrapule the following year, shortened to Chateau from the 2004 edition. In 2000, an exchange programme was announced with Oppikoppi, an annual music festival held in South Africa near the city of Pretoria. In the same year, Eminem was forced to cancel his confirmed headline slot at the festival as he was barred from leaving the United States. In 2001, the festival became a three-day event for the first time, reaching an attendance peak of 115,000, a 76% increase over the previous year. In 2004, an eighth stage was added, called Wablief?. In 2005, the festival celebrated its 20th anniversary, featuring headliners Pixies, The Prodigy and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds; the event reached another attendance peak, totaling 137,000 festival-goers. The festival returned in 2010 for its 25th anniversary, with Iron Maiden, Queens of the Stone Age and Snow Patrol among the headlining acts; the 2010 edition was notable as the first Pukkelpop to have sold out its entire allotment of tickets five weeks prior to the commencement of the festival.
During the 2010 festival, two musicians died. Michael Been, lead singer and guitarist of The Call, died on August 19 of a heart attack after performing duties as sound engineer for Black Rebel Motorcycle Club. On August 20, Ou Est Le Swimming Pool singer Charles Haddon committed suicide by jumping from a telecommunications mast in the backstage parking area, shortly after the group's performance at the festival. Haddon was reported to be upset about an injury sustained by a fan after stage-diving into the crowd; the 2011 festival was affected by a severe thunderstorm during the evening of August 18, 2011, the opening day of the event. Torrential rain and strong winds toppled several concert tents, uprooted trees and knocked down festival light towers and video screens; the Chateau tent collapsed shortly after American rock band Smith Westerns began performing their set. Lead singer/guitarist Cullen Omori updated the band's Twitter account directly after the incident: "Stage collapsed max got crushed by trees, I hope pukkelpop has insurance bc all our shit is broke".
The message was removed. Five people were killed, at least 140 were injured; the death toll was believed to be five, however this figure was dropped to four.
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i