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Read-only memory

Read-only memory is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be electronically modified after the manufacture of the memory device. Read-only memory is useful for storing software, changed during the life of the system, sometimes known as firmware. Software applications for programmable devices can be distributed as plug-in cartridges containing read-only memory. Read-only memory refers to memory, hard-wired, such as diode matrix or a mask ROM integrated circuit, which cannot be electronically changed after manufacture. Although discrete circuits can be altered in principle, integrated circuits cannot. Correction of errors, or updates to the software, require new devices to be manufactured and to replace the installed device. Erasable programmable read-only memory and electrically erasable programmable read-only memory can be erased and re-programmed, but this can only be done at slow speeds, may require special equipment to achieve, is only possible a certain number of times.

The term "ROM" is sometimes used to mean a ROM device containing specific software, or a file with software to be stored in EEPROM or Flash Memory. For example, users modifying or replacing the Android operating system describe files containing a modified or replacement operating system as "custom ROMs" after the type of storage the file used to be written to. IBM used Capacitor Read Only Storage and Transformer Read Only Storage to store microcode for the smaller System/360 models, the 360/85 and the initial two models of the S/370. On some models there was a Writeable Control Store for additional diagnostics and emulation support; the simplest type of solid-state ROM is as old as the semiconductor technology itself. Combinational logic gates can be joined manually to map n-bit address input onto arbitrary values of m-bit data output. With the invention of the integrated circuit came mask ROM. Mask ROM consists of a grid of word lines and bit lines, selectively joined together with transistor switches, can represent an arbitrary look-up table with a regular physical layout and predictable propagation delay.

In mask ROM, the data is physically encoded in the circuit, so it can only be programmed during fabrication. This leads to a number of serious disadvantages: It is only economical to buy mask ROM in large quantities, since users must contract with a foundry to produce a custom design; the turnaround time between completing the design for a mask ROM and receiving the finished product is long, for the same reason. Mask ROM is impractical for R&D work since designers need to modify the contents of memory as they refine a design. If a product is shipped with faulty mask ROM, the only way to fix it is to recall the product and physically replace the ROM in every unit shipped. Subsequent developments have addressed these shortcomings. PROM, invented by Wen Tsing Chow in 1956, allowed users to program its contents once by physically altering its structure with the application of high-voltage pulses; this addressed problems 1 and 2 above, since a company can order a large batch of fresh PROM chips and program them with the desired contents at its designers' convenience.

The 1971 invention of EPROM solved problem 3, since EPROM can be reset to its unprogrammed state by exposure to strong ultraviolet light. EEPROM, developed by Yasuo Tarui, Yutaka Hayashi and Kiyoko Naga at the Electrotechnical Laboratory in 1972, went a long way to solving problem 4, since an EEPROM can be programmed in-place if the containing device provides a means to receive the program contents from an external source. Flash memory, invented by Fujio Masuoka at Toshiba in the early 1980s and commercialized in the late 1980s, is a form of EEPROM that makes efficient use of chip area and can be erased and reprogrammed thousands of times without damage, it permits erasure and programming of only a specific part of the device, instead of the entire device. This can be done at high speed, hence the name "Flash"All of these technologies improved the flexibility of ROM, but at a significant cost-per-chip, so that in large quantities mask ROM would remain an economical choice for many years. Rewriteable technologies were envisioned as replacements for mask ROM.

The most recent development is NAND flash invented at Toshiba. Its designers explicitly broke from past practice, stating plainly that "the aim of NAND Flash is to replace hard disks," rather than the traditional use of ROM as a form of non-volatile primary storage; as of 2007, NAND has achieved this goal by offering throughput comparable to hard disks, higher tolerance of physical shock, extreme miniaturization, much lower power consumption. Every stored-program computer may use a form of non-volatile storage to store the initial program that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution; every non-trivial computer needs some form of mutable memory to record changes in its state as it executes. Forms of read-only memory were employed as non-volatile storage for programs in most early stored-program computers, such as ENIAC after 1948. (Until it was not a stored-program computer as every program had to be manually wired into the machine, whi

Nokia 206

Nokia 206 is an entry level dual-SIM mobile phone from Nokia. It was announced alongside the Nokia Asha 205 in November 2012 and was first released in January 2013, it is the successor to the Nokia Asha 200 and Nokia Asha 201. However, the 206 does not carry the Asha name; the colors introduced to this phone are vivid and are similar to the ongoing trend to Nokia's Lumia series. The selected colors are cyan, yellow and white; the device has'uni colored' body rather than combination. The 206's back design is similar to the Nokia Lumia 920, but the difference is that the Nokia 206s is made by plastic, Lumia 920s is made by zirconium boride; the device is able to capture pictures at resolution of 1280 x 960 pixels with a 1.3-megapixel camera. Camera features include Landscape orientation and Manual White Balance settings, Active toolbar, Still image Editor, Full screen viewfinder, Self-timer. Supported video playback. In addition to that White balance video modes are: Fluorescent, Incandescent and Daylight for video recording.

Nokia 206 is embedded with Nokia's Xpress browser. Along with support of EDGE technology, Nokia has taken Bluetooth connectivity to a new level called Slam which has put aside the complications of device pairing aside and just require a touch to another Bluetooth supported device to transfer content. Bluetooth v2.1, Supported Profiles. Nokia 206 runs on Nokia's veteran Series 40 UI; the phone comes pre-loaded with several apps and games, including Bejeweled, Need for Speed: Shift, Medal of Honor, TuneWiki and social apps including WhatsApp and Facebook. The pre-loaded apps vary by region/market. Device Overview: http://www.nokia.com/global/products/phone/206/ Detailed Information: http://www.nokia.com/global/products/phone/206-dual-sim/specifications/#sales-package Specs: http://www.phonearena.com/news/Nokia-206-announced-pays-homage-to-Nokia-6300_id36999 Specs: http://gadgets.ndtv.com/mobiles/news/nokia-announces-asha-205-asha-206-mobile-phones-with-dual-sim-options-297435 Specs & Comparison: http://bigphonefight.com/nokia-109-vs-nokia-206-review

Harts of the West

Harts of the West is an American Western/comedy–drama television series starring Beau Bridges and his father, Lloyd Bridges, set on a dude ranch in Nevada. The series aired on CBS from September 25, 1993, to June 18, 1994. Dave Hart, sustains a heart attack, he leaves his job as an underwear salesman and heads with his family to the fictitious Sholo, Nevada in the American West. There, Dave tries to revive the defunct Flying Tumbleweed Dude Ranch, where Jake Terrel, played by Lloyd Bridges, had worked years earlier; the 15-episode series ran from September 25, 1993, to January 29, 1994, again from June 4–June 18, 1994. Cast members include Harley Jane Kozak as Dave's wife. O. Moon as the sheriff. O.. Series episodes include: "Pilot" "The Right Stuff" "Guess Who's Coming to Chow?" "Dead Man's Leap" "Goodnight, Irene" "Cowboyz in the Hood" "Auggie's End" "Jake's Brother" "Ghost Run" "You Got to Have Hart" "Home Alone...with Friends" "Hart's Vacation" "Back in the Panties Again" "Drive, He Said" "Jake and Duke's Excellent Adventure" The theme song was "In a Laid Back Way" written and performed by Clint Black.

Harts of the West was filmed at Sable Ranch in the Santa Clarita Valley and in Mayer in Yavapai County near Prescott, Arizona by the Kushner-Locke Company. The series aired at 9 p.m. Eastern Saturday following Jane Seymour's Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman and preceding Chuck Norris's Walker, Texas Ranger, both long-term CBS series, its competition was Empty Nest and Nurses on NBC and The Paula Poundstone Show on ABC. Three actors on Harts of the West were nominated for Young Artist Awards in 1994: Nathan Watt, "Best Actor under Ten" in a television series. In 2005, the complete series was released on Region 1 DVD in the United States by Tango Entertainment. Harts of the West on IMDb

Emiliano Esono Michá

Emiliano Esono Michá is an Equatoguinean political activist imprisoned on weapons possession charges. His imprisonment drew protest from the US State Department and Amnesty International, the latter of which named him a prisoner of conscience. Michá was active with the Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea, a banned political party opposing the long-dominant Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea. In late March 2008, he was arrested without a warrant. Within a week, fellow PPGE activists Cruz Obiang Ebele, Gumersindo Ramírez Faustino, Juan Ecomo Ndong, Gerardo Angüe Mangue, Bonifacio Nguema Ndong were arrested. Michá was held for two months at the police station, turning which time he was tortured. In May 2008, the six men were charged with knowledge of a weapons cache in the home of another PPGE activist, Saturnino Ncogo. Ncogo had died in prison on early March in suspicious circumstances. Authorities alleged he had thrown himself from the top bunk of his cell to commit suicide, but relatives received his body in an advanced state of decomposition, no investigation was conducted.

According to Amnesty International, the six men were given an unfair trial at which no evidence was presented save the weapons from Ncogo's home and the statements the six had made under duress. Despite being charged with unrelated crimes, the six were tried alongside Simon Mann, a UK national who had helped to organize a 2004 coup attempt; the six PPGE members were given sentences of one to five years apiece. The US State Department considers Michá a political prisoner, has objected to his continued imprisonment. Amnesty International named him a prisoner of conscience, has called for his immediate release

Mere, Cheshire

Mere is a civil parish and linear village along the A556 road in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, North West England, about 7 km south-west of Altrincham. Bucklow Hill is at its northeast end, the Mere crossroads is at the southwest end; the village of Mere has a varied stock of housing. Most houses have ample gardens leading down to the lake. Inside the triangle is a lake after which Mere was named, a golf and country club; the village of Mere has three hotels, a filling station, two car dealers. At Hoo Green is a hotel called The Kilton, a post office which functions as a newsagent and grocer. Knutsford and Altrincham are the nearest towns; the Parish Club has facilities for bowling and snooker. The Mere Golf and Country Club contains some of the top golf players of Cheshire, houses a competent league 2 tennis team. Motor traffic is however a considerable problem here: on the A556, one of Europe's busiest highways, about 60,000 cars travel through Mere each day.

The residents have long petitioned for a bypass and in December 2008, the Government agreed to build one. This is due for completion by 2015. There are two alternative planned routes, both western bypasses on the A556: Bypassing the Mere junction. Bypassing the whole of Mere and Bucklow Hill. Travel around the village has been made more complicated in recent years by the erection of "no right turn" signs at the Mere crossroads and on Bucklowhill Lane; this restriction will be removed. There are two halls in Mere: Mere Old Hall dates from the Regency period and has some decorative features in that style. Mere New Hall was built in 1834 and the architect used the style of the Elizabethan period, it is a brick-built mansion consisting of a medium-sized central block and a long L-shaped wing on one side. The central portion has a porte-cochère at the front; the interiors are in the Elizabethan style. Listed buildings in Mere, Cheshire Map sources for Mere, Cheshire

DataFlow Group

DataFlow Group is a Dubai-based company that provides Primary Source Verification solutions and background screening and immigration compliance services. DataFlow Group was founded in 2006 with its headquarters located in Dubai; the company has a network of 60,000 issuing authorities throughout more than 200 countries, in addition to 620 experts and researchers. Through its worldwide locations, DataFlow Group serves a client database spanning 200 countries. Among the company's clients are government, quasi-government and multinational organizations across the globe. In 2014, EQT Mid Market - a leading private equity group in Northern Europe, with portfolio companies in Northern and Eastern Europe, Asia and US - acquired DataFlow Group in order to expand the company's services. DataFlow Group offers background check and document verification solutions for public and private sector organizations in adherence with Joint Commission International guidelines and Service Organization Controls compliance standards.

The company provides proprietary databases and international watch lists for organizations to leverage in their own screening processes. Background check Data verification Official website