Reading is the complex cognitive process of decoding symbols to derive meaning. It is a form of language processing. Success in this process is measured as reading comprehension. Reading is a means for language acquisition and sharing information and ideas; the symbols are visual but may be tactile. Like all languages, it is a complex interaction between text and reader, shaped by prior knowledge, experiences and the language community—which is culturally and situated. Readers comprehend. Readers may use context clues to identify the meaning of unknown words. Readers integrate the words they have read into their existing framework of schema. Other types of reading are not speech based writing systems, such as pictograms; the common link is the interpretation of symbols to extract the meaning from the visual notations or tactile signals. Most reading is either of the printed word from ink or toner on paper, such as in a book, newspaper, leaflet, or notebook, or of electronic displays, such as computer displays, mobile phones or e-readers.
Handwritten text may be produced using a graphite pencil or a pen. Short texts may be painted on an object; the text relates to the object, such as an address on an envelope, product info on packaging, or text on a traffic or street sign. A slogan may be painted on a wall. A text may be produced by arranging stones of a different color in a wall or road. Short texts like these are sometimes referred to as environmental print. Sometimes text or images are with or without using a color contrast. Words or images can be carved in wood, or metal. A requirement for reading is a good contrast between letters and background and a suitable font size. In the case of a computer screen, it is important to see an entire line of text without scrolling; the field of visual word recognition studies. A key technique in studying how individuals read text is eye tracking; this has revealed. Humans do not appear to fixate on every word in a text, but instead pause on some words mentally while their eyes are moving; this is possible.
The process of recording information to read is writing. In the case of computer and microfiche storage there is the separate step of displaying the written text. For humans, reading is faster and easier than writing. Reading is an individual activity, though on occasion a person reads out loud for other listeners. Reading aloud for one's own use, for better comprehension, is a form of intrapersonal communication: in the early 1970s has been proposed the dual-route hypothesis to reading aloud, accordingly to which there were two separate mental mechanisms, or cognitive routes, that are involved in this case, with output of both mechanisms contributing to the pronunciation of a written stimulus. Reading to young children is a recommended way to instill language and expression, to promote comprehension of text. Personalised books for children are recommended to improve engagement in reading by featuring the child themselves in the story. Before the reintroduction of separated text in the late Middle Ages, the ability to read silently was considered rather remarkable.
Reading may be used for at school or work, incidentally during everyday life activities, or for pleasure. In the context of school or work, reading is a means of learning necessary information; as a leisure activity and adults read because it is pleasant and interesting. In the US, about half of all adults read one or more books for pleasure each year. About 5% read more than 50 books per year. Americans read more if they have more education, if they read fluently and if they are female, if they live in cities, if they have higher socioeconomic status. Children become better readers when they know more about the world in general, when they perceive reading as fun, rather than another chore to be performed. Literacy is the ability to use the symbols of a writing system, it is the ability to interpret what the information symbols represent, re-create those same symbols so that others can derive the same meaning. Illiteracy is the inability to derive meaning from the symbols used in a writing system.
Dyslexia refers to a cognitive difficulty with writing. It is defined as brain-based type of learning disability that impairs a person's ability to read; the term dyslexia can refer to two disorders: developmental dyslexia, a learning disability. Alexia refers to reading difficulties that occur following brain damage, stroke, or progressive illness. Major predictors of an individual's ability to read both alphabetic and nonalphabetic scripts are phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and verbal IQ. Being taught to read at an early age does not result in better reading skills, if it replaces more developmentally appropriate activities it may cause other harms. Many studies show. Reading speed requires a long time to reach adult levels; the table to the right shows how reading-rate varies with age, regardless of
The 1938 Polish ultimatum to Lithuania was a demand delivered to Lithuania by Poland on March 17, 1938. The ultimatum was a result of tensions between Poland and Lithuania concerning the Vilnius Region. In 1920, Lithuania ended diplomatic relations with Poland due to the protest annexation of the Vilnius Region. In the years to come, intensifying pre-World War II tensions took over Europe causing Poland to secure its northern borders. On March 12, 1938, emboldened by international recognition of the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, Poland delivered an ultimatum requiring Lithuania to agree to establish diplomatic relations with Warsaw within 48 hours; the terms had to be finalised before March 31st. Diplomatic relations would be de facto renunciation of Lithuanian claims to the region containing its historic capital, Vilnius. To avoid war, Lithuania accepted the ultimatum on March 19, 1938. Although diplomatic relations were re-established, Lithuania still did not agree to the loss of Vilnius de jure.
Lithuania severed its diplomatic ties with Poland after General Lucjan Żeligowski's mutiny in October 1920 by order of Józef Piłsudski. General Zeligowski invaded Lithuanian-held territory, captured the disputed city of Vilnius and established the short-lived Republic of Central Lithuania; this area was incorporated into Poland in 1922. In demographic terms, Vilnius was the least Lithuanian of Lithuanian cities. Inhabitants were divided evenly between the Polish-speaking population and Lithuanian-speaking population. Lithuania demanded Polish troops withdraw behind the line established by the Suwałki Agreement. Poland rejected Żeligowski's actions; the League attempted to mediate the dispute and Paul Hymans presented concrete proposals to form a federation. However, both sides were unwilling to make compromises and negotiations collapsed in January 1922. In January 1923, Lithuanian troops crossed over to the Allied-held Memelland and staged the Klaipėda revolt, it was one of the main factors that led to the decision of the Conference of Ambassadors to award Vilnius to Poland in March 1923.
The result was a state of "no war, no peace" as Lithuania avoided recognising any Polish claims to the city and the region, as well as refusing to undertake any actions that would recognise Poland's control of Vilnius de facto. As a result, Lithuania broke off all diplomatic relations with Poland and continuously emphasised that Vilnius remained its permanent capital. Poland refused to formally recognise the existence of any dispute regarding the region, since that would have lent legitimacy to the Lithuanian claims. Railroad traffic and telegraph lines could not cross the border, mail service was complicated. For example, a letter from Poland to Lithuania needed to be sent to a neutral country, repackaged in a new envelope to remove any Polish signs and only delivered to Lithuania; the conflict over Vilnius remained the most important foreign policy issue in Lithuania, but it became marginalized in the international arena. There were unsuccessful informal attempts. Both sides engaged in nationalistic rhetoric.
On March 11, 1938, a day before Austria was annexed into Greater Germany following the Anschluss, Justas Lukoševičius, a Lithuanian border guard shot Stanisław Serafin, a Polish soldier, on the demarcation line in the village of Trasninkas near Merkinė. The exact circumstances are not clear. During the 1920s and 1930s, similar incidents had occurred: between 1927-1937, seven Lithuanian border guards were killed during the course of 78 events; such incidents were handled at the local level in an attempt to forestall escalation. On this occasion, Polish radio and newspapers picked up the story and fanned anti-Lithuanian sentiment. Protests were held in Warsaw and four other cities where the crowds shouted for military action against Lithuania. There is evidence. On March 13, 1938, the Polish government issued a threatening statement accusing Lithuania of provocation; the following day, the Senate of the Republic of Poland called for the establishment of diplomatic relations and for the Lithuanian renunciation of claims to Vilnius.
Upon receiving news that Poland was considering extreme measures, President Smetona was verging towards agreeing to discuss diplomatic relations. He changed his mind at the last minute. On the night of March 14, the Lithuanians, acting through France's envoy to Warsaw, proposed a commission to investigate the shooting incident and to agree on measures to avoid such incidents in the future; this was a partial measure that did not satisfy Poland, who responded by refusing, in the first paragraph of the ultimatum delivered three days to establish such a commission. At the same time, Lithuanian diplomats approached foreign powers in a bid for international support; the first version of the ultimatum, as drafted by Edward Rydz-Śmigły, Prime Minister Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski, Jan Szembek, contained six demands: Establish normal diplomatic and consular relations with Poland Allow normal railway and road traffic and direct telephone and telegraph lines across the demarcation line Amend the Lithuanian constitution to acknowledge that Vilnius was no longer the capital of Lithuania Conclude the convention protecting the rights of th
Elvira Fernández, vendedora de tiendas is a 1942 Argentine comedy film directed by Manuel Romero. It stars Juan Carlos Thorry, Tito Lusiardo and Sofía Bozán; the film is about the daughter of a millionaire store owner. Paulina, the daughter of the millionaire owner of a store, becomes employed at the store under an assumed name, she investigates the injustices of the workers and leads a strike, forcing her father and the store operators to bring about improvements in working conditions. Paulina Singerman Juan Carlos Thorry Tito Lusiardo Sofía Bozán Enrique Roldán Carmen del Moral Elena Lucena Alberto Terrones Juan Mangiante Julio Renato Salvador Sinaí Miguel Di Carlo Oscar Savino Juan Gamboa Fernando Campos The film has been compared to other film of the period including Mujeres que trabajan, La rubia del camino, sharing the common theme of "a spoiled young woman learns both the value of hard work and the capacity to care for others under the tutelage of working class characters". Central to the film is the union protest, described as being "quite complex", "summarized in a sequence quite through a series of images passionate speakers".
The speech where Elvira Fernandez anticipates selling her store involuntarily was used in propaganda films of Peron. The El Heraldo del Cinematografista wrote that it "excellently managed the strike movement... There are effective comic passages throughout the film". Raúl Manrupe and María Alejandra Portela in their book Un diccionario de films argentinos wrote: "...a social issue in the service of comedy. Another one of Romero's vehicles for Singerman, it would be interesting to rediscover how he crosses fun with reality." Berardi, Mario. La vida imaginada: vida cotidiana y cine argentino, 1933-1970. Ediciones del Jilguero. ISBN 978-987-9416-09-9. Karush, Matthew B.. The New Cultural History of Peronism: Power and Identity in Mid-Twentieth-Century Argentina. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-9286-0. Manrupe, Raúl. Un diccionario de films argentinos. Buenos Aires: Editorial Corregidor. ISBN 950-05-0896-6. Maranghello, César. Breve historia del cine argentino. Celesa. ISBN 978-84-7584-532-6. Elvira Fernández, vendedora de tiendas on IMDb
My Left Breast is a Canadian documentary film, directed by Gerry Rogers and released in 2000. Starring Rogers and her partner Peg Norman, the film documents Rogers' experience being diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer; the film was screened theatrically at selected documentary and LGBT film festivals in Canada and the United States, but was distributed as an episode of the CBC Television documentary series The Passionate Eye. Rogers' tour to promote the film included an appearance on The Rosie O'Donnell Show in December 2000; the film won the award for Best Canadian Documentary at the 2001 Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival, the award for Best Canadian Film at the 2001 Inside Out Film and Video Festival, the Gemini Award for Best History/Biography Documentary Program at the 16th Gemini Awards in 2001. The film won awards from the Dallas OUT TAKES Lesbian and Gay Film Festival and the Boulder Gay and Lesbian Film Festival in 2001 and 2002. List of LGBT films directed by women My Left Breast on IMDb
Karam Khamis Sayd Khamsan is a citizen of Yemen, held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay detainment camps, in Cuba. His Guantanamo Internment Serial Number was 586. American intelligence analysts estimate that Khamsan was born in Al Mahra, Yemen, he was repatriated without been charged on August 19, 2005. The New Standard News reports that during Amnesty International's interview with Khamsan he reported being abused. Khamsan reported being beaten, stripped naked, being stacked in a pile with other naked captives, photographed, while held in Bagram, he reported being threatened with rendition to Egypt or Jordan. Elements of the 519th Military Intelligence Battalion, under Captain Carolyn Wood, were responsible for the interrogation of captives in Bagram, before being transferred to Abu Ghraib, where they were to play a role in the abuse recorded in the photos that started to be released in the winter of 2005. Khamsan told Amnesty International that, during the long flight to Guantanamo, his handcuffs were so tight they ripped off his flesh, when they were removed.
Amnesty's report quoted Khamsan about his abuse in Guantanamo: In Guantánamo, Karama Khamisan described how, on one occasion, he was taken to the shower room where guards attempted to sexually abuse him. As he pushed them away, ten guards entered the room and beat him before transferring him to a solitary cell where he was held for 25 days, naked, he said that he was only taken to use the toilet and shower once in this entire period and that he ate no solid food in order to avoid having to defecate in his cell. The Washington Post reports that Khamsan was one of 38 detainees, determined not to have been an enemy combatant during his Combatant Status Review Tribunal, they report. The Department of Defense refers to these men as No Longer Enemy Combatants. Three men Maroof Saleemovich Salehove, Karam Khamis Sayd Khamsan and Mohamed Anwar Kurd were sent home on August 19, 2005; the Americans concluded that Khamis was not part of al Qaeda, but that his presence in Afghanistan was due to his membership in a drug smuggling ring.
He was repatriated to Yemen. According to the Yemen Observer Khamis was arrested on December 24, 2005, when he tried to approach the US Ambassador, while armed with a pistol and two hand grenades; the Yemen Times says the alleged threat to the Ambassador was in December 2004. Khamis has been charged with attempted assassination; the Yemen Times' account says a conspirator has confessed that the impromptu attack was fueled by qat, a local narcotic, anti-American sermons by radical clergy. Khamis's defense lawyer have requested bringing in foreign medical experts to attest to his mental state. Khamis was acquitted on March 13, 2006
Christopher John Fuller is an emeritus professor of anthropology at the London School of Economics and a Fellow of the British Academy. He has studied and written extensively about the people of India with regard to subjects such as Hinduism, the caste system, the relationship between globalisation and the middle-classes. Fuller was a lecturer in the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Manchester prior to holding a similar position as lecturer in anthropology at the London School of Economics between 1979–87, he was a reader in anthropology at the LSE between 1987–94 and has been an emeritus professor of anthropology there since 2009. Fuller's primary area of field research has been the state of Tamil Nadu between 1976–2001 at the Hindu temple in Madurai, dedicated to Minakshi, his first fieldwork was among the Nair and Syrian Christian communities of Kerala in 1971–72. Fuller has conducted fieldwork in Chennai and on Tamil Brahmins. Other areas of research have examined popular Hinduism and Hindu nationalism, the caste system and the history of anthropology in British India.
Fuller was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2007. Fuller's many publications include: The Nayars Today. Cambridge University Press. 1976. Servants of the goddess: the priests of a south Indian temple. Cambridge University Press. 1984. The Everyday State and Society in Modern India. C. Hurst & Co. 2001. The renewal of the priesthood: modernity and traditionalism in a south Indian temple. Princeton University Press. 2003. The camphor flame: popular Hinduism and society in India. Princeton University Press. 2004. Tamil Brahmans: the making of a middle-class caste. University of Chicago Press. 2014. "Anthropologists and Viceroys: Colonial Knowledge and Policy Making in India, 1871–1911". Modern Asian Studies. 50: 217–58. 2016. Doi:10.1017/s0026749x15000037. "Colonial anthropology and the decline of the Raj: caste and political change in India in the early twentieth century". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 26: 463–86. 2016. Doi:10.1017/s1356186315000486. Official website