Reading Terminal Market

Reading Terminal Market is an enclosed public market located at 12th and Arch Streets in Center City Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It opened in 1893 under the elevated train shed of the Reading Railroad Company after the city of Philadelphia advocated to move public markets from the streets into indoor facilities for both safety and sanitary reasons; the Reading Railroad Company owned and operated the market space until 1976 when the company liquidated, leaving the market without its parent company and foot traffic from the train. Presently, it still occupies the ground floor and basement levels of the Reading Terminal's former train shed, now part of the Pennsylvania Convention Center. Vendor stalls occupy the ground floor with entrances on Filbert Street to the South, Twelfth Street to the West, Arch Street to the North; the stalls are arranged in a grid pattern with an open area in the center with tables and seating. Over one hundred merchants offer fresh produce, fish, artisan cheese, ice cream, grilled cheese, baked goods, books and specialty and ethnic foods.

Two of the vendors are descendants of original merchants from the initial opening in the late 1800s. The basement floor of the market holds the state-of-the-art refrigerated storage area for vendor use; the market is open every day of the week, although the Pennsylvania Dutch merchants do not operate Sunday through Tuesday. Open-air markets have flourished in Philadelphia since its founding. Growth of the city demanded more markets, the string of open-air markets extending from the Delaware River ran for six blocks, or one full mile, prompting the main street to be renamed'Market Street' in 1858. Soon after the markets reached their peak growth and capacity, the public began to perceive open-air markets within the city as dirty and unhygienic; some residents considered the frenzy of activity along the High/Market Street as a nuisance and traffic hazard. In 1859, city officials bowed to public pressure and dismantled all of them and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania chartered seventeen different market companies.

This prompted two indoor markets to open at 12th and Market Streets, Franklin Market and Farmers' Market. These two would be the foundation of the Reading Terminal Market; the Industrial Revolution brought with it the expansion of the railroad, great palatial urban terminals sprang up in major cities. Architect F. H. Kimbal of the Wilson Brothers Architecture & Engineering firm designed the Reading Railroad's headhouse terminal in 1891, prior to its opening in 1893; the rails were elevated to reach the train shed platform built over top of the new consolidated market, which opened a year earlier. George McKay was chosen to be the market's first superintendent while the building was undergoing its final phase of construction; the state-of-the-art refrigerated storage area in the basement opened for use in July 1893. The basement storage area consists of 52 separate rooms ranging in volume from 5,000 to 17,000 cu ft for a total of one-half million cubic feet of storage space; the temperature of each room can be controlled individually to meet temperature requirements for different goods: 15 to 25 °F for meat and poultry, 34 °F for fruits and vegetables.

The refrigeration system uses brine water and ammonia, includes an array of specially designed pumps and other equipment in its operation. The storage area was more expensive to maintain and had a larger staff than the market itself, though refrigerating the basement storage area was thought to be well worth the high cost, it allowed merchants to keep seasonal products in stock all year round for the first time. Third parties leased the storage area for storing other goods. Restaurants and plant and produce sellers around the area leased out space in the basement. Hospitals used the basement area to store perishable medicine. Local Breweries, including Yuengling, used it to store their hops. In its first few decades, the Reading Terminal Market was a success. There were 380 merchants in its first year of operations, the market had nearly full occupancy for the following 60 years. Business good, flourished with the innovation of a free market basket service, which allowed suburban housewives to get grocery orders delivered to and held at their nearest train station.

Refrigerated trucks allowed the market to reach into some 60 suburban towns as well as seaside resorts along the Jersey Shore. The Great Depression of the 1930s brought hardship to the market. By the late 1930s, merchants were under increasing pressure from the AFL and CIO to join their respective labor unions; this led to a series of strikes. The introduction and proliferation of supermarkets hurt market business during the 1930s. One of these new establishments opened across 12th street, directly competing with the Reading Terminal Market. Pressure to compete with supermarkets led to fewer stalls being run by farmers, more being run by middle men reselling a variety of goods. Despite the turmoil brought on by the depression and new competition, the Reading Terminal Market remained afloat during the 1930s. By some accounts, the market did rather well. According to George H. Eltien superintendent, the market was shipping phone orders to 38 states and Mexico throughout the decade. Pressure from supermarkets was not hurting all of the merchants.

Ten of the market's 64 merchants had been there since its founding in 1892. In 1930, the Reading Terminal Market Merchants Association established as an effort to promote and advertise the market and avoid losing any more business; the Association was responsible for severa


Adesuwa is a 2012 Nigerian historical fiction film produced and directed by Lancelot Oduwa Imasuen. It stars Olu Jacobs, Bob-Manuel Udokwu, Kofi Adjorlolo; the film was scheduled to be released in theatres across Nigeria on 4 May 2012, but due to an ownership rift between the director and executive producer, it was released on DVD. The film was shot in Edo State, it received 10 nominations at the 8th Africa Movie Academy Awards, won the awards for Achievement in Costume Design, Achievement in Visual effects, Best Nigerian film. Olu Jacobs Bob-Manuel Udokwu Kofi Adjorlolo Ngozi Ezeonu Cliff Igbinovia Iyobosa Olaye - Adesuwa Nollywood Reinvented gave Adesuwa a 49% rating; the reviewer found the film interesting but not gripping. List of Nigerian films of 2012 Adesuwa at Nollywood Reinvented

Kodama (album)

Kodama is the fifth studio album by French metal band Alcest. It was released on September 2016 via Prophecy Productions, it is a concept album about "the confrontation of the natural world and the human world", inspired by Hayao Miyazaki's film Princess Mononoke. Musically the album is a return to the band's earlier blackgaze style, due to Neige's feeling that he "needed to go for something more punchy and more personal too." Kodama is the first Alcest album to feature Indria Saray performing on bass, though he has played with the band live since 2010. The band toured Europe with Japanese post-rock band Mono throughout late 2016 in support of Kodama, which included nine UK dates; the first single from the album'Oiseaux de proie' was premiered on August 4, 2016 along with an interview with Neige. The band premiered the second song from the album, "Je suis d'ailleurs", on August 30. According to Winterhalter, "in the end it was a 3 year writing process, in addition to 3 months of recording and mixing", with Neige beginning writing immediately after returning from recording Shelter in Iceland.'Untouched' was the first song written for this album, followed by the title track'Kodama'.

"These two songs kind of forged the sound of the whole album. Through them I could foresee the album's shape and identity and the further direction I wanted to take for the rest of the album."Neige has said that the album is influenced by Japanese culture and by Hayao Miyazaki's film Princess Mononoke. Neige was inspired by the film's protagonist San, seeing something of himself in her. Drawing on the film, Kodama centres around the conflict between the'human' and'natural' worlds. Talking about the album's Japanese influence, Neige said that it comes from his own love of Japanese culture the way in which "Japan has a hyper technologic society, always ahead of its time, full of crazy items, etc, but yet people there are attached to tradition and spirituality." He cited the band's two tours of Japan, in which they performed within Buddhist temples, as having a profound influence on the direction of this album. It represents a return to Alcest's earlier blackgaze style. Neige said that they "wanted to go back to something a bit more punchy, because at the time we felt this need, in a natural way, because after such a mellow record, you want to make something a bit more punchy."

"As for the guitars, I wanted to bring back the riffing and contrasts in our sound, exploring the possibilities of the guitar as much as I could. Vocal wise, I felt. I chose not to limit myself and went from harsh screams to airy and ethereal vocal lines." He highlighted Grimes' album Visions, Tool's last two albums, Dinosaur Jr. The Smashing Pumpkins, Cocteau Twins, Explosions in the Sky, The Cure, Sonic Youth as musical influences on the direction of this album; the album is deliberately structured to the band's previous albums Écailles de Lune and Souvenirs d'un autre monde. All of these albums are just over 40 minutes and have a structure of 5 long tracks and one "stand out track at the end, in a more experimental style compared to the rest of the music. I like this formula and I feel like it was a big part of our identity on our first records. We wanted to pay tribute to that since it's a structure I feel comfortable with when it comes to composing music. A lot of my favourite albums are short too, so it was the natural choice for Kodama."

Winterhalter has said. This time, we put a lot more focus on the percussion and the energy aspect of the Alcest music, with an earthy, tribal feel at times." He explained that the structure of the songs changed during the writing process until the band were satisfied with them. "If certain things about the songs didn't match our original concept/guidelines, it was changed until it did fit, or completely removed, as was the case with some entire songs." According to Neige, the band spent "many months" in the studio recording the album, from January to April 2016. The drums were first recorded in the band's own rehearsal space to an old tape recorded, "using only the natural reverb of the big attic room there, to give the sensation of a real, vast space." Having finished recording the drums, the band went to Drudenhaus Studio to record the rest of the album. Neige used only a Fender Jazzmaster with a variety of effect pedals, deliberately aiming to recreate the band's more natural live sound in the studio.

On January 15, 2016, Neige published "New album. Recording started." On the band's Facebook page, commenting that the album would be "definitively darker." On March 3, the recording of guitars was finished. On May 16, he stated. On July 26 they announced the title, cover art, track listing, release date. Kodama was met with positive reviews from music critics upon its initial release. At Metacritic, based on 5 critics, the album has received a score of 87, indicating "universal acclaim". Metal Hammer critic Luke Morton described the album as "Breathtaking", writing that "Everything works in tandem to create a vast collage of bliss and despair – from the ethereal joyous aura of Eclosion to the bleakness of Je Suis D’Ailleurs. Never rushing, but always growing, Kodama is an intricate tapestry." The album was featured by Bandcamp who described it as "the most satisfying Alcest record in nearly a decade." Stereogum writer