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Realism (arts)

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, can be in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms and the details of light and colour, but realist or naturalist works of art may, as well or instead of illusionist realism, be "realist" in their subject-matter, emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid. This is typical of the 19th-century Realist movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution, social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism; the Realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. There have been various movements invoking realism in the other arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism, Italian neorealist cinema.

Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the visual appearance of scenes and objects i.e. it is drawn in photographic precision. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism. Realistic art was created in many periods, it is in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization, it becomes marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck and other artists in the 15th century. However such "realism" is used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had seen in real life. 19th-century Realism art movement painters such as Gustave Courbet are by no means noted for precise and careful depiction of visual appearances. It is the choice and treatment of subject matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting, rather than the careful attention to visual appearances. Other terms such as naturalism, naturalistic and "veristic" do not escape the same ambiguity, though the distinction between "realistic" and "realist" is useful, as is the term "illusionistic" for the accurate rendering of visual appearances.

The development of accurate representation of the visual appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the accurate depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance, of detailed effects of light and colour; the Art of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe achieved remarkably lifelike depictions of animals, Ancient Egyptian art developed conventions involving both stylization and idealization that allowed effective depictions to be produced widely and consistently. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy, has remained an influential model since. No original works on panels or walls by the great Greek painters survive, but from literary accounts, the surviving corpus of derivative works it is clear that illusionism was valued in painting. Pliny the Elder's famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, but indicates the aspiration of Greek painting.

As well as accuracy in shape and colour, Roman paintings show an unscientific but effective knowledge of representing distant objects smaller than closer ones, representing regular geometric forms such as the roof and walls of a room with perspective. This progress in illusionistic effects in no way meant a rejection of idealism. Roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects; the art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, a change well underway by the time Christianity began to affect the art of the elite. In the West classical standards of illusionism did not begin to be reached again until the Late medieval and Early Renaissance periods, were helped, first in the Netherlands in the early 15th century, around the 1470s in Italy, by the development of new techniques of oil painting which allowed subtle and precise effects of light to be painted using small brushes and several layers of paint and glaze.

Scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy in the early 15th century and spread across Europe, accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art. As in classical times, idealism remained the norm; the accurate depiction of landscape in painting had been developing in Early Netherlandish/Early Northern Renaissance and Italian Renaissance painting, was brought to a high level in 17th-century Dutch Golden Age painting, with subtle techniques for depicting a range of weather conditions and degrees of natural light. After being another development of Early Netherlandish painting, by 1600 European portraiture could give a good likeness in both painting and sculpture, though the subjects were idealized by smoothing features or giving them an artificial pose. Still life paintings, still life elements in other w

R.E.D. (Ne-Yo album)

R. E. D. is the fifth studio album by American singer-songwriter Ne-Yo, first released on October 31, 2012, in Japan. The album follows the disappointing commercial performance to 2010's Libra Scale and is Ne-Yo's first album with new label Motown Records after being appointed as the label's senior vice president for A&R; the album contains songs that crossover different genres of music, combining elements of R&B, pop and dance-pop. On R. E. D. Ne-Yo has re-united with frequent partners StarGate as well as new collaborators such as Harmony Samuels, No I. D. and The Underdogs. Early previews of the album indicate a progression in the singer's sound with a deeper lyrical content. Preceding the album's release are two lead singles, the R&B-tinged "Lazy Love" which reached the upper half of the US Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart and the Sia-penned synth/Europop club song "Let Me Love You". Upon its release, R. E. D. has received favorable reviews from most music critics. R. E. D. is Ne-Yo's fifth album and follow up to 2010's Libra Scale, viewed by some as disappointing.

The album title, an acronym for the phrase'Realizing Every Dream" was inspired by the singer's personal experiences. In the album's press release he explained " came from me stepping outside myself, looking at my life as it is today and realizing that every dream I've had from the day I decided I wanted to do music, every dream that I've had from til now, I'm on the way to realizing it." During various press interviews back in 2011, Ne-Yo had titled the album The Cracks in Mr Perfect. It is reported that during an interview with TMZ, the singer clarified speculation as to why the album title changed and comparison to an album released by rapper Game called, The R. E. D. Album. Ne-Yo said "No... I don't feel like I ripped off The Game's album... as I was doing the album, The Cracks in Mr Perfect just didn't make sense any more, it didn't fit any more... however, R. E. D - Realising Every Dream - did." R. E. D is Ne-Yo's first album since moving from Island Def Jam to Motown Records, where he serves as senior vice president for the label's A&R division.

Ne-Yo reunited with long-term collaborators such as Norwegian songwriting/production duo StarGate, as well as UK producer Harmony, No I. D. and David Banner. Speaking of his studio sessions on the album, Ne-Yo told his producers that he wanted the album - which he described to Blues & Soul as "lyrically honest to a fault" - to be meaningful. "One thing that I told everybody going into this is,'I don't want you making a track like you're making a track for Ne-Yo. Just do what you do and let the fact that I'm on it be the Ne-Yo element. There is no way to expand and grow if everybody you're working with wants to keep you in a box." Some critics responded to the comments made by Ne-Yo and came to the conclusion that the singer had "lost touch" with his R&B roots. During a visit to Angie Martinez' Hot 97 radio show, Ne-Yo addressed his critics saying "I know where I came from. I know that R&B is where it started at for me... When this new album comes out, it will shut the mouths of everybody who feels like I have'crossed over'."

The album was pushed back from its original release date of September 18, 2012 to October 31, 2012. The album was titled The Cracks in Mr Perfect, based on a song of the same name which will still appear on the album. Kim Dawson from the Daily Star newspaper received a preview of the album and described the song as "Ne-Yo bemoaning the flip side of fame." Lyrics in the song include the line "You’re gonna hate me for being real". The song contains a verse about having "unprotected sex", with Tracey Garraud from Rolling Stone magazine noting a "deeper" and "maturer" subject content for the singer. Another song with deep lyrics was the acoustic guitar-driven ballad "She Is" which takes a mellow approach to describing a break-up; the song is influenced by country music and was co-written with country music star Carrie Underwood's frequent collaborator Luke Laird. In a press release from Universal Motown, the record label hope to record a remix with country singer Tim McGraw for a future radio release and that one day Ne-Yo could perform the song at the Country Music Awards.

Ne-Yo told Hip-Hop Wired that he was hoping to record a song with rapper Young Jeezy. "Let Me Love You" was co-written with pop-indie singer-songwriter Sia Furler and is an up-tempo club song which combines elements of Europop and synthpop. Speaking about the song Ne-Yo said he was inspired by the powerful chorus, in a press release he elaborated on the song's lyrical content: "It goes beyond the realm of just a relationship between man and woman, "this is understanding what it is to allow another person to get close enough to you to teach you how to love yourself; this song, if taken care of the right way, could help the world!" Another song titled "Unconditional" and produced by Phatboiz picks up on the same themes of romance. On this song, Ne-Yo sings with ambient vocals. Phatboiz produced a second song for the album, "Jealous", described as a "tight R&B groove" with imaginative vocals. One of the other R&B songs on the album is titled "Lazy Love" and was described by Dawson as a "slow jam for the ladies".

Released as the album's lead single, "Lazy Love" features a "sonorous base" line and "slow-drip synths" with lyrics that centre on the "languid desire that pins a couple to their sheets way past morning". The Salaam Remi-produced "Alone with You" was inspired by the Beatles and contains a piano melody similar to those made famous by John Lennon, it is dedicated to Ne-Yo's daughter Madilyn Grace, after an incident where Madilyn refused to stop crying after being

Chris Scott (English footballer)

Christopher James Scott is an English former professional footballer who played as a defender in the Football League for Burnley. Scott was born in Lancashire into a footballing family with strong links to Burnley, his father, grandfather and younger brother have all played for the club. He attended St Theodore's RC High School, he started his career in 1997. He played 14 matches in all during the 1998 -- 99 season, his debut for the club came on 22 August 1998, when he came on as a substitute for Lee Howey in the 0–1 defeat to York City at Turf Moor. In 2000, he had a loan spell with Football Conference side Leigh RMI. After failing to properly break into the first team at Burnley, he moved to Leigh on a permanent basis in the summer of 2001, he stayed with the Railwaymen for two seasons, playing just 14 times in the league before leaving the club in May 2003. In November 2004 it was announced. Chris Scott at Soccerbase