Outline of science fiction
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to science fiction: Science fiction – a genre of fiction dealing with the impact of imagined innovations in science or technology in a futuristic setting. Or depicting space exploration. Exploring the consequences of such innovations is the traditional purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas". Definitions of science fiction: Science fiction includes such a wide range of themes and subgenres that it is notoriously difficult to define. Accordingly, there have been many definitions offered. Science fiction is a type of:brendan Fiction – form of narrative which deals, in part or in whole, with events that are not factual, but rather and invented by its author. Although fiction describes a major branch of literary work, it is applied to theatrical and musical work. Genre fiction – fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre in order to appeal to readers and fans familiar with that genre.
Known as popular fiction. Speculative fiction Genre – science fiction is a genre of fiction. Science fiction genre – while science fiction is a genre of fiction, a science fiction genre is a subgenre within science fiction. Science fiction may be divided along any number of overlapping axes. Gary K. Wolfe's Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy identifies over 30 subdivisions of science fiction, not including science fantasy. Genres concerning the emphasis and type of science described include: Hard science fiction—a particular emphasis on scientific detail and/or accuracy Soft science fiction—focus on human characters and their relations and feelings, while de-emphasizing the details of technological hardware and physical laws Themes related to science, technology and the future, as well as characteristic plots or settings include: Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic science fiction Biopunk — centered around biotechnology and genetic engineering in general, biopunk uses some both cyberpunk elements and post-modernist prose to describe a dystopian world of biohackers, man-made viruses, designer babies, artificial life forms, bio-genetic engineered human-animal hybrids and bio-genetically manipulated humans.
Cyberpunk — uses elements from the hard-boiled detective novel, film noir, Japanese anime, post-modernist prose to describe the nihilistic, underground side of a cybernetic society Climate fiction — emphasizes effects of anthropogenic climate change and global warming at the end of the Holocene era Dying Earth science fiction Military science fiction Steampunk — denotes works set in an era when steam power was still used — the 19th century, set in Victorian England — though with otherwise high technology or other science fiction elements Time travel Space colonization Space opera — emphasizes romantic adventure, exotic settings, larger-than-life characters Social science fiction — concerned less with technology and more with sociological speculation about human society Mundane science fiction Genres concerning politics and identity movements include: Christian science fiction Feminist science fiction Gay/lesbian science fiction Libertarian science fiction Genres concerning the historical era of creation and publication include: Scientific romance — an archaic name for what is now known as the science fiction genre associated with the early science fiction of the United Kingdom.
Pulp science fiction Golden Age of Science Fiction — a period of the 1940s during which the science fiction genre gained wide public attention and many classic science fiction stories were published. New Wave science fiction — characterised by a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content. Cyberpunk — noted for its focus on "high tech, low life" and taking its name from the combination of cybernetics and punk. Genres that combine two different fiction genres or use a different fiction genre's mood or style include: Alternate history science fiction—fiction set in a world in which history has diverged from history as it is known Comic science fiction Science fiction erotica Adventure science fiction—science fiction adventure is similar to many genres Gothic science fiction—a subgenre of science fiction that involves gothic conventions New Wave science fiction—characterized by a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content Science fantasy—a mixed genre of story which contains some science fiction and some fantasy elements Science fiction opera—a mixture of opera and science fiction involving empathic themes Science fiction romance—fiction which has elements of both the science fiction and romance genres Science fiction mystery—fiction which has elements of both the science fiction and mystery genres, encompassing Occult detective fiction and science fiction detectives Science fiction Western—fiction which has elements of both the science fiction and Western genres Space Western—a subgenre of science fiction that transposes themes of American Western books and film to a backdrop of futuristic space frontiers.
Spy-fi a subgenre of spy fiction that includes some science fiction. Fantasy Science fantasy Mystery fiction Horror fiction Slipstream fiction Utopian and dystopian fiction Superhero fiction Australian science fiction Bengali science fiction Canadian science fiction Chilean science fiction Chinese science fiction Croatian science fiction Czech science fiction Estonian science fiction French science fiction Japanese science fiction Norwegian science fiction Polish science fiction Romanian science fiction Russian science fiction Serbian science fiction Spanish science fiction History of science fiction films List of stock characters
Fantastic art is a broad and loosely defined art genre. It is not restricted to a specific school of geographical location or historical period, it can be characterised by subject matter – which portrays non-realistic, mythical or folkloric subjects or events – and style, representational and naturalistic, rather than abstract – or in the case of magazine illustrations and similar, in the style of graphic novel art such as manga. Fantasy has been an integral part of art since its beginnings, but has been important in mannerism, magic realist painting, romantic art, symbolism and lowbrow. In French, the genre is called le fantastique, in English it is sometimes referred to as visionary art, grotesque art or mannerist art, it has had a circular interaction with fantasy literature. The subject matter of Fantastic Art may resemble the product of hallucinations, Fantastic artist Richard Dadd spent much of his life in mental institutions. Salvador Dalí famously said: "the only difference between me and a madman is that I am not mad".
Some recent Fantastic Art draws on the artist's experience, or purported experience, of hallucinogenic drugs. The term Fantasy Art is related, is applied to recent art inspired by, or illustrating, fantasy literature; the term has acquired some pejorative overtones. Fantastic art has traditionally been confined to painting and illustration, but since the 1970s has been found in photography. Fantastic art explores fantasy, the dream state, the grotesque and the uncanny, as well as so-called "Goth" art. Genres which may be considered as Fantastic Art include the Symbolism of the Victorian era, Surrealism. Works based on classical mythology, which have been a staple of European art from the Renaissance period arguably meet the definition of Fantastic Art, as art based on modern mythology such as JRR Tolkien's Middle Earth mythos unquestionably does. Religious art depicts supernatural or miraculous subjects in a naturalistic way, but is not regarded as Fantastic Art. Many artists have produced works.
Some, such as Nicholas Roerich, worked exclusively in the genre, others such as Hieronymus Bosch, described as the first "fantastic" artist in the Western tradition, produced works both with and without fantastic elements, for artists such as Francisco de Goya, fantastic works were only a small part of their output. Others again such as René Magritte are classed as Surrealists but use fantastic elements in their work, it is therefore impossible to give an exhaustive list of fantastic artists, but a selection of major and influential figures is listed below. Giuseppe Arcimboldo John Bauer William Blake Arnold Böcklin Hieronymus Bosch Brueghel Marc Chagall Giorgio de Chirico Richard Dadd Salvador Dalí Paul Delvaux Monsù Desiderio Gustave Doré Max Ernst Caspar David Friedrich Henry Fuseli Francisco de Goya Hans Baldung Grien Matthias Grünewald Thomas Häfner Max Klinger Gustave Moreau Giovanni Battista Piranesi Arthur Rackham Odilon Redon Nicholas Roerich Henri Rousseau Yves Tanguy Clovis Trouille George Frederic Watts The rise of fantasy and science fiction "pulp" magazines demanded artwork to illustrate stories and to promote sales.
This led to a movement of science fiction and fantasy artists prior to and during the Great Depression, as anthologised by Vincent Di Fate, himself a prolific SF and space artist. In the United States in the 1930s, a group of Wisconsin artists inspired by the Surrealist movement of Europe created their own brand of fantastic art, they included Wisconsin-based artists Marshall Glasier, Dudley Huppler and John Wilde. Their art combined macabre humor and irony, in direct and pointed contradiction to the American Regionalism in vogue. In postwar Chicago, the art movement Chicago Imagism produced many fantastic and grotesque paintings, which were little noted because they did not conform to New York abstract art fashions of the time. Major imagists include Roger Brown, Gladys Nilsson, Jim Nutt, Ed Paschke, Karl Wirsum. Non-European art may contain fantastic elements, although it is not easy to separate them from religious elements involving supernatural beings and miraculous events. Sculptor Bunleua Sulilat is a notable contemporary Asian Fantastic artist.
Dream art Outsider art Society for the Art of Imagination Surrealism Vienna School of Fantastic Realism Gruyères Castle Coleman, A. D.. The Grotesque in Photography. New York: Summit, Ridge Press. Watney, Simon. Fantastic Painters. London: Thames & Hudson. Colombo, Attilio. Fantastic Photographs. London: Gordon Fraser. Johnson, Diana L.. Fantastic illustration and design in Britain, 1850-1930. Rhode Island School of Design. Krichbaum, Jorg & Zondergeld. R. A.. Dictionary of Fantastic Art. Barron's Educational Series. Menton, Seymour. Magic Realism Rediscovered 1918-1981. Philadelphia, The Art Alliance Press. Day, Holliday T. & Sturges, Hollister. Art of the Fantastic: Latin America, 1920-1987. Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art. Clair, Jean. Lost Paradise: Symbolist Europe. Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Palumbo, Donald. Eros in the Mind's Eye: Sexuality and the Fantastic in Art and Film. Greenwood Press. Stathatos, John. A Vindication of Tlon: Photography and the Fantastic. Greece: Thessaloniki Museum of Photography Schurian, Prof. Dr. Walter.
Fantastic Art. Taschen. ISBN 978-3-8228-2954-7 BeinArt
Science fiction magazine
A science-fiction magazine is a publication that offers science fiction, either in a hard-copy periodical format or on the Internet. Science-fiction magazines traditionally featured speculative fiction in short story, novella or novel form, a format that continues into the present day. Many contain editorials, book reviews or articles, some include stories in the fantasy and horror genres. Malcolm Edwards and Peter Nicholls write that early magazines were not known as science fiction: "if there were any need to differentiate them, the terms scientific romance or'different stories' might be used, but until the appearance of a magazine devoted to sf there was no need of a label to describe the category; the first specialized English-language pulps with a leaning towards the fantastic were Thrill Book and Weird Tales, but the editorial policy of both was aimed much more towards weird-occult fiction than towards sf."Major American science-fiction magazines include Amazing Stories, Astounding Science Fiction, Galaxy Science Fiction, The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction and Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine.
The most influential British science-fiction magazine was New Worlds. Many science-fiction magazines have been published in languages other than English, but none has gained worldwide recognition or influence in the world of anglophone science fiction. There is a growing trend toward important work being published first on the Internet, both for reasons of economics and access. A web-only publication can cost as little as one-tenth of the cost of publishing a print magazine, as a result, some believe the e-zines are more innovative and take greater risks with material. Moreover, the magazine is internationally accessible, distribution is not an issue—though obscurity may be. Magazines like Strange Horizons, InterGalactic Medicine Show, Jim Baen's Universe, the Australian magazine Andromeda Spaceways Inflight Magazine are examples of successful Internet magazines. Web-based magazines tend to favor shorter stories and articles that are read on a screen, many of them pay little or nothing to the authors, thus limiting their universe of contributors.
However, multiple web-based magazines are listed as "paying markets" by the SFWA, which means that they pay the "professional" rate of 6c/word or more. These magazines include popular titles such as Strange Horizons, InterGalactic Medicine Show, Clarkesworld Magazine; the SFWA publishes a list of qualifying magazine and short fiction venues that contains all current web-based qualifying markets. The World Science Fiction Convention awarded a Hugo Award each year to the best science fiction magazine, until that award was changed to one for Best Editor in the early 1970s. Magazines were the only way to publish science fiction until about 1950, when large mainstream publishers began issuing science fiction books. Today, there are few paper-based science-fiction magazines, most printed science fiction appears first in book form. Science-fiction magazines began in the United States, but there were several major British magazines and science-fiction magazines that have been published around the world, for example in France and Argentina.
The first science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, was published in a format known as bedsheet the size of Life but with a square spine. Most magazines changed to the pulp magazine format the size of comic books or National Geographic but again with a square spine. Now, most magazines are published in digest format the size of Reader's Digest, although a few are in the standard 8.5" x 11" size, have stapled spines, rather than glued square spines. Science-fiction magazines in this format feature non-fiction media coverage in addition to the fiction. Knowledge of these formats is an asset when locating magazines in libraries and collections where magazines are shelved according to size; the premiere issue of Amazing Stories and published by Hugo Gernsback, displayed a cover by Frank R. Paul illustrating Off on a Comet by Jules Verne. After many minor changes in title and major changes in format and publisher, Amazing Stories ended January 2005 after 607 issues. Except for the last issue of Stirring Science Stories, the last true bedsheet size sf magazine was Fantastic Adventures, in 1939, but it changed to the pulp size, it was absorbed by its digest-sized stablemate Fantastic in 1953.
Before that consolidation, it ran 128 issues. Much fiction published in these bedsheet magazines, except for classic reprints by writers such as H. G. Wells, Jules Verne and Edgar Allan Poe, is only of antiquarian interest; some of it was written by teenage science fiction fans, who were paid little or nothing for their efforts. Jack Williamson for example, was 19, his writing improved over time, until his death in 2006, he was still a publishing writer at age 98. Some of the stories in the early issues were by scientists or doctors who knew little or nothing about writing fiction, but who tried their best, for example, Dr. David H. Keller; the two best original sf stories published in a bedsheet science fiction magazine were "A Martian Odyssey" by Stanley G. Weinbaum and "The Gostak and the Doshes" by Dr. Miles Breuer, who influenced Jack Williamson. "The Gostak and the Doshes" is one of the few stories from that era still read today. Other stories
Sidewise Award for Alternate History
The Sidewise Awards for Alternate History were established in 1995 to recognize the best alternative history stories and novels of the year. The awards take their name from the 1934 short story "Sidewise in Time" by Murray Leinster, in which a strange storm causes portions of Earth to swap places with their analogs from other timelines; the awards were created by Steven H Silver, Evelyn C. Leeper, Robert B. Schmunk. Over the years, the number of judges has fluctuated between three and eight, including judges in the UK and South Africa; each year, two awards are presented at the World Science Fiction Convention. The Short-Form award is presented to a work under 60,000 words in length; the Long-Form award may be presented to a work longer than 60,000 words, including both novels and complete series. At their discretion, the judges may elect to recognize an individual or work with a Special Achievement Award in recognition of works that were published prior to the award's inception. 1995 – Paul J. McAuley, Pasquale's Angel 1996 – Stephen Baxter, Voyage 1997 – Harry Turtledove, How Few Remain 1998 – Stephen Fry, Making History 1999 – Brendan DuBois, Resurrection Day 2000 – Mary Gentle, Ash: A Secret History 2001 – J. N. Stroyar, The Children's War 2002 –: Martin J. Gidron, The Severed Wing & Harry Turtledove, Ruled Britannia 2003 – Murray Davies, Collaborator 2004 – Philip Roth, The Plot Against America 2005 – Ian R. MacLeod, The Summer Isles 2006 – Charles Stross, The Family Trade, The Hidden Family, The Clan Corporate 2007 – Michael Chabon, The Yiddish Policemen's Union 2008 – Chris Roberson, The Dragon's Nine Sons 2009 – Robert Conroy, 1942 2010 – Eric G. Swedin, When Angels Wept: A What-If History of the Cuban Missile Crisis 2011 – Ian R. MacLeod, Wake Up and Dream 2012 – C. J. Sansom, Dominion 2013 – D.
J. Taylor, The Windsor Faction & Bryce Zabel, Surrounded by Enemies: What If Kennedy Survived Dallas? 2014 – Kristine Kathryn Rusch, The Enemy Within 2015 – Julie Mayhew, The Big Lie 2016 – Ben H. Winters, Underground Airlines 2017 – Bryce Zabel, Once There Was a Way 1995 – Stephen Baxter, "Brigantia's Angels" 1996 – Walter Jon Williams, "Foreign Devils" 1997 – William Sanders, "The Undiscovered" 1998 – Ian R. MacLeod, "The Summer Isles" 1999 – Alain Bergeron, "The Eighth Register" 2000 – Ted Chiang, "Seventy-two Letters" 2001 – Ken MacLeod, "The Human Front" 2002 – William Sanders, "Empire" 2003 – Chris Roberson, "O One" 2004 – Warren Ellis, The Ministry of Space 2005 – Lois Tilton, "Pericles the Tyrant" 2006 – Gardner Dozois, "Counterfactual" 2007 –: Michael Flynn, "Quaestiones Super Caelo Et Mundo" & Kristine Kathryn Rusch, "Recovering Apollo 8" 2008 – Mary Rosenblum, "Sacrifice" 2009 – Alastair Reynolds, "The Fixation" 2010 – Alan Smale, "A Clash of Eagles" 2011 – Lisa Goldstein, "Paradise Is a Walled Garden" 2012 – Rick Wilber, "Something Real" 2013 – Vylar Kaftan, "The Weight of the Sunrise" 2014 – Ken Liu, "The Long Haul: From the Annals of Transportation, The Pacific Monthly, May 2009" 2015 – Bill Crider, "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" 2016 –: Daniel M. Bensen, "Treasure Fleet" & Adam Rovner, "What If the Jewish State Had Been Established in East Africa" 2017 – Harry Turtledove, "Zigeuner" 1995 – L. Sprague de Camp, lifetime achievement 1997 – Robert Sobel: For Want of a Nail 1999 – Randall Garrett: The Lord Darcy Series The Sidewise Award website
Superhero fiction is a genre of speculative fiction examining the adventures and ethics of costumed crime fighters known as superheroes, who possess superhuman powers and battle powered criminals known as supervillains. The genre falls between hard fantasy and soft science fiction spectrum of scientific realism. Superhero fiction originated from the cultural intermingling of United States literature, it is most associated with American comic books, though it has expanded into other media through adaptations and original works. A superhero is most the protagonist of superhero fiction, although some titles, such as Marvels by Kurt Busiek and Alex Ross, use superheroes as secondary characters. A superhero is a type of stock character possessing "extraordinary or superhuman powers" and dedicated to protecting the public. Since the debut of the prototypical superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes—ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas—have dominated American comic books and crossed over into other media.
The word itself dates to at least 1917. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine. "SUPER HEROES" is a trademark co-owned by Marvel Comics. By most definitions, characters do not require actual superhuman powers to be deemed superheroes, although terms such as costumed crime fighters or masked vigilantes are sometimes used to refer to those such as Batman and Green Arrow without such powers who share other common superhero traits; such characters were referred to as "mystery men" in the so-called Golden Age of Comic Books to distinguish them from characters with super-powers. Superheroes use their powers to counter day-to-day crime while combating threats against humanity by their criminal counterparts, supervillains. Long-running superheroes such as Superman, Spider-Man and Iron Man have a "rogues gallery" of such enemies. One of these supervillains might be the superhero's archenemy. Superheroes will sometimes combat other threats such as aliens, magical/fantasy entities, natural disasters, political ideologies such as Nazism or communism, godlike or demonic creatures.
A supervillain or supervillainess is a variant of the villain character type found in comic books, action movies, science fiction in various media. They are sometimes used as foils to other heroes. Whereas superheroes wield fantastic powers, the supervillain possesses commensurate powers and abilities so that he can present a daunting challenge to the hero. Without actual physical, superhuman or superalien powers, the supervillain possesses a genius intellect that allows him to draft complex schemes or create fantastic devices. Another common trait is possession of considerable resources to help further his aims. Many supervillains share some typical characteristics of real-world dictators and terrorists and have aspirations of world domination or universal leadership. Superheroes and supervillains mirror each other in their powers, abilities, or origins. In some cases, the only difference between the two is that the hero uses his extraordinary powers to help others, while the villain uses his powers for selfish, destructive or ruthless purposes.
Both superheroes and supervillains use alter egos while in action. While sometimes the character's real name is publicly known, alter egos are most used to hide the character's secret identity from their enemies and the public. With superheroes, the duality of their identities is kept a secret and guarded to protect those close to them from being harmed and to prevent them from being called upon even for problems not serious enough to require their attention; this can be a source of drama with the superhero being forced to devise means of getting out of sight to change without revealing their identity, or bearing the price of keeping such a secret. In addition, this narrative trope can allow fantasy character to be in occasional realistic stories without the fantasy element of the sub-genre appearing. With supervillains, by contrast, the duality of their identities is kept a secret and guarded to conceal their crimes from the general public, so that they may inflict greater harm on the general public, to enable them to act and hence illegally, without risk of arrest by law-enforcement authorities.
Death in superhero fiction is permanent, as characters who die are brought back to life through supernatural means or via retcons, the alteration of established facts in the continuity of a fictional work. Fans have termed the practice of bringing back dead characters "comic book death". Another common trait of superhero fiction is the killing off of a superhero's significant other by a supervillain to advance the plot. Comic book writer Gail Simone has coined the term "Women in Refrigerators" to refer to this practice. Many works of superhero fiction occur in a shared fictional universe, sometimes establishing a fictional continuity of thousands of works spread over many decades. Changes to continuity are common, ranging from small changes to established continuity called retcons, to full reboots, erasing all previous continuity, it is common for stories works of superhero fiction to contain established characters and setting while occurring outside of the main canon
Horror fiction magazine
A horror fiction magazine is a magazine that publishes horror fiction with the main purpose of frightening the reader. Horror magazines can be on the internet, or both; the Arkham Collector, 1967–71 The Arkham Sampler, 1948–49 The Australian Horror and Fantasy Magazine Castle of Frankenstein Dark Fluidity Deathrealm, 1987–97 Ghost Stories, 1926–32 H. P. Lovecraft's Magazine of Horror, 2006–2009 Horror Stories, 1935–41 Macabre Cadaver, 2008–2011 Night Cry, 1984–1987 Der Orchideengarten, 1919–21, Germany Paradox Magazine, 2003–2007 Shadowed Realms, 2004–2006 Terror Australis, 1988–92 Terror Tales, 1934–41 The Third Alternative, 1994–2005 Twilight Zone, literature, 1981–89 Whispers, 1971–? Abyss & Apex Andromeda Spaceways Inflight Magazine Apex Digest Bards and Sages Quarterly Black Static Blood Magazine Cemetery Dance Chizine, webzine Clarkesworld Magazine, webzine Dark Moon Digest Fantázia Fever Dreams Magazine GUD Magazine, 2006–present, print/pdf Hello Horror The Horror Zine Hypnos Ideomancer The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction Midnight Street Not one of us Shock Totem Magazine Shroud: The Journal of Dark Fiction and Art Something Wicked Subterranean Magazine, webzine Three-lobed Burning Eye, 1999–present, online/anthology Twisted Tongue magazine Creepy Eerie Nightmare Psycho Scream Vampirella Weird Fantasy fiction magazine Science fiction magazine Duotrope - search engine for fiction magazines