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Reality television

Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and the early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom have been retroactively classified as reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.

Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue that reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some shows have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948. In the 21st century, it is considered as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.

In 1948, talent search shows, such as Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts, featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show that aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, was first published in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction. It has the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!

Broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life. Every seven years, the filmmaker created a new film documenting the lives of the same individuals during the intervening period. Titled the Up Series, episodes included "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. By virtue of the attention paid to the participants, it turned ordinary people into a type of celebrities after they became adults; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration.

In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given. The Radio Times Guide to Film 2007 said that the film was "to blame for reality television"; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce. In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working-class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time featured a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The 15-episode series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showi

Crista ampullaris

The crista ampullaris is the sensory organ of rotation. They are found in the ampullae of each of the semicircular canals of the inner ear, meaning that there are 3 pairs in total; the function of the crista ampullaris is to sense angular deceleration. The inner ear comprises three specialized regions of the membranous labyrinth: the vestibular sacs – the utricle and saccule, the semicircular canals, which are the vestibular organs, as well as the cochlear duct, involved in the special sense of hearing; the semicircular canals are filled with endolymph due to its connection with the cochlear duct via the saccule, which contains endolymph. It contains an inner membranous sleeve that lines the semicircular canals; the canals contain the crista ampullaris. The receptor cells located in the semicircular ducts are innervated by the eighth cranial nerve, the vestibulocochlear nerve; the crista ampullaris itself is a cone-shaped structure, covered in receptor cells called "hair cells". Covering the crista ampullaris is a gelatinous mass called the cupula.

Upon angular acceleration, the endolymph within the semicircular duct deflects the cupula against the hair cells of the crista ampullaris. The hair cells respond by stimulating neurons. Ovalle, William. Netter's Essential Histology. Philadelphia, PA USA: Saunders Elsevier. P. 448. ISBN 978-1-929007-86-8. Http://faculty.une.edu/com/abell/histo/CristaAmp.jpg http://www.kumc.edu/instruction/medicine/anatomy/histoweb/eye_ear/ear04.htm http://www.anatomyatlases.org/MicroscopicAnatomy/Section16/Plate16314.shtml http://www.med.uiuc.edu/histo/small/atlas/objects/1296.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20070703152544/http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab11/Ear/EXAMPLES/Excrista.htm

Cuautlancingo

Cuautlancingo Municipality is a town and municipality in Puebla, south-eastern Mexico. It is part of the Metropolitan area of Puebla; the town is bordered on the north by the state of Tlaxcala, east to the municipality of Tlaxcala and the city of Puebla, to the south with the municipality of San Pedro Cholula and Puebla and west by the municipality of Coronango. The Main Plant of Volkswagen de Mexico, Volkswagen's biggest plant in the world outside Germany, is located on the North of Cuautlancingo, it employs around 14,000 people. The Puebla City-area German school, Colegio Humboldt Puebla, is in Cuautlancingo. Cuautlancingo