In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle; this layout is chosen for its low moment of inertia and favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, which allows for best balance to be achieved under braking. However, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have been used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger car's handling, making it'tail-heavy', it is felt. The mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some microvans use this layout, with a low engine beneath the loading area.
This makes it possible to move the driver right to the front of the vehicle, thus increasing the loading area at the expense of reduced load depth. In modern racing cars, RMR is the usual configuration and is synonymous with "mid engine". Due to its weight distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars; this configuration was common in small engined 1950s microcars, in which the engines did not take up much space. Because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space; the similar mid-engine, four-wheel-drive layout gives many of the same advantages and is used when extra traction is desired, such as in some supercars and in the Group B rally cars. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with rear-wheel-drive layout. Other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen.
It was based on an earlier design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler, an Austrian engineer working at Daimler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Hans Nibel, it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers, they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947. In 1953 Porsche premiered the tiny and altogether new RMR 550 Spyder and in a year it was notoriously winning in the smaller sports and endurance race car classes against much larger cars – a sign of greater things to come; the 718 followed in 1958. But it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made.
The mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. Rear mid-engines were used in microcars like the Isetta or the Zündapp Janus; the first rear mid-engined road car after WW II was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, which used the 1108cc Renault Sierra engine, mated to the transaxle from the FWD Renault Estafette van. Nearly 1700 were built until 1967; this was followed by the first De Tomaso, the Vallelunga, which mated a tuned Ford Cortina 1500 Kent engine to a VW transaxle with Hewland gearsets. Introduced at Turin in 1963, 58 were built 1964-68. A similar car was the Renault-engined Lotus Europa, built from 1966–1975. In 1966, the Lamborghini Miura was the first high performance mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive roadcar; the concept behind the Miura was that of putting on the road a grand tourer featuring state-of-the-art racing-car technology of the time.
This represented an innovative sportscar at a time when all of its competitors, from Ferraris to Aston Martins, were traditional front-engined, rear wheel drive grand tourers. The Pontiac Fiero was a mid-engined sports car, built by the Pontiac division of General Motors from 1984 to 1988; the Fiero was the first two-seater Pontiac since the 1926 to 1938 coupes, the first mass-produced mid-engine sports car by a U. S. manufacturer. Engine and driveline layout considerations
The first season of Power Couple premiered on Tuesday, April 12, 2016 at 10:30 p.m. on RecordTV. The show features eight celebrity couples living under one roof and facing extreme challenges that will test how well they know each other; each week, a couple will be eliminated. Laura Keller & Jorge Sousa won the competition over Simony & Patrick Souza with 82.40% of the public vote and took home the R$697.000 prize they accumulated during the show. Simony & Patrick received a brand new car as the runners-up. After beating Laura & Jorge in a face-off challenge during the live final, Simony & Patrick had the opportunity to reward an eliminated couple with R$20.000. They choose Carlos. Gretchen was revealed to be Brazil's favorite contestant after winning the real time fan vote through Twitter, receiving another R$20.000, bringing her cash winnings to R$40.000. In 2017, Conrado appeared in A Fazenda 9, he finished in 11th place. In 2018, Popó appeared in Dancing Brasil 3, he finished in 14th place. In 2019, Túlio Maravilha and Jorge Sousa appeared in A Fazenda 11, Túlio finished in 14th place, Jorge finished in 12th place.
Key ^Note 1: The final Couples' challenge losing couple would be automatically eliminated. Gian & Tati were sent home. Laura & Jorge quit second, leaving Patrick as the winners. ^Note 2: At the end of week 1's couples' save vote, Gian & Tati and Popó & Emilene were tied with 3 votes each. Per the rules, since Gian & Tati have the most money in their overall Bank account, they were saved from elimination, thus sending Popó & Emilene home. ^Note 3: For the final, the public votes for the couple they want to win Power Couple Brasil. All numbers are in points and provided by Kantar Ibope Media. In 2016, each point represents 69.417 households in São Paulo. Power Couple 1 on R7.com
Anchee Min or Min Anqi is a Chinese-American author who lives in San Francisco and Shanghai. Min has published two memoirs, Red Azalea and The Cooked Seed: A Memoir, six historical novels, her fiction emphasizes strong female characters, such as Jiang Qing, the wife of chairman Mao Zedong, Empress Dowager Cixi, the last ruling empress of China. Min was born in Shanghai on January 14, 1957, her parents were both teachers. She was nine years old; as a child, she was a member of the Little Red Guards and was made to report her favourite teacher, an anti-Maoist, to the authorities. When Min was 17, she was sent to a collective farm near the East China Sea, where she endured horrific conditions and worked 18-hour days, she suffered a spinal cord injury. She began an affair with the commander at her camp, a woman named Yin, although she attributes the affair to loneliness. At the collective farm, Min was discovered by a team of talent scouts from the Shanghai Film Studio and was selected to become an actress for her ideal "proletarian good looks."
She won the lead role in a propaganda film inspired by Madame Mao. However, the film was never completed. After Mao Zedong's death and the subsequent fall of Jiang Qing, Min was ostracized and treated badly, she was considered suicide. With the assistance of her friend, American actress Joan Chen, the sponsorship of her aunt living in Singapore, Min obtained a passport and applied to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, she emigrated to the United States. As she was entering the country, she was nearly deported when it was discovered that, contrary to what she had put on her visa application, she did not speak English. However, she was able to convince the immigration officer to allow her to enter into the country. After moving to the US, Min worked five jobs at the same time and learned English by watching Sesame Street. Min's first husband was a Chinese artist named Qigu. Together they had Lauryann. According to Min herself, she "lured into marriage, making herself pregnant by him although she knew he did not want a child" and subsequently their marriage fell apart.
Her second marriage was to author Lloyd Lofthouse. Min graduated from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago with a B. F. A. and M. F. A. in Fine Arts. Red Azalea. 2011, ISBN 9780307781024 The Cooked Seed: A Memoir. Bloomsbury USA, May 7, 2013, ISBN 978-1-59691-698-2 Katherine Hamish Hamilton, 1995, ISBN 978-0-241-13541-9 Becoming Madame Mao. Based on the life of Jiang Qing, the last wife of Mao Zedong. Wild Ginger: A Novel. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. January 1, 2004. ISBN 978-0-547-34937-4. Retrieved June 8, 2013. Empress Orchid Bloomsbury Publishing Incorporated, 2004, ISBN 9780747566984 The Last Empress. Based on the life of Empress Dowager Cixi, the late 19th and early 20th century Qing dynasty Empress Dowager. Pearl of China: A Novel. Bloomsbury Publishing, April 9, 2010, ISBN 978-1-60819-151-2. Inspired by the life of Pearl S. Buck as a girl and young woman in China. Official website "Prairie Lights Books, Iowa City, April 2010 interview audio file". Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
"Powell's Books Author Interviews: Anchee Min". Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2008. Wang, Annie. "Anchee Min's Passionate World"