Biennale of Sydney
The Biennale of Sydney is an international festival of contemporary art, held every two years in Sydney, Australia. It is the largest and best-attended contemporary visual arts event in the country. Alongside the Venice and São Paulo biennales and Documenta, it is one of the longest running exhibitions of its kind and was the first biennale to be established in the Asia-Pacific region. In 1973 the Biennale of Sydney held its first exhibition of 37 artists in the exhibition hall of the newly opened Sydney Opera House. 1973, The Biennale of Sydney, Coordinator: Anthony Wintherbotham 1976, Recent International Forms in Art, Artistic Director: Thomas G. McCullough 1979, European Dialogue, Artistic Director: Nick Waterlow 1982, Vision in Disbelief, Artistic Director: William Wright 1984, Private Symbol: Social Metaphor, Artistic Director: Leon Paroissien 1986, Originality + Beyond, Artistic Director: Nick Waterlow 1988, From the Southern Cross: A View of World Art c1940–1988, Artistic Director: Nick Waterlow 1990, The Readymade Boomerang: Certain Relations in 20th Century Art, Artistic Director: René Block 1992/3, The Boundary Rider, Artistic Director: Tony Bond 1996, Jurassic Technologies Revenant, Artistic Director: Lynne Cooke 1998, Every Day, Artistic Director: Jonathan Watkins 2000, International Selection Committee: Nick Waterlow, Fumio Nanjo, Louise Neri, Hetti Perkins, Sir Nicholas Serota, Robert Storr, Harald Szeemann.
2002, Fantastic Richard Grayson, Artistic Director 2004, On Reason and Emotion, Curator: Isabel Carlos 2006, Zones of Contact, Artistic Director & Curator: Charles Merewether 2008, Revolutions - Forms That Turn, Artistic Director: Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev 2010, THE BEAUTY OF DISTANCE, Songs of Survival in a Precarious Age, Artistic Director: David Elliott 2012, all our relations, Artistic Directors: Catherine de Zegher and Gerald McMaster 2014, You Imagine What You Desire, Artistic Director: Juliana Engberg 2016, The future is here – it’s just not evenly distributed, Artistic Director: Stephanie Rosenthal 2018, SUPERPOSITION: Equilibrium & Engagement, Artistic Director: Mami Kataoka The 2002 Biennale of Sydney titled investigated'artists and practices using fictions, invented methodologies, subjective belief systems, modellings and experiments as a means to make works'. Writing in Art in America in October, 2002, Michael Duncan said of the exhibition that it "gave free rein to complex offbeat works predicated on alternate realities."
Artists included: Mike Nelson, Chris Burden, Susan Hiller, Vito Acconci, Eleanor Antin, Henry Darger, Janet Cardiff and Rodney Graham. Richard Grayson was the Artistic Director; the 2004 Biennale of Sydney was titled On Reason and Emotion. It featured the work of 51 artists from 32 countries. Much of the exhibition was sited within Sydney’s major art museums and galleries, however a number of new projects were created for specific sites at outdoor locations within the city, such as the Royal Botanic Gardens and the forecourt of the Sydney Opera House. Isabel Carlos was the Curator; the 2006 Biennale of Sydney was held from 8 June - 27 August and titled Zones of Contact. It featured the work of 85 artists from 44 countries and was held across 16 diverse venues throughout Sydney including Pier 2/3, at Walsh Bay, the Art Gallery of New South Wales and the Museum of Contemporary Art. Dr Charles Merewether was Curator. A record of 316,811 visits were recorded over all venues; the festival included a wide range of works and mediums including installation, performance, sound and painting.
53 artists created 80 new works for the exhibition in response to the concept'Zones of Contact'. The festival featured three two-day symposia, over 50 talks, education programs and an'Art Walk' along the harbour foreshore between principal exhibition venues; the 16th Biennale of Sydney, Revolutions – Forms That Turn, took place from 18 June – 7 September 2008 with leading international curator and writer Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev as Artistic Director. It featured 175 artists from 42 countries. Cockatoo Island, a former prison and shipyard, was used as a major new venue and won the Biennale a Sydney Music and Culture Award. Other venues included; the 16th Biennale of Sydney was awarded Australian Event of the Year & Best Cultural or Arts Event at the 2009 Australian Event Awards. The 17th Biennale of Sydney, titled THE BEAUTY OF DISTANCE: Songs of Survival in a Precarious Age, was held from 12 May – 1 August 2010. Under the Artistic Direction of international curator David Elliott, 444 works by 167 artist and collaborators were selected from 36 countries, making it the largest exhibition staged in the organisations 37-year history.
Venues included Cockatoo Island, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Pier 2/3 at Walsh Bay, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney Opera House and the Art Gallery of New South Wales. The 17th Biennale of Sydney achieved record attendance of more than 517,000 visits across all venues with 68 artists premiering new works made for the exhibition; the 17th Biennale of Sydney’s SuperDeluxe@Artspace programme which combined gallery, performance space and bar was awarded Best Arts Event by popular vote at the 2010 Sydney Music and Culture Awards as well as being a finalist in the Best Major Festival category. The 17th Biennale of Sydney was a finalist at the 2010 Australian Event Awards in the Best Cultural or Arts Event category; the 18th Biennale of Sydney: all our relations, was held from 27 June – 16 Sept
The Venice Biennale refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization presents. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is now called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation and other exhibitions the Foundation organizes; the Art Biennale, a contemporary visual art exhibition and so called because it is held biennially, is the original biennale on which others in the world have been modeled. The Biennale Foundation has a continuous existence supporting the arts as well as organizing the following separate events: On April 19, 1893 the Venetian City Council passed a resolution to set up an biennial exhibition of Italian Art to celebrate the silver anniversary of King Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy. A year the council decreed "to adopt a'by invitation' system; the first exhibition was seen by 224,000 visitors. The event became international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries installed national pavilions at the exhibition, with the first being from Belgium.
In 1910 the first internationally well-known artists were displayed- a room dedicated to Gustav Klimt, a one-man show for Renoir, a retrospective of Courbet. A work by Picasso was removed from the Spanish salon in the central Palazzo because it was feared that its novelty might shock the public. By 1914 seven pavilions had been established: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain and Russia. During World War I, the 1916 and 1918 events were cancelled. In 1920 the post of mayor of Venice and president of the Biennale was split; the new secretary general, Vittorio Pica brought about the first presence of avant-garde art, notably Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. 1922 saw an exhibition of sculpture by African artists. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there. In 1928 the Istituto Storico d'Arte Contemporanea opened, the first nucleus of archival collections of the Biennale. In 1930 its name was changed into Historical Archive of Contemporary Art. In 1930, the Biennale was transformed into an Ente Autonomo by Royal Decree with law no. 33 of 13-1-1930.
Subsequently, the control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government under Benito Mussolini. This brought on a restructuring, an associated financial boost, as well as a new president, Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Three new events were established, including the Biennale Musica in 1930 referred to as International Festival of Contemporary Music. In 1933 the Biennale organised an exhibition of Italian art abroad. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section. During World War II, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted: 1942 saw the last edition of the events; the Film Festival restarted in 1946, the Music and Theatre festivals were resumed in 1947, the Art Exhibition in 1948. The Art Biennale was resumed in 1948 with a major exhibition of a recapitulatory nature; the Secretary General, art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini, started with the Impressionists and many protagonists of contemporary art including Chagall, Braque, Delvaux and Magritte, as well as a retrospective of Picasso's work.
Peggy Guggenheim was invited to exhibit her collection to be permanently housed at Ca' Venier dei Leoni. 1949 saw the beginning of renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European—and worldwide—movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces. In 1954 the island San Giorgio Maggiore provided the venue for the first Japanese Noh theatre shows in Europe. 1956 saw the selection of films following an artistic selection and no longer based upon the designation of the participating country. The 1957 Golden Lion went to Satyajit Ray's Aparajito. 1962 included Arte Informale at the Art Exhibition with Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Emilio Vedova, Pietro Consagra. The 1964 Art Exhibition introduced continental Europe to Pop Art.
The American Robert Rauschenberg was the first American artist to win the Gran Premio, the youngest to date. The student protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale. Student protests hindered the opening of the Biennale. A resulting period of institutional changes opened and ending with a new Statute in 1973. In 1969, following the protests, the Grand Prizes were abandoned; these resumed in 1980 in 1986 for the Art Exhibition. In 1972
Art Gallery of Ontario
The Art Gallery of Ontario is an art museum in Toronto, Canada. Its collection includes close to 95,000 works spanning the first century to the present day; the gallery has 45,000 square metres of physical space, making it one of the largest galleries in North America. Significant collections include the largest collection of Canadian art, an expansive body of works from the Renaissance and the Baroque eras, European art and Oceanic art, a modern and contemporary collection; the photography collection is a large part of the collection, as well as an extensive drawing and prints collection. The museum contains many significant sculptures, such as in the Henry Moore sculpture centre, represents other forms of art like historic objects, frames and medieval illuminations and video art, graphic art, installations and ship models. During the AGO's history, it has hosted and organized some of the world's most renowned and significant exhibitions, continues to do so, to this day; the Art Gallery was founded in 1900 as the Art Museum of Toronto.
The Gallery was renamed to the Art Gallery of Toronto in 1919, the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1966. Since 1974, the gallery has seen four major expansions and renovations considered a high number and unseen by most galleries of the world, continues to add spaces; the renovated and renamed J. S. McLean Centre for Indigenous & Canadian Art opened in July 2018. Prior recent renovations by Hariri Pontarini Architects include the Weston Family Learning Centre, which opened in October 2011 and the South Entrance and lounge outside the library, which opened in July 2017; the David Milne Research Centre, which opened in April 2012, was designed by KPMB Architects. Earlier major renovations were designed by noted architects John C. Parkin, Barton Myers and KPMB Architects, Frank Gehry. In addition to display galleries, the structure houses an extensive library, student spaces, gallery workshop space, artist-in-residence, a restaurant, café, espresso bar, research centre and lecture hall, Gehry-designed gift shop, an event space called Baillie Court, which occupies the entirety of the third floor of the contemporary tower.
The gallery is located in the Downtown Grange Park district, on Dundas Street West between McCaul and Beverley Streets, between Chinatown and Little Japan. The Art Gallery of Ontario is the second most visited museum in Toronto after the Royal Ontario Museum in 2014; the museum was founded in 1900 by a group of private citizens, members of the Ontario Society of Artists, who incorporated the institution as the Art Museum of Toronto. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario subsequently enacted An Act respecting the Art Museum of Toronto in 1903; the museum was renamed the Art Gallery of Toronto in 1919, subsequently the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1966. The current location of the AGO dates to 1909, when Harriet Boulton Smith bequeathed her historic 1817 Georgian manor, the Grange, to the gallery upon her death. In 1911, the museum leased lands to the south of the manor to the City of Toronto in perpetuity so as to create Grange Park. In 1920, the museum allowed the Ontario College of Art to construct a building on the grounds.
The museum's first formal exhibitions opened in the Grange in 1913. In 1916, the museum drafted plans to construct a small portion of a new gallery building. Designed by Darling and Pearson in the Beaux-Arts style, excavation of the new facility began in 1916, the first galleries opened in 1918. Expansion throughout the 20th century added various galleries, culminating in 1993, which left the AGO with, the 100,00-square feet of new space and 190,000-square feet of renovations—usable space was increased by 30 per cent, including 30 new and 20 renovated galleries; the AGO was and continues to be a major supporter of local arts, which have included shows for the Group of Seven, Betty Goodwin, David Milne, Shary Boyle. The AGO's First Founders include: George A. Cox, Lady Eaton, Sir Joseph W. Flavelle, J. W. L. Forster, E. F. B. Johnston, Sir William Mackenzie, Hart A. Massey, Prof. James Mavor, F. Nicholls, Sir Edmund Osler, Sir Henry M. Pellatt, George Agnew Reid, Sir Byron Edmund Walker, Mrs. H. D.
Warren, E. R. Wood, Frank P. Wood. Under the direction of its CEO Matthew Teitelbaum, the AGO embarked on a $254 million redevelopment plan by architect Frank Gehry in 2004, called Transformation AGO; the new addition would require demolition of the 1992 Post-Modernist wing by Barton Myers and Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects. Although Gehry was born in Toronto, as a child had lived in the same neighbourhood as the AGO, the expansion of the gallery represented his first work in Canada. Gehry was commissioned to revitalize the AGO, not to design a new building. Kenneth Thomson was a major benefactor of Transformation AGO, donating much of his art collection to the gallery, in addition to providing $50 million towards the renovation, as well as a $20 million endowment. Thomson died in 2006; the project drew some criticism. As an expansion, rather than a new creation, concerns were raised that the new AGO would not look like a Gehry signature building, that the opportunity to build an new gallery on Toronto's waterfront, was being squandered.
During the course of the redevelopment planning, board member and patron J
OCAD University the Ontario College of Art and Design University, is a public university located in Toronto, Canada. The school is within the Grange Park neighbourhood, adjacent to the Art Gallery of Ontario; the school is Canada's oldest educational institution for art and design. OCAD U offers courses through the Faculties of Art, Liberal Arts and Sciences, alternative programs; the enabling legislation is Ontario College of Art and Design University Act, 2002. The University's beginnings stretch back to the project of the Ontario Society of Artists whose objectives included the development of art education in Ontario; the Ontario Society of Artists passed the motion to "draw up a scheme" for a school of art on 4 April 1876, the first School of Art opened on 30 October 1876, funded by a government grant of $1,000. In 1971 -- 72, Roy Ascott radically challenged the curriculum structure of the College. In 2008, OCAD president Sara Diamond changed the pedagogy, she emphasised academics over studio time and required full-time instructors to hold an advanced degree.
There was some controversy as two faculty members resigned over the changes. In 2010, Tom Traves president of Dalhousie University in Halifax, conducted a confidential review of how OCAD was managed, he found. Diamond adopted most of his 30 recommendations, including increased Decanal autonomy. OCAD University has had a number of names over time. Ontario School of Art, 1876–86 founded by the Ontario Society of Artists to provide professional training in art. Toronto Art School, 1886–90 Central Ontario School of Art and Industrial Design, 1890–1912 Ontario College of Art, 1912–96 Ontario College of Art and Design, 1996–2010 Ontario College of Art and Design University, 2010–present From 1952 to 1957 OCA was located at the Wood Manor at Bayview Avenue and Lawrence Avenue East; the current OCAD campus consists of a south campus. The north campus includes the Main Building and Sharp Centre for Design, the adjacent Butterfield Park, the Annex Building, the Rosalie Sharp Pavilion, the Student Centre, the Inclusive Design Institute, the Continuing Education Centre.
The south campus consists of buildings that are physically situated on Richmond Street West, plus the proposed Mirvish-Gehry development further south on King Street. Buildings at OCAD are referred to by their street addresses; some buildings are assigned a building number, encoded as the first digit in 4-digit room numbers. The Main Building traces its roots to the first building that the school constructed, the first building in Canada specially built for art education. Now known as the George A. Reid Wing, the building was designed by the school’s principal George A. Reid in the Georgian style and opened on 30 September 1921. On 17 January 1957, the first extension, a modernist building known today as the A. J. Casson Wing, was completed and was opened. Two more extensions to the building were subsequently added in 1963 and 1967. In 2000, funding was secured from Ontario’s SuperBuild program to build a fifth extension to the Main Building. Through Rod Robbie of Robbie/Young + Wright Architects, Will Alsop of Alsop Architects was made aware of the project and was selected in 2002.
A joint venture was formed between the two firms and the new extension, now known as the Sharp Centre for Design, was completed in 2004. The design, which came out of a process of participatory design, consists of a box four storeys off the ground supported by a series of multi-coloured pillars at different angles and is described as a tabletop; the $42.5-million expansion and redevelopment has received numerous awards, including the first Royal Institute of British Architects Worldwide Award, the award of excellence in the "Building in Context" category at the Toronto Architecture and Urban Design Awards, was deemed the most outstanding technical project overall in the 2005 Canadian Consulting Engineering Awards. The main library on campus is the Dorothy H. Hoover Library, located in the Annex Building; the Learning Zone located in the Annex Building, houses the OCAD Zine Library, Art & Design Annuals and the Visionnaire periodical collection. A number of galleries or exhibition spaces exist both off-campus.
The existing major exhibition spaces are: Onsite OCAD U. Created in 2007 as the OCAD Professional Gallery before taking on its current name in 2010, Onsite OCAD U is features works by national and international professional artists and designers. Student Gallery; the Student Gallery curates and features works submitted by recent alumni. The Student Gallery used to be located at 76 McCaul Street, it was created in the early 1970s Graduate Gallery. The Graduate Gallery is a gallery for research faculty. Xpace; the OCAD Student Union runs. It aims to provide students and emerging artists a space to exhibit their work in a professional gallery setting, to better respond to "contemporary issues in theory and aesthetics" in the community through the use of shorter time frames in its programming. Open Gallery; the Open Gallery is an exhibition space inside the Inclusive Design Institute building at 49 McCaul Street. OCAD offers a Bachelor of Arts; the school combines a studio-based education with liberal studies, recognised with a Bachelor of Fine Arts, a Bachelor of Desi
National Gallery of Canada
The National Gallery of Canada, located in the capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, is Canada's premier art gallery. The Gallery is now housed in a glass and granite building on Sussex Drive with a notable view of the Canadian Parliament buildings on Parliament Hill; the building was designed by Moshe Safdie and opened in 1988. The Gallery's former director, Jean Sutherland Boggs, was chosen by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to oversee construction of the national gallery and museums. Marc Mayer was named the museum's director, succeeding Pierre Théberge, on 19 January 2009; the Gallery was first formed in 1880 by Canada's Governor General, John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, and, in 1882, moved into its first home on Parliament Hill in the same building as the Supreme Court. In 1911, the Gallery moved to the Victoria Memorial Museum, now the home of the Canadian Museum of Nature. In 1913, the first National Gallery Act was passed. In 1962, the Gallery moved to the Lorne Building site, a rather nondescript office building on Elgin Street.
Adjacent to the British High Commission, the building has since been demolished for a 17-storey office building, to house the Federal Finance Department. The museum moved into its current building beside Nepean Point. In 1985, the newly created Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography the Stills Photography Division of the National Film Board of Canada, was affiliated to the National Gallery; the CMCP's mandate and staff moved to its new location in 1992, at 1 Rideau Canal, next to the Château Laurier. In 1998, the CMCP's administration was amalgamated to that of the National Gallery's. In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada chose the National Gallery as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium; the Gallery has a large and varied collection of paintings, drawings and photographs. Although its focus is on Canadian art, it holds works by many noted European artists, it has a strong contemporary art collection with some of Andy Warhol's most famous works.
In 1990 the Gallery bought Barnett Newman's Voice of Fire for $1.8 million, igniting a storm of controversy. Since that time its value has appreciated sharply. In 2005, the Gallery acquired a painting by Italian Renaissance painter Francesco Salviati for $4.5 million. Its most famous painting is The Death of General Wolfe by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West. In 2005, a sculpture of a giant spider, Louise Bourgeois's Maman, was installed in the plaza in front of the Gallery. In 2011 the gallery installed Canadian sculptor Joe Fafard's Running Horses next to the Sussex Drive entrance, American artist Roxy Paine's stainless steel sculpture One Hundred Foot Line in Nepean Point behind the gallery; the Canadian collection, the most comprehensive in Canada, holds works by Louis-Philippe Hébert, Tom Thomson, the Group of Seven, Emily Carr, Alex Colville, Jean-Paul Riopelle and Jack Bush. The Gallery organizes its own exhibits which travel across Canada and beyond, hosts shows from around the world co-sponsored with other national art galleries and museums.
The Gallery's collection has been built up through purchase and donations. Much of the collection was donated, notably the British paintings donated by former Governor General Vincent Massey and that of the Southam family; the museum features Canadian and Inuit art and European painting, sculpture and drawings, modern and contemporary art and photographs. The largest work in the Gallery is the entire interior of the Rideau Street Chapel, which formed part of the Convent of Our Lady Sacred Heart, The interior decorations of the Rideau Street Chapel were designed by Georges Couillon in 1887. After the convent was demolished in 1972, the chapel was dismantled and reconstructed within the gallery as a work of art in 1988. Auguste Rodin, Age of Bronze, 1875–1876, cast in 1901. M. C. Escher, Stars, 1948. Barnett Newman, Voice of Fire, 1967; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, Ontario Association of Art Galleries, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Ord, The National Gallery of Canada: ideas, architecture, McGill-Queen's University Press, ISBN 0-7735-2509-2 Robert Fulford, "Turning the absurd into an art form: Canada's National Gallery has a history filled with bizarre decisions," National Post, 9 September 2003, http://www.robertfulford.com/2003-09-09-gallery.html Official website
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t