MSNBC is an American pay television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events. MSNBC is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal. MSNBC and its website were founded in 1996 under a partnership between Microsoft and General Electric's NBC unit, hence the network's naming. Although they had the same name, msnbc.com and MSNBC maintained separate corporate structures and news operations. Msnbc.com was headquartered on the Microsoft campus in Redmond, Washington while MSNBC operated out of NBC's headquarters in New York City. Microsoft divested its stakes in the MSNBC channel in 2005 and in msnbc.com in July 2012. The general news site was rebranded as NBCNews.com, a new msnbc.com was created as the online home of the cable channel. In the late summer of 2015, MSNBC revamped its programming. MSNBC sought to sharpen its news image by entering into a dual editorial relationship with its organizational parent NBC News.
MSNBC Live, the network's flagship daytime news platform, was expanded to cover over eight hours of the day. Phil Griffin is the president and director of day-to-day operations at MSNBC. Pat Burkey, Janelle Rodriguez, Jonathan Wald oversee programming and news operations, with Brian Williams serving as the channel's chief anchor of breaking news coverage; as of February 2015 94,531,000 households in the United States were receiving MSNBC. Commentators have described MSNBC as having a bias towards left-leaning politics and the Democratic Party. In November 2007, a New York Times article stated that MSNBC's prime-time lineup is tilting more to the left. Fox News media analyst Howard Kurtz, while in the same role at The Washington Post, stated that the channel's evening lineup "has gravitated to the left in recent years and seems to regard itself as the antithesis of Fox News". MSNBC was established under a strategic partnership between Microsoft. NBC executive Tom Rogers was instrumental in developing this partnership.
James Kinsella, a Microsoft executive, served as president of the online component, MSNBC.com, represented the tech company in the joint venture. Microsoft invested $221 million for a 50 percent share of the cable channel. MSNBC and Microsoft shared the cost of a $200 million newsroom in Secaucus, New Jersey, for msnbc.com. The network took over the channel space of NBC's 2-year-old America's Talking network, although in most cases cable carriage had to be negotiated with providers who had never carried AT. MSNBC was launched on July 15, 1996; the first show was anchored by Jodi Applegate and included news and commentary. During the day, rolling news coverage continued with The Contributors, a show that featured Ann Coulter and Laura Ingraham, as well as interactive programming coordinated by Applegate, John Gibson, John Seigenthaler. Stories were longer and more detailed than the stories CNN was running. NBC highlighted their broadcast connections by airing stories directly from NBC's network affiliates, along with breaking news coverage from the same sources.
MSNBC increased its emphasis on politics. After completing its seven-year survey of cable channels, the Project for Excellence in Journalism said in 2007 that, "MSNBC is moving to make politics a brand, with a large dose of opinion and personality."In January 2001, Mike Barnicle's MSNBC show started, but it was canceled in June 2001 because of high production costs. In June, Microsoft chief executive officer Steve Ballmer said that he would not have started MSNBC had he foreseen the difficulty of attracting viewers. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, NBC used MSNBC as an outlet for the up-to-the-minute coverage being provided by NBC News as a supplement to the longer stories on broadcast NBC. With little financial news to cover, CNBC and CNBC Europe ran MSNBC for many hours each day following the attacks; the year boosted the profile of Ashleigh Banfield, present during the collapse of Building 7 while covering the World Trade Center on September 11. Her Region In Conflict program capitalized on her newfound celebrity and showcased exclusive interviews from Afghanistan.
In the aftermath of September 11, MSNBC began calling itself "America’s NewsChannel" and hired opinionated hosts like Alan Keyes, Phil Donahue, Pat Buchanan, Tucker Carlson. On December 23, 2005, NBC Universal announced its acquisition of an additional 32 percent share of MSNBC from Microsoft, which solidified its control over television operations and allowed NBC to further consolidate MSNBC's backroom operations with NBC News and its other cable properties. NBC exercised its option to purchase Microsoft's remaining 18 percent interest in MSNBC. In late 2005, MSNBC began attracting liberal and progressive viewers as Keith Olbermann began critiquing and satirizing conservative media commentators during his Countdown With Keith Olbermann program, he focused his attention on the Fox News Channel and Bill O'Reilly, its principal primetime commentator. On June 7, 2006, Rick Kaplan resigned as president of MSNBC after holding the post for two years. Five days Dan Abrams, a nine-year veteran of MSNBC and NBC News, was named general manager of MSNBC with immediate effect.
NBC News senior vice president Phil Griffin would oversee MSNBC, while continuing to oversee NBC News’ Today program, with Abrams reporting to Griffin. On June 29, 2006, Abrams annou
Self-publishing is the publication of media by its author without the involvement of an established publisher. In common parlance, the term refers to physical written media, such as books and magazines, or digital media, such as e-books and websites, it can apply to albums, brochures, video content, zines, or uploading images to a website. Unlike the traditional publishing model, in which control of the publication is shared with a publisher, the author controls the entire process, including design, distribution and public relations; the author may perform these activities they may outsource these tasks. In traditional publishing, the publisher bears the costs, such as editing and paying advances, reaps a substantial share of the profits; the $1 billion market of self-publishing has changed in the past two decades with new technologies such as the Internet providing increasing alternatives to traditional publishing. Self-publishing is becoming the first choice for writers. Most self-published books sell few copies, although there are a dozen books that sell into the millions.
The quality of self-published works varies with many low quality titles on the market. Self-publishing is not a new phenomenon. In 1759, British satirist Laurence Sterne's self-published the first two volumes of Tristram Shandy. While most novels were distributed by established publishers, there have been authors who chose to self-publish, or who chose to start their own presses, such as John Locke, Jane Austen, Emily Dickinson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Martin Luther, Marcel Proust, Derek Walcott, Walt Whitman. In 1908, Ezra Pound sold A Lume Spento for six pence each. Franklin Hiram King's book Farmers of Forty Centuries was self-published in 1911, was subsequently published commercially. In 1931 the author of The Joy of Cooking paid a local printing company to print 3000 copies. In 1941, writer Virginia Woolf chose to self-publish her final novel Between the Acts on her Hogarth Press, in effect starting her own press. Five years ago, self-publishing was a scar. Now it's a tattoo. Up until two decades ago, self-publishing used to be described by the negative term vanity press, with the connotation that the only reason that a book was being printed was to satisfy the author's personal ego.
Authors were considered to have been insufficiently talented to have been published the "proper" way via an established publishing house. Traditional publishers paid authors a percentage of the sales of their books, so publishers would select only those authors whose books they believed were to sell well; as a result, it was difficult for an unknown author to get a publishing contract under these circumstances. So-called vanity publishers offered an alternative: they would publish any book in exchange for an upfront payment by the author. With this arrangement, the author would not own the print run of finished books, would not control how they were distributed. Critics of vanity publishers included James D. Macdonald, who claimed that vanity publishing violated Yog's Law which states that "Money should flow toward the author." Vanity publishing required a one-time payment of $5,000 to $10,000 to do a print run of 1000 books. Self-published books have had a negative stigma. To be sure, self-publishing is sometimes seen as a sign that an author believes in her work.
Part of the reason for the negative stigma is that many self-published books in past decades, were of dubious quality. For example, in 1995, a retired TV repairman self-published his autobiography in which he described how he had been stepped on by a horse when he was a boy, how he had been murdered by his stepfather when he was a young man in Mexico, how his ex-wife had clawed his face with her fingernails; the repairman spent $10,000 to have his 150-page masterpiece printed up, for promotion purposes, he sent copies to a local library, to the White House, to everybody with the repairman's same last name. These efforts did not lead anywhere. In the first decade of the 21st century, self-publishing was seen as a "mark of failure", although there are many indicators that this is changing; the image of self-publishing has been improving, since many well-known writers, who generate high quality content, have first started by self-publishing, or have switched from traditional publishing to self-publishing.
According to some views, the stigma of self-publishing is gone while others feel that self-publishing still has a way to go to cultivate respectability. Book critic Ron Charles in the Washington Post complained in an opinion piece that "No, I don't want to read your self-published book", citing concerns that there were too many published authors, that self-published books lacked quality, were published by authors with little understanding of the audience or the market, but the negative stigma has been receding with the advent of dozens of authors who have self-published their way to literary success. Breakaway bestsellers such as Fifty Shades of Grey and The Martian were first self-published, helping to lend respectability to self-publishing in general. Further, with new avenues of self-publishing
The Chicago Sun-Times is a daily newspaper published in Chicago, United States. It is the flagship paper of the Sun-Times Media Group, with the biggest circulation in Chicago and the 9th overall in the US; the Chicago Sun-Times claims to be the oldest continuously published daily newspaper in the city. That claim is based on the 1844 founding of the Chicago Daily Journal, the first newspaper to publish the rumor, now believed false, that a cow owned by Catherine O'Leary was responsible for the Chicago fire; the Evening Journal, whose West Side building at 17–19 S. Canal was undamaged, gave the Chicago Tribune a temporary home until it could rebuild. Though the assets of the Journal were sold to the Chicago Daily News in 1929, its last owner Samuel Emory Thomason immediately launched the tabloid Chicago Daily Illustrated Times; the modern paper grew out of the 1948 merger of the Chicago Sun, founded December 4, 1941 by Marshall Field III, the Chicago Daily Times. The newspaper was owned by Field Enterprises, controlled by the Marshall Field family, which acquired the afternoon Chicago Daily News in 1959 and launched WFLD television in 1966.
When the Daily News ended its run in 1978, much of its staff, including Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Mike Royko, were moved to the Sun-Times. During the Field period, the newspaper had a populist, progressive character that leaned Democratic but was independent of the city's Democratic establishment. Although the graphic style was urban tabloid, the paper was well regarded for journalistic quality and did not rely on sensational front-page stories, it ran articles from The Washington Post/Los Angeles Times wire service. Among the most prominent members of the newspaper's staff was cartoonist Jacob Burck, hired by the Chicago Times in 1938, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1941 and continued with the paper after it became the Sun-Times, drawing nearly 10,000 cartoons over a 44-year career; the advice column "Ask Ann Landers" debuted in 1943. Ann Landers was the pseudonym of staff writer Ruth Crowley, who answered readers' letters until 1955. Eppie Lederer, sister of "Dear Abby" columnist Abigail van Buren, assumed the role thereafter as Ann Landers.
"Kup's Column", written by Irv Kupcinet made its first appearance in 1943. Jack Olsen joined the Sun-Times as editor-in-chief in 1954, before moving on to Time and Sports Illustrated magazines and authoring true-crime books. Hired as literary editor in 1955 was Hoke Norris, who covered the civil-rights movement for the Sun-Times. Jerome Holtzman became a member of the Chicago Sun sports department after first being a copy boy for the Daily News in the 1940s, he and Edgar Munzel, another longtime sportswriter for the paper, both would end up honored by the Baseball Hall of Fame. Famed for his World War II exploits, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist Bill Mauldin made the Sun-Times his home base in 1962; the following year, Mauldin drew one of his most renowned illustrations, depicting a mourning statue of Abraham Lincoln after the November 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. Two years out of college, Roger Ebert became a staff writer in 1966, a year was named Sun-Times's film critic.
He continued in this role for the remainder of his life. In 1975, a new sports editor at the Sun-Times, Lewis Grizzard, spiked some columns written by sportswriter Lacy J. Banks and took away a column Banks had been writing, prompting Banks to tell a friend at the Chicago Defender that Grizzard was a racist. After the friend wrote a story about it, Grizzard fired Banks. With that, the editorial employees union intervened, a federal arbitrator ruled for Banks and 13 months he got his job back. A 25-part series on the Mirage Tavern, a saloon on Wells Street bought and operated by the Sun-Times in 1977, exposed a pattern of civic corruption and bribery, as city officials were investigated and photographed without their knowledge; the articles received considerable publicity and acclaim, but a nomination for the Pulitzer Prize met resistance from some who believed the Mirage series represented a form of entrapment. In March 1978, the venerable afternoon publication the Chicago Daily News, sister paper of the Sun-Times, went out of business.
The two newspapers shared the same office building. James F. Hoge, Jr. editor and publisher of the Daily News, assumed the same positions at the Sun-Times, which retained a number of the Daily News's editorial personnel. In 1980, the Sun-Times hired syndicated TV columnist Gary Deeb away from the rival Chicago Tribune. Deeb left the Sun-Times in the spring of 1983 to try his hand at TV, he joined Chicago's WLS-TV in September 1983. In July 1981, prominent Sun-Times investigative reporter Pam Zekman, part of a Pulitzer Prize-winning team with the Chicago Tribune in 1976, announced she was leaving the Sun-Times to join WBBM-TV in Chicago in August 1981 as chief of its new investigative unit. "Salary wasn't a factor," she told the Tribune. "The station showed a commitment to investigative journalism. It was something I wanted to try."Pete Souza left the Sun-Times in 1983 to become official White House photographer for President Ronald Reagan until his second term's end in 1989. Souza returned to that position to be the official photographer for President Barack Obama.
Baseball writer Jerome Holtzman defected from the Sun-Times to the Tribune in late 1981, while Mike Downey left Sun-Times sports in September 1981 to be a columnist at the Detroit Free Press. In January 1984, noted Sun-Times business reporter James Warren quit to join the rival Chicago Tribune, he became the Tribune's Washington bureau chief and its managing editor for features. In 1984, Field Enterprises co-owners, half-brothers Marshall Field
AfterEllen.com and TheBacklot.com
AfterEllen.com, founded in April 2002, is a culture website that focuses on the portrayal of lesbian and bisexual women in the media. TheBacklot.com was AfterEllen's companion site for bisexual men. It was launched in January 2005 as AfterElton.com. TheBacklot was dissolved in June 2015. AfterEllen was founded by Sarah Warn, AfterElton by Warn, Michael Jensen, Brent Hartinger. Warn served as Editor in Chief of both websites. Michael Jensen became Editor in Chief of AfterElton in November 2005. Karman Kregloe became the Editor in Chief of AfterEllen in November 2009, Dennis Ayers took over as Editor in Chief of AfterElton in 2011. AfterEllen and AfterElton were both bought in 2006 by cable television channel Logo. In October 2014, online publisher Evolve Media acquired AfterEllen from Viacom Media Networks and Trish Bendix became Editor in Chief. Bendix was fired by Evolve Media on September 20, 2016. On December 12, 2016, Memoree Joelle became the new Editor in Chief. Lesbian Nation, a multimedia company owned by Memoree Joelle and business partner Gaye Chapman, bought AfterEllen on March 1, 2019.
AfterEllen is not affiliated with entertainer Ellen DeGeneres, although its name refers to DeGeneres's coming out. The website reports on subjects of popular culture, such as books, fashion, film and television news. Weekly vlogs became a key feature, the more popular of which included "Brunch With Bridget", "Lesbian Love", "Is This Awesome?" The site featured popular web series, such as the Streamy Award-winning and Webby Award-nominated Anyone But Me. In March 2008, it was named one of "the world's 50 most powerful blogs" by British newspaper The Guardian for its "irreverent look at how the lesbian community is represented in the media. At the time considered the top website for lesbian women, that same year it averaged "over 700,000 readers" per month. In June 2011, it ranked as the second most popular LGBT website with 203,924 monthly visitors, after The Advocate. In October 2009, Sarah Warn announced that associate editor Karman Kregloe would take over as Editor in Chief. In October 2014, AfterEllen was acquired by Evolve Media and made a part of its TotallyHer Media subsidiary.
Kregloe announced that the role of Editor in Chief was to be assumed by managing editor Trish Bendix. In November 2014, TotallyHer Media announced the launch of The Lphabet, a original AfterEllen online comedy series that would "demystify terms from the lesbian and bi community". In September 2016, Trish Bendix announced her departure on her personal Tumblr blog and stated that AfterEllen was shutting down, with only its archive to be kept live. TotallyHer Media denied the allegation by Bendix, calling it a "false rumor", removed Bendix from her position ahead of her scheduled departure. Editor and women's rights activist Memoree Joelle became Editor in Chief of AfterEllen in December 2016. Joelle promised readers that there would be a return to the website's original intention of maintaining a "feminist perspective" and staying "true to a lesbian/bi perspective", as well as "more racial diversity and age diversity". Soon afterwards, Joelle issued a statement in which she questioned the motives behind the increase in attack labels and hate speech directed at lesbians from segments of the LGBT community.
Under her tutelage and essays that are political in nature have increased. In December 2016, Joelle added her personal signature to the "L is out of GBT" protest statement on Change.org: "I'm signing because I see the word lesbian becoming a bad word under lgbt, in a time when it's trendy to be pansexual or fluid, etc which are all newly invented terms. I don't agree with the word queer being applied to me under this acronym as it isn't accurate, I don't agree with all of the gender politics the lgbt acronym focuses on. Further, I don't appreciate being lumped into an acronym where the only thing we have in common is being minorities, as it is more apparent that it erases lesbian identity rather than supporting/including it." Former AfterEllen senior editor Heather Hogan criticized Joelle on Twitter for doing so, accusing Joelle of promoting a "lesbophobia" movement on AfterEllen which, according to Hogan, was a disguise for "anti-trans, anti-bi" rhetoric. Joelle denied Hogan's accusations and described her reasoning as "a FORM of activism".
In 2018, after banning use of the controversial term "TERF" on its website and social media channels, publishing articles such as "Girl Dick, the Cotton Ceiling and the Cultural War on Lesbians and Women", the op-ed "How I became the most hated lesbian in Baltimore" by Julia Beck, as well as for giving publicity to vloggers who criticized trans women activists, AfterEllen was by implication accused of transphobia, along with other unidentified targets, in a general declaration titled "Not in our name" signed by representatives of nine "queer" publications in which "trans misogynistic content" in "so-called lesbian publications" was condemned, including "male-owned media companies" that profited "from the traffic generated by controversies". The trans-related controversy received coverage on mainstream media LGBTQ website NBC Out. In response to NBC Out's news story and AfterEllen colleagues described the "Not in our name" statement as "a continuation of a false narrative that's been created to perpetuate division and anxiety within the lesbian community", denounced the backlash launched against AfterEllen for its resolve to address issues such as "lesbians called'vagina fetishists' with'genital preferences'".
Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an
GLAAD Media Award
The GLAAD Media Award is an accolade bestowed by the GLAAD to recognize and honor various branches of the media for their outstanding representations of the lesbian, gay and transgender community and the issues that affect their lives. In addition to film and television, the Awards recognize achievements in other branches of the media and arts, including theatre, music and advertising. Honorees are selected by a process involving over 700 GLAAD Media Award voters and volunteers and are evaluated using four criteria: "Fair and Inclusive Representations" of the LGBT community, "Boldness and Originality" of the project, significant "Cultural Impact" on mainstream culture, "Overall Quality" of the project. Results are certified by a "Review Panel" who determine the final list of recipients based on voting results and their own "expert opinions"; the 1st GLAAD Media Awards ceremony honoring the 1989 season was held in 1990, recognized 34 nominees in 7 competitive categories. The first GLAAD Media Awards were presented by the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation in 1990 to honor the 1989 season, were envisioned as a way to recognize various branches of the media for their fair and inclusive representations of the lesbian, gay and transgender community and the issues that affect their lives.
The 1st Annual Awards ceremony recognized 34 nominees in 7 competitive categories and was a "small" affair. At the 20th Annual Awards ceremony presented in 2009, GLAAD Award Honoree, Phil Donahue said of the first Annual ceremony – “It’s unbelievable to think about the power and the warp speed of this revolution. Twenty years ago when I proudly accepted the first GLAAD Media Award…it was a small crowd. There are more photographers here tonight than there were people then". For the first six years, winners were announced prior to the ceremony. Beginning with the 7th Annual Awards held in 1996, the change was made to its current format, announcing the winners in competitive categories at the ceremony; the 15th Annual Awards held in 2004 marked the first year nominations were expanded to recognize media in Spanish-language categories. The 16th Annual Awards held in 2005 marked the first year that the ceremonies were televised, first airing on the LGBT-themed Logo channel on July 24, 2005; the original GLAAD Media Award stood 6-inches tall, consisting of a flat, 5-inch square-shaped crystal sculpture with a design of five concentric circles on a "newsprint" background.
The sculpture was traditionally etched with the year it was presented followed by the words "GLAAD Media Award" and was mounted perpendicular to its flat, quadrant shaped base. The award remained unchanged until 2009, when an all new statuette designed by David Moritz of Society Awards was unveiled for the 20th annual GLAAD Media Awards ceremonies; the current statuette stands 12-inches tall, consisting of a 9-inch die-cast zinc sculpture, hand finished with a satin texture, plated with a nickel and rhodium finish, mounted on a 3-inch tall, black-stained ash, trapezoidal shaped base. Nominees are selected by GLAAD "Nominating Juries" consisting of over 90 volunteers with interest and expertise in the particular category they are judging. Nominating Juries may select up to five nominees in each category. If no projects are deemed worthy of nomination in a particular category, the jury may choose to not award that category. At the end of the year, the Nominating Juries submit their list of recommended nominees to GLAAD's staff and Board of Directors for approval.
In addition to media monitoring by the juries, GLAAD issues a "Call for Entries", inviting media outlets to submit their work for consideration, however, GLAAD may nominate a mainstream media project if it is not submitted as part of the call for entries. GLAAD does not monitor media created by and for the LGBT community for defamation, therefore media outlets created by and for an LGBT audience must submit in order to be considered for nomination. Candidates considered for nomination are evaluated using four criteria: "Fair and Inclusive Representations" – meaning that the diversity of the LGBT community is represented, "Boldness and Originality" – meaning the project breaks new ground by exploring LGBT subject matter in non-traditional ways, "Cultural Impact" – meaning the project impacts an audience that may not be exposed to LGBT issues, "Overall Quality" – A project of high quality which adds impact and significance to the images and issues portrayed. Over 600 GLAAD Media Award voters participate in the selection of Honorees from the pool of Nominees in each category via online balloting.
Voters are made up of three groups: GLAAD staff and board, GLAAD Alliance and Media Circle members, GLAAD volunteers & allies. These results are reviewed for certification by a "Review Panel" which consists of the GLAAD Board co-chairs, senior GLAAD program and communications staff, media industry experts. Members of the Review Panel are expected to view all of the nominees in each category, the final list of award recipients is determined by the Review Panel based on the results of the online balloting and their own "expert opinions"; the first Annual Awards recognized Honorees in just 7 competitive categories, all for television. Over the years, the competitive categories have been expanded to recognize various other branches of the media including, theatre, print media, digital media, advertising, as well as establishing additional categories recognizing Spanish-language media and a "Special Recognition" category for media representat
The Virginian-Pilot is a daily newspaper based in Norfolk, Virginia. Known as The Pilot, it is Virginia's largest daily, it serves the five cities of South Hampton Roads as well as several smaller towns across southeast Virginia and northeast North Carolina. It was a locally owned, family enterprise from its founding in 1865 at the close of the American Civil War until its sale to Tribune Publishing in 2018; the newspaper has won three Pulitzer Prizes. In 1929, editor Louis Jaffe received the Virginian-Pilot's first Pulitzer Prize, for an editorial which condemned lynching. Jaffe mentored the paper's next editor, Lenoir Chambers, who in 1960 received the paper's second Pulitzer for his editorials on desegregation; the paper was one of the few in Virginia to publicly support the end of Jim Crow. In 1985, Thomas Turcol was awarded a Pulitzer for his coverage of corruption in Chesapeake. Reporters at The Pilot have finished as Pulitzer finalists three times since 2007; the Virginian-Pilot and its sister afternoon edition, the Ledger-Star were created by Samuel L. Slover as the result of several mergers of papers dating back to 1865.
The Virginian-Pilot covered the Wright brothers' early flights. Slover's nephew Frank Batten Sr. became publisher at age 27 in 1954. He expanded the Virginian-Pilot's parent company, which soon evolved into Landmark Communications and Landmark Media Enterprises, by acquiring other newspapers and radio and television stations and by creating The Weather Channel, now owned by a group of investors led by NBC Universal. In Norfolk, on September 1, 1923, the company founded Virginia's first radio station, WTAR. In 1950 it added Channel 4 WTAR-TV and in 1961, it signed on 95.7 WTAR-FM. The paper was among the first available online as a part of the Compuserve experiment in early 1980s where the paper and 10 others around the country transmitted text versions of stories daily to Compuserve's host computers in Ohio. Frank Batten Jr. expanded on digitizing the paper. In 1993 The Virginian-Pilot was one of the first newspapers in the country to launch a sister website, Pilotonline.com. Batten Jr. stepped down as the paper's publisher, becoming Landmark Communications' Chairman and CEO.
"Dee" Carpenter became publisher in 1995, followed by Bruce Bradley in 2005, Maurice Jones in 2008, David Mele in 2012 and Patricia Richardson in 2014. The paper published a podcast in 2017; the Shot was created by reporters Gary Harki and Joanne Kimberlin and dealt with the unsolved 2010 murder of Norfolk police officer Victor Decker. After The Pilot was sold to Tronc in 2018, no new publisher was named. Marisa Porto was named the newspaper's editor. Interim General Manager Par Ridder said a search would begin for a new editor for the newsroom and a new general manager to oversee the business side of the newspaper; the paper's offices remains in their original downtown Norfolk headquarters on Brambleton Avenue, where it has been based since 1937. The paper operates satellite offices in Virginia Beach, Suffolk and Chesapeake, on the Outer Banks of North Carolina in Nags Head; the paper's printing facility, once located in the downtown Norfolk headquarters, is in Virginia Beach. The Virginian-Pilot is a division of Pilot Media Companies, which includes Pilotonline.com/Hamptonroads.com, Pilot Direct printing, LNC /Pilot13 News, Hamptonroads.tv, Inside Business, The Flagship, Military Newspapers of Virginia, other supplemental print and web businesses.
A January 3, 2008, report suggested a possible sale of The Virginian-Pilot's parent company, Landmark Communications. In October 2008 Landmark's vice chairman said the company was continuing negotiations to sell the newspaper. After much debate, The Virginian-Pilot was taken off of the selling block. Since December, 2014, the Pilot's single copy prices are: $2.50 Sunday/Thanksgiving Day. On May 29, 2018, The Virginian-Pilot announced they had been purchased by Chicago-based media conglomerate Tronc known as Tribune Publishing, for a cash price of $34 million; the deal included the Pilot and all of its "outstanding interests" — including its subsidiary publications, the paper's Norfolk headquarters and its printing plant in Virginia Beach. The Virginian-Pilot