Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation and manifests itself by the refusal to submit or to obey the authority responsible for this situation. Rebellion can be individual or collective, peaceful or violent In political terms and revolt are distinguished by their different aims. If rebellion seeks to evade and/or gain concessions from an oppressive power, a revolt seeks to overthrow and destroy that power, as well as its accompanying laws; the goal of rebellion is resistance. As power shifts relative to the external adversary, or power shifts within a mixed coalition, or positions harden or soften on either side, an insurrection may seesaw between the two forms. An armed but limited rebellion is an insurrection, if the established government does not recognize the rebels as belligerents they are insurgents and the revolt is an insurgency.

In a larger conflict the rebels may be recognized as belligerents without their government being recognized by the established government, in which case the conflict becomes a civil war. Civil resistance movements have aimed at, brought about, the fall of a government or head of state, in these cases could be considered a form of rebellion. In many of these cases the opposition movement saw itself not only as nonviolent, but as upholding their country's constitutional system against a government, unlawful, for example if it had refused to acknowledge its defeat in an election, thus the term "rebel" does not always capture the element in some of these movements of acting as a defender of legality and constitutionalism. There are a number of terms that are associated with rebellion, they range from those with positive connotations to those with pejorative connotations. Examples include: Boycott, similar to civil disobedience, but it means separating yourself financial, from the system that you are rebelling against.

This entails refusing to participate in the monetary system, limiting consumption, or ignoring notions of property rights. Civil resistance, civil disobedience, nonviolent resistance which do not include violence or paramilitary force. Coup, an illegal overthrow of a leader carried out by the military or other politicians. Mutiny, carried out by military or security forces against their commanders Armed resistance movement, carried out by freedom fighters against an occupying foreign power Revolt, a term, sometimes used for a more localized rebellions rather than a general uprising Revolution, carried out by radicals and frustrated citizens meant to overthrow the current government Riot, a form of civil disorder involving violent public disturbance Subversion, which are covert attempts at sabotaging a government, carried out by spies or other subversives Terrorism, carried out by different kinds of political, economic or religious militant individuals or groups The following theories broadly build on the Marxist interpretation of rebellion.

Rebellion is studied, in Theda Skocpol's words, by analyzing "objective relationships and conflicts among variously situated groups and nations, rather than the interests, outlooks, or ideologies of particular actors in revolutions". Karl Marx's analysis of revolutions sees such expression of political violence not as anomic, episodic outbursts of discontents but rather the symptomatic expression of a particular set of objective but fundamentally contradicting class-based relations of power. Indeed, the central tenet of Marxist philosophy, as expressed in Capital, is the analysis of society's mode of production concomitant with the ownership of productive institutions and the division of profit. Marx writes about "the hidden structure of society" that must be elucidated through an examination of "the direct relationship of the owners of the conditions of production to the direct producers"; the mismatch, between one mode of production, between the social forces and the social ownership of the production, is at the origin of the revolution.

The inner imbalance within these modes of production is derived from the conflicting modes of organization, such as capitalism within feudalism, or more appropriately socialism within capitalism. The dynamics engineered by these class frictions help class consciousness root itself in the collective imaginary. For example, the development of the bourgeoisie class went from oppressed merchant class to urban independence gaining enough power to represent the state as a whole. Social movements, are determined by an exogenous set of circumstances; the proletariat must according to Marx, go through the same process of self-determination which can only be achieved by friction against the bourgeoisie. In Marx's theory revolutions are the "locomotives of history", it is because rebellion has for ultimate goal to overthrow the ruling class and its antiquated mode of production. Rebellion attempts to replace it with a new system of political economy, one, better suited to the new ruling class, thus enabling societal progress.

The cycle of rebellion, replaces one mode of production by another through the constant class friction. In his book Why Men Rebel, Ted Gurr looks at the roots of political violence itself applied to a rebellion framework, he defines political violence as: "all collective attacks within a political community against the political regime, its actors o

Konrad Mizzi

Konrad Mizzi is a Maltese politician, Member of Parliament for the Labour party. He served as Minister for Energy and the Conservation of Water between 2013 and 2014, Minister for Energy and Health from 2014 until 2016, as a Minister within the Office of the Prime Minister in April 2016. Mizzi was re-elected on 3 June 2017 by four times as many votes as the 2013 election, he was appointed by Prime Minister Joseph Muscat to serve as the Minister for Tourism since 9 June. Mizzi resigned from the role of Minister for Tourism on 26 November 2019. Mizzi was educated at the De La Salle College and completed his sixth form at the Paolino Vassallo Upper Lyceum, he graduated at the University of Malta, reading for Undergraduate degree, furthered his education with a post-graduate studies at the University of Nottingham, where he achieved his Masters in Strategic Management. He furthered his education with a Doctorate at the University of Nottingham. Mizzi was awarded a Chevening Scholarship from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in the United Kingdom and holds a Diploma in Finance.

Mizzi has led major projects and initiatives across different sectors including public, telecommunications and enterprise promotion. Mizzi was a Partner and Head of the Energy and Infrastructure Practice for the EMEA Region with Pcubed, a global leader in programme management, he has held senior roles with Deloitte and Touche and British Telecom in the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom Mizzi led various change projects which included the forging of an Alliance between seven energy companies which improved services and realised large savings, he worked with Regional Government leaders. He was a member of a team, he was a consultant to the Office of the Prime Minister where he led a number of projects which, included the first public-private partnership to improve landscaping of the main roads in Malta. Mizzi held the post of Chief Information Officer at Enemalta at the age of 26. Mizzi was elected in the Maltese Parliament from the Fourth District in March 2013, he was re-elected in the 2017 election from the same district.

Mizzi was appointed by the President, on advice of the Prime Minister Joseph Muscat, as Minister for Energy and the Conservation of Water on 13 March 2013 following the 2013 general elections. On 1 April 2014, Mizzi was given the responsibility for Energy portfolio. On 28 April 2016, his position was changed to Minister within the Office of the Prime Minister; this gave him the responsibility to carry out high-profile projects. After the 2017 election, Mizzi was appointed Minister for Tourism. In his new role, he has set out an ambitious business and growth strategy for Air Malta, which builds on its current strengths including punctuality and good service. In view of this, Air Malta operates regular flights and will continue to increase their frequency to the region's key airports. One of the clear examples of decisions taken by the new Air Malta board appointed by Minister Konrad Mizzi, was the immediate re-introduction of the Frankfurt route; the Minister made it clear that Air Malta will be introducing new routes, announced an increase in its fleet as part of the new commercial strategy being adopted.

The Minister together with Air Malta will in the coming months negotiate collective agreements, which will provide the airline with more flexibility, required for growth and will be fair to its employees. Upon assuming office, as the Minister for Energy, Mizzi started implementing the Government’s energy plan with the primary aim of reducing utility tariffs. Following this implementation the government is calculated to have injected about €80 million in the national economy. Utility tariffs in Malta were considered amongst the highest tariffs in Europe, following the reductions utility tariffs become the fourth cheapest in the European Union; this measure enabled the local industry to become more competitive. This saw the transformation of the energy in Malta, contrasting with the situation when Mizzi was given the responsibility when Enemalta was close to declare bankruptcy, with €840 million in debt and was consecutively downgraded by Standard & Poor’s; this affecting the credit ratings of the country at the time.

In December 2014 Shanghai Electric signed an agreement with the Government of Malta where it acquired a minority stake in the local energy producer Enemalta. The acquisition was valued at €250 million; the restructuring envisaged new investment in the local distribution system, as well as transition from oil-fired energy generation to cleaner technology, such as the Malta-Sicily interconnector, gas-fired plants and renewable energy sources. This is expected to increase flexibility; the Government of Malta retained the majority of share of the energy company. Shanghai Electric is expected to be investing in the conversion to gas of an existing power plant which at present is powered by heavy fuel oil, valued at around €70million. In 2016, following the investment by Shanghai Electric and the restructuring process that followed and Poor's upgraded Enemalta's rating to BB- with a stable outlook. Enemalta and Shanghai Electric established a joint venture to tap into renewable energy markets in Europe.

They are jointly responsible for the development of the Mozura Wind Park project in Montenegro. The third pillar of the energy plan will result in the closure of the Marsa power plant, operating since 1969; the Marsa power plant has been shut down, on cold standby, pending the compl

Ahmed Samy Khalifa

Ahmed Samy Khalifa was an Egyptian pediatric hematologist/oncologist. He established the specialty of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology at Ain Shams University, he treated thousands of children with thalassemia and other hematologic and ontological diseases all over Egypt. He taught hundreds of pediatricians and clinical pathologists all over Egypt at Ain Shams University, Cairo University and other universities, he received a Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery in from Cairo University, followed by a Diploma in Pediatrics, a diploma in Internal Medicine, a MD in Pediatrics, a Diploma in Physiology and Biochemistry, all from Cairo University. He was certified by the American Board of Pediatrics in 1974. Doctor privilege from 01/03/1957 to 28/02/1958 - Cairo University Hospitals. Resident doctor from 10/04/1958 to 04/09/1960 - Children's Hospital and the paralysis Institute of Cairo University. A. Lecturer of pediatrics from 18/08/1960 to 07/19/1964 - Department of Pediatrics - Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University.

Lecturer of pediatrics from 19/07/1964 until 10/21/1969 Department of Pediatrics - Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University. Associate professor of pediatrics from 10/21/1969 until 10/25/1974 Department of Pediatrics - Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University. Professor of pediatrics from 10/25/1974. Head of the Department of Pediatrics from 01/08/1991 until 31/07/1994. Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics from 08/01/1994 until 14/08/2015. Created the pediatric Clinic Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics - Faculty of Medicine - Ain Shams University in December 1974, after his return from the United States as a therapeutic progress of the Egyptian society and friendly countries and education for physicians in diagnosis and treatment. Visiting Professor at the University of Wayne, Michigan - United States of America. External examiner at the Faculty of Medicine Dubai, United Arab Emirates and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Jordan. Holder on Nishan Republic in Science and the State Incentive Award in 1982.

Recipient of the State Award in Medical Sciences in 1998. He was a member of the Standing Committee of Pediatrics in different periods. Was a member of the arbitration committee for the State Incentive Awards and discretion. 85 Master in pediatric hematology and oncology in children has vacationed. 62 M. D. thesis in pediatric hematology and oncology in children has vacationed. Published 219 research in local and international journals. Authored chapter on "Anemia in Mothers and Children in Developing Countries" in" Maternal Child health around the World" H. M Wallace and G. L. Ebrahim MacMillen Press London. Authored chapter "Exchange Transfusion: Metabolic aspects biochemical changes" in" Paediatrics and Blood Transfusion" Smit sibinga, P. C. Das and J. O. Forfar Matinus Nijhoff. Publisher the Hague / Boston / London Wrote Protocols of therapy for oncological diseases in Pediatrics Egyptian Society of Pediatrics. Egyptian Medical Association. Egyptian Society of Hematology. Clinical Society of Ain Shams.

Egyptian Oncology Group in children. The Egyptian Cancer Society. Ain Shams Society of Medicine and the care of children. International Society of Hematology ISH. International Society of Pediatric Oncology American Society of Hematology. European Haematology Association. Editor-in-Chief of the Egyptian children. Ain Shams Pediatrics department Official website ar:قسم طب الأطفال- كلية الطب- جامعة عين شمس