Spain and the American Revolutionary War
Spains role in the independence of Britains Thirteen Colonies was part of its dispute over colonial supremacy with the Kingdom of Great Britain. Spain actively supported the Thirteen Colonies throughout the American Revolutionary War, beginning in 1776, it jointly funded Roderigue Hortalez and Company, a trading company that provided critical military supplies. Spain provided financing for the final Siege of Yorktown in 1781 with a collection of gold and silver in Havana, smuggling from New Orleans began in 1776, when General Charles Lee sent two Continental Army officers to request supplies from the New Orleans Governor, Luis de Unzaga. Unzaga, concerned about overtly antagonizing the British before the Spanish were prepared for war, Unzaga authorized the shipment of desperately needed gunpowder in a transaction brokered by Oliver Pollock, a Patriot and financier. When Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez was appointed Governor of New Orleans in January 1777, during the Seven Years War, the British had attacked and occupied two of Spains key trading ports and Manila in 1762.
In the peace settlement of 1763 Spain recovered Havana by ceding Florida, including St. Augustine, the Spanish ministers had concerns about Spains geographic neighbor Portugal, an ally of the British, and about Spains immensely wealthy treasure fleet that was due to sail from Havana. Genoese by birth and a shrewdly calculating politician by nature, Grimaldi demurred, You have considered your own situation, the moment is not yet come for us. The war with Portugal — France being unprepared, and our treasure ships from South America not being arrived — makes it improper for us to declare immediately. Meanwhile, Grimaldi reassured Lee, stores of clothing and powder were deposited at New Orleans and Havana for the Americans, by June 1779 the Spanish had finalized their preparations for war. The British cause seemed to be at a low ebb. The Spanish joined France in the war, implementing the Treaty of Aranjuez signed in April 1779, the siege of Gibraltar, June 16,1779 to February 7,1783, was the longest lasting Spanish action in the war.
Luis de Córdova y Córdova was unable to prevent Howes fleet returning home after resupplying Gibraltar in October 1782, in 1780 and 1781, Luis de Córdovas fleet captured America-bound British convoys, doing much damage to British military supplies and commerce. In the Caribbean, the effort was directed to prevent possible British landings in Cuba. Other goals included the reconquest of Florida, and the resolution of logging disputes involving the British in Belize and this secured the southern route for supplies and closed off the possibility of any British offensive into the western frontier of United States via the Mississippi River. When Spain entered the war, Britain went on the offensive in the Caribbean, at the end of the Seven Years War, France gave the Mississippi Valley to her ally Spain, in order to prevent it from coming under British control at the Treaty of Paris. The Spanish assisted the Thirteen Colonies in their campaigns in the American Midwest, in January 1778, Virginia Governor Patrick Henry authorized an expedition by George Rogers Clark, who captured the fort at Vincennes and secured the northern region of the Ohio for the rebels.
Clark relied on Gálvez and Oliver Pollock for support to supply his men with weapons and ammunition, the credit lines that Pollock established to purchase supplies for Clark were supposed to be backed by the state of Virginia. However, Pollock in turn had to rely on his own credit and Gálvez
Viceroyalty of New Granada
The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated in 1739, in addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, and northern Peru. Sporadic attempts at reform were directed at increasing efficiency and centralizing authority, the rough and diverse geography of northern South America and the limited range of proper roads made travel and communications within the viceroyalty difficult. The Wayuu had never subjugated by the Spanish. The two groups were in a more or less permanent state of war, there had been rebellions in 1701,1727,1741,1757,1761 and 1768. In 1718, Governor Soto de Herrera called them barbarians, horse thieves, worthy of death, without God, without law, of all the Indians in the territory of Colombia, the Wayuu were unique in having learned the use of firearms and horses.
In 1769 the Spanish took 22 Wayuus captive, in order to put them to work building the fortifications of Cartagena, the reaction of the Wayuus was unexpected. On 2 May 1769, at El Rincón, near Riohacha, they set their village afire, burning the church, the Spanish immediately dispatched an expedition from El Rincón to capture the Wayuus. At the head of this force was José Antonio de Sierra, the Guajiros recognized him and forced his party to take refuge in the house of the curate, which they set afire. Sierra and eight of his men were killed and this success was soon known in other Guajiro areas, and more men joined the revolt. According to Messía, at the peak there were 20,000 Wayuus under arms, many had firearms acquired from English and Dutch smugglers, sometimes even from the Spanish. This enabled the rebels to take all the settlements of the region. According to the authorities, more than 100 Spaniards were killed, many cattle were taken by the rebels. The Spaniards took refuge in Riohacha and sent urgent messages to Maracaibo, Santa Marta and Cartagena, the rebels themselves were not unified.
Sierras relatives among the Indians took up arms against the rebels to avenge his death, a battle between the two groups of Wayuus was fought at La Soledad. That and the arrival of the Spanish reinforcements caused the rebellion to fade away, New Granada was estimated to have 4,345,000 inhabitants in 1819. With the dissolution of Gran Colombia, the states of Ecuador, the Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856. The name Colombia reappeared in the United States of Colombia, the new name for the country having been introduced by a government after a civil war
Bartolina Sisa was an Aymara woman, an indigenous heroine and the wife of Tupac Katari. Her date of birth is uncertain, some give it as August 24,1753. Katari and Sisa set up court in El Alto and their army maintained the siege for 184 days, from March to June, Sisa was a commander of the siege, and played the crucial role following Kataris capture in April. The siege was broken by troops who advanced from Lima. Bartolina Sisa was captured and executed by the Spanish on September 5,1782 and she was hanged after being publicly humiliated in the Colonial Square and raped. Once dead, the Spanish cut her body into pieces, showed her head in public to intimidate the natives, in her honour, the 5th of September was instituted as the International Day of the Indigenous Women since 1983. Bartolina Sisa — la virreina Aymara que murió por la libertad de los indios, del Valle de Siles, María Eugenia. Bartolina Sisa y Gregoria Apaza — dos heroínas indígenas, La Paz, Biblioteca Popular Boliviana de Ultima Hora.
Bartolina Sisa — La generala aymara y la equidad de género and we alone will rule, Native Andean politics in the age of insurgency. International Day of Indigenous Women Women in Power 1870 -1900 Micaela Bastidas
Cuzco, often spelled Cusco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region as well as the Cusco Province, in 2013, the city had a population of 435,114. Located on the end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m. The site was the capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983 Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO and it has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru, the indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. Although the name was used in Quechua, its origin is found in the Aymara language, the word is derived from the phrase qusqu wanka, related to the citys foundation myth of the Ayar Siblings. According to this legend, Ayar Awqa acquired wings and flew to the site of the future city, there he was transformed into a rock to mark the possession of the land by his ayllu.
Then Ayar Oche stood up, displayed a pair of large wings, they went up on top of the hill. Now at the site where he was to remain as an idol and he returned and told Ayar Manco that from on he was to be named Manco Capac. Ayar Oche came from where the Sun was and the Sun had ordered that Ayar Manco take that name, after this had been stated by the idol, Ayar Oche turned into a stone, just as he was, with his wings. Later Manco Capac went down with Ayar Auca to their settlement. he liked the place now occupied in this city Cuzco, Manco Capac and his companion, with the help of the four women, made a house. Having done this, Manco Capac and his companion, with the four women and it is said that they took the maize from the cave, which this lord Manco Capac named Pacaritambo, which means those of origin because. they came out of that cave. The Spanish conquistadors adopted the name, transliterating it into Spanish phonetics as Cuzco or, less often. Cuzco was the spelling on official documents and chronicles in colonial times.
Cuzco, pronounced as in 16th-century Spanish, seems to have been an approximation to the Cusco Quechua pronunciation of the name at the time. As both Spanish and Quechuan pronunciation have evolved since then, the Spanish pronunciation of z is no longer close to the Quechuan pronunciation of the consonant represented by z in Cuzco. In 1976, the city signed an ordinance banning the traditional spelling and ordering the use of a new one, Cusco
The Aymara or Aimara people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America, about 1 million live in Bolivia and Chile. Their ancestors lived in the region for centuries before becoming a subject people of the Inca in the late 15th or early 16th century. With the Spanish American Wars of Independence, the Aymaras became subjects of the new nations of Bolivia, after the War of the Pacific, Chile acquired territory occupied by the Aymaras. Archeologists have found evidence that the Aymaras have occupied the Andes, in what is now western Bolivia, southern Peru and northern Chile and their origin is a matter of scientific dispute. The region where Tiwanaku and the modern Aymaras are located, the Altiplano, was conquered by the Incas under Huayna Capac and it is most likely that the Inca had a strong influence over the Aymara region for some time. Though conquered by the Inca, the Aymaras retained some degree of autonomy under the empire, the Spanish classified a number of ethnic groups as Aymara in their effort to identify the native peoples.
These were identified by chieftainties and included the following, the Charqa, Quillaca, Carangas, SivTaroyos, Pacajes, Soras, at the time of Spanish encounter, these groups were living throughout the territory now included in Bolivia. Linguists have learned that Aymara was once spoken much further north, most Andean linguists believe that it is likely that the Aymara originated or coalesced as a people in this area. The Aymaras overran and displaced the Uru, a population from the Lake Titicaca. The Uru lived in area as recently as the 1930s. Most present-day Aymara-speakers live in the Lake Titicaca basin, a territory from Lake Titicaca through the Desaguadero River and they are concentrated south of the lake. The capital of the ancient Aymara civilization is unknown, according to research by Cornell University anthropologist John Murra, there were at least seven different kingdoms. The capital of the Lupaqa Kingdom may be the city of Chucuito, the present urban center of the Aymara region may be El Alto, a 750, 000-person city near the Bolivian capital, La Paz.
For most of the 20th century, the center of cosmopolitan Aymara culture mightve been Chuquiago Marka, Bolivias capital mightve had moved from Sucre to La Paz during the government of General Pando and during the Bolivian Civil War. The Aymara flag is known as the Wiphala, it consists of seven colors quilted together with diagonal stripes, the native language of the Aymaras is Aymara. Many of Aymaras speak Spanish as a language, when it is the predominant language in the areas where they live. The Aymara language has one surviving relative, spoken by a small and this language, whose two varieties are known as Jaqaru and Kawki, is of the same family as Aymara. Some linguists refer to language as Central Aymara
Puno is a city in southeastern Peru, located on the shore of Lake Titicaca. It is the city of the Puno Region and the Puno Province with a population of approximately 149,064. The city was established in 1668 by viceroy Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro as capital of the province of Paucarcolla with the name San Juan Bautista de Puno, the name was changed to San Carlos de Puno, in honor of king Charles II of Spain. Puno has several churches dating back from the period, they were built to service the Spanish population. Puno is an important agricultural and livestock region, important livestock are llamas and alpacas, much of the city economy relies on the black market, fueled by cheap goods smuggled in from Bolivia. Puno is served by the Inca Manco Capac International Airport in nearby Juliaca, Puno is situated between the shores of Lake Titicaca and the mountains surrounding the city. There is less than two miles of land between the shores and the foothills, which has caused the growing city to continue to expand upwards onto the hillsides.
As a result, the less developed and poorest areas, which are high on the hillsides, often have very steep streets. Up one of streets is the Kuntur Wasi viewpoint, which has a large metal sculpture of a condor. There are some 700 steps to climb to reach the sculpture, during the celebrations of the Feast of the Virgen de la Candelaria and the Regional Competition of Autochthonous Dances. Punos access to Lake Titicaca is surrounded by 41 floating islands, to this day, the Uros people maintain and live on these man-made islands, depending on the lake for their survival, and are a large tourist destination. Dragon Boat racing, an old tradition in Puno, is a popular activity amongst tourists. Puno is the first major hub in the constant migration of peoples of the Andes to the larger cities of Peru. As such, Puno is served by several small Institutes of Technology, additionally it is home to what is commonly referred to as the UNA or the Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, which was founded in 1856.
Puno features a subtropical highland climate, as Puno is located at such a high elevation, it experiences more extreme weather conditions than would be expected for its tropical latitude. The average annual temperature is about 8.4 °C, during the winter months from June to August, night-time temperatures usually drop well below 0 °C. At this high altitude, the rays of the sun are very strong, most of the annual precipitation falls during the southern hemisphere summer, with the winter months being very dry. Music and dance are typical parts of the Puno folklore, the most important dances are the Wifala de Asillo, the Ichu Carnival, the Tuntuna, the Khashua de Capachica, the Machu-tusuj, the Kcajelo, and the Pandilla Puneña
Although Criollos were legally Spaniards, in practice, they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the populations, enslaved Africans. According to the Casta system, a criollo could have up to 1/8 Amerindian ancestry without losing social place, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, changes in the Spanish Empires policies towards its colonies led to tensions between Criollos and Peninsulares. Criollos were the supporters of the Spanish American wars of independence. The word criollo and its Portuguese cognate crioulo are believed to come from the Spanish/Portuguese verb criar, in Spanish colonies, an español criollo was an ethnic Spaniard who had been born in the colonies, as opposed to an español peninsular born in Spain. Whites in colonial Brazil, born in the Iberian Peninsula, were known as mazombos, limpieza de sangre or cleanness of blood was a legal concept in use since the Spanish Reconquista, and introduced to the Spanish colonies in the Americas.
The English word creole was a loan from French créole, which in turn is believed to come from Spanish criollo or Portuguese crioulo, such cases might include the offspring of a Castizo parent and one Peninsular or Criollo parent. This one-eighth rule, in theory, did not apply to African admixture, in reality, officials assigned various racial categories to mix-raced people depending on their social status, what they were told or due to testimony from friends and neighbors. To preserve the Spanish Crowns power in the colonies, the Spanish colonial society was based on a caste system. The highest-ranking castes were the españoles, Spaniards by birth or descent, people of mixed ancestry were classified in other castes — such as castizos, cholos, indios and enslaved Africans, called blacks. Poole argues that the Virgin Mary, especially as Our Lady of Guadalupe and they used the story to legitimize their own social position and infuse it with an almost messianic sense of mission and identity. Until 1760, the Spanish colonies were ruled under laws designed by the Spanish Habsburgs and that situation changed by the Bourbon Reforms during the reign of Charles III.
Spain needed to extract increasing wealth from its colonies to support the European, the Crown expanded the privileges of the Peninsulares, who took over many administrative offices which had been filled by Criollos. At the same time, reforms by the Catholic Church reduced the roles and privileges of the ranks of the clergy. By the 19th century, this policy of the Spanish Crown. With increasing support of the castes, they engaged Spain in a fight for independence. The former Spanish Empire in the Americas separated into a number of independent republics, the word criollo retains its original meaning in most Spanish-speaking countries in the Americas. In some countries, the word criollo has over time come to have additional meanings, for instance, comida criolla in Spanish-speaking countries refers to local cuisine, not cuisine of the criollos
Dismemberment is the act of cutting, pulling, wrenching or otherwise removing the limbs of a living thing. It has been practised upon human beings as a form of punishment, can occur as a result of a traumatic accident, or in connection with murder, suicide. As opposed to surgical amputation of the limbs, dismemberment is often fatal to all, in criminology, a distinction is made between offensive and defensive dismemberment. Intentional, criminal dismemberment is known as mayhem, sliced to pieces by elephant Particularly in South-Eastern Asia, execution by trained elephants was a form of capital punishment practiced for several centuries. The techniques by which the person was actually executed varied widely but did, on occasion. They were ordered, accordingly, to be thrown to the elephants and their hoofs were cased with sharp iron instruments, and the extremities of these were like knives. The fate of Wilhelm von Grumbach in 1567, a knight in the Holy Roman Empire who was fond of making his own private wars and was thus condemned for treason, is worthy of note.
Gout-ridden, he was carried to the site in a chair. The executioner ripped out his heart, and stuck it in von Grumbachs face with the words, the executioner quartered von Grumbachs body. His principal associate was given the treatment, and an eyewitness avers that after his heart had been ripped out. One example of a highly aggravated execution is illustrated by the fate of Bastian Karnhars on July 16,1600, the two several halves are suspended on a camel, and paraded through the streets, for the edification of all beholders. This punishment was, for example, meted out to Hwang Sa-Yong in 1801, china The Five Pains is a Chinese variation invented during the Qin dynasty. Current use Dismemberment is no longer used by most modern governments as a form of execution or torture, ravaillacs extended torture and execution has been described like this, He was condemned to be tortured with red-hot pincers on four limbs and on each breast. His wounds were to be sprinkled with molten lead and boiling oil and his body was to be torn in pieces by four horses, the remains being subsequently burnt.
When the horses failed to disconnect the sinews between his body and his limbs, his body, still alive, was quartered with a knife and his friend, the infamous Casanova, reports that he watched the dreadful sight for four hours. The following is an extract from the official death sentence issued by the Spanish authorities which condemns Túpac Amaru II to torture. The torso will be taken to the hill overlooking the city, where it will be burned in a bonfire. Tupac Amarus head will be sent to Tinta to be displayed for three days in the place of execution and placed upon a pike at the principal entrance to the city