Jun (country subdivision)
A jùn was a historical administrative division of China from the Zhou dynasty until the early Tang. It is translated as a commandery or a prefecture in different eras of Chinese history. Countries around China have named after the jùn. See 郡 for further information. During the Zhou's Spring and Autumn period from the 8th to 5th centuries BC, the larger and more powerful of the Zhou's vassal states—including Qin and Wei—began annexing their smaller rivals; these new lands were instead organized into counties. Jun were developed as marchlands between the major realms. Despite having smaller populations and ranking lower on the official hierarchies, the jun were larger and boasted greater military strength than the counties; as each state's territory took shape in the 5th- to 3rd-century BC Warring States period, the jun at the borders flourished. This gave rise to a two-tier administrative system with counties subordinate to jun; each of the states' territories was by now comparatively larger, hence there was no need for the military might of a jun in the inner regions where counties were established.
The border jun's military and strategic significance became more important than those of counties. Following the unification of China in 221 BC under the Qin Empire, the Qin government still had to engage in military activity because there were rebels from among the six former states who were unwilling to submit to Qin rule; as a result, the First Emperor set up 36 jun in the Qin Empire, each subdivided into counties. This established the first two-tier administrative system known to exist in China; when the Han dynasty triumphed over Chu in 206 BC, the Zhou feudal system was reinstated, with Emperor Gao recognizing nearly independent kings and granting large territories to his relatives. These two sets of kingdoms were placed under hereditary rulers assisted by a chancellor. Parallel to these, some Qin jun were continued, placed under a governor appointed directly by the central government. Over the first three centuries AD, during the Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period, the jun were subordinated to a new provincial division, the zhōu.
Based upon legendary accounts of the Yellow Emperor's Nine Provinces, there were 13 zhōu and many more jun. During the following five centuries, during the Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties period, the number of administrative districts were drastically increased and a three-tier system—composed of provinces and counties—was established. To limit the power of any one local lord, China was divided into more than 200 provinces, 600 jun, 1,000 counties; each province consisted of two or three jun and each jun had two or three counties under its jurisdiction. During the reign of Emperor Wen of the Sui, the jun level of the administration was temporarily abolished. After the Tang was established in 618, the former jun became prefectures but were referred to as zhōu. Emperor Xuanzong reversed these changes during his reign from 712 to 756. From on, the term jun was no longer used in the administrative division system. After Emperor Suzong ascended the throne in 756, he changed commanderies back to prefectures.
During 1920–1945, when Taiwan was under Japanese rule, there were divisions called 郡. They are based on the Districts of Japan, their officers were known as 郡守. This was the title of ancient administrators of the Chinese jun, had never existed in Japan. By the end of 1945, there were 51 jun/kun in Taiwan. In the Warring States period, the chief administrative officers of the areas were known as jun administrators. In the Han dynasty, the position of junshou was renamed grand administrator. Both terms are translated as "governor". A grand administrator drew an annual salary of 2,000 dan of grain according to the pinzhi system of administrative rank. Many former grand administrators were promoted to the posts of the Three Ducal Ministers or Nine Ministers in their careers. In contemporary Chinese language, the word 郡 jùn is used to translate the administrative division Shire in English language; the counties of the United Kingdom and the United States are translated as jùn. zhou translated as prefecture, poetically referred to as jun after Tang dynasty, alluding to its historical equivalents Fu translated as prefecture, poetically referred to as jun in the Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty Government of the Han dynasty 郡, for administrative divisions in other countries that are called 郡.
All of them were based on or inspired by the ancient Chinese jun, but their nature have become quite different from the original concept. Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian
Jinan romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative and transportation hub; the city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994. Jinan is called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs, its population was 6.8 million at the 2010 census. The modern-day name Jinan means "south of the Ji" and refers to the old Ji River that had flowed to the north of the city until the middle of the 19th century; the Ji River disappeared in 1852 when the Yellow River changed its course northwards and took over its bed. The current pronunciation of the character "Ji" with the third tone was established in the late 1970s. Prior to this, it was pronounced with the fourth tone. Older texts spell the name as "Tsinan" or "Chi-nan". During the times of the Zhou dynasty, the city of Lixia was the major settlement in the area.
The name "Lixia" refers to the location of Jinan at the foot of Mount Li, which lies to the south of the city). Today, Lixia is the name of one of the city's districts; the Battle of An, fought in the area during the Spring and Autumn period between the states of Qi and Jin, is named for the ancient city of Ān which stood within the city limits of present-day Jinan. Marco Polo gives a brief description of Jinan under the name "Chingli" or "Chinangli". 19th and early 20th century texts give the name of the city as "Tsinan Fu" where the additional "Fu" comes from the dated Chinese term for a provincial capital. Jinan is referred to by the nickname "City of Springs", because of the many artesian springs in the urban city centre and its surroundings; the area of present-day Jinan has been inhabited for more than 4000 years. The Neolithic Longshan culture was first discovered at Chengziya to the east of Jinan in 1928. One of the characteristic features of the Longshan culture are the intricate wheel-made pottery pieces it produced.
Most renowned is the black "egg-shell pottery" with wall thicknesses. During the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, the area of Jinan was split between two states: the state of Lu in the west and the state of Qi in the east. In 685 BCE, the state of Qi started to build the Great Wall of Qi across Changqing county. Portions of the wall still are accessible as open air museums. Bian Que, according to the legend the earliest Chinese physician and active around 500 BCE, is said to have been a native of present-day Changqing County. Zou Yan, a native of Zhangqiu City, developed the concepts of the Five Elements. Joseph Needham, a British sinologist, describes Zou as "The real founder of all Chinese scientific thought."During the times of the Han dynasty, Jinan was the capital of the Kingdom of Jibei and evolved into the cultural and economic hub of the region. The Han dynasty tomb where the last king of Jibei, Liú Kuān, was buried at Shuangru Mountain was excavated by archaeologists from Shandong University in 1995 and 1996.
More than 2000 artifacts such as jade swords, jade masks, jade pillows have been recovered within the 1,500 square meter excavation site, emphasizing the wealth of the city during the period. Cao Cao was an official in Jinan, his son, Cao Pi, overthrew the last emperor of the Han and founded the Wei Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms Period. Beginning in the 5th century CE, Buddhism flourished in Jinan; the Langgong Temple (朗公寺. The same period witnessed extensive construction of Buddhist sites in the southern counties of Licheng and Changqing such as the Lingyan Temple and the Thousand-Buddha Cliff. In particular, a large number of cave temples were established in the hills south of Jinan. Jinan remained the cultural center of the region during the Song dynasty; the Song rulers promoted Jinan to a superior prefecture in 1116 CE. Two of the most important poets of the Southern Song were both born in Jinan: Li Qingzhao, the most renown female poet in Chinese history, Xin Qiji, a military leader of the Southern Song dynasty.
Both poets witnessed a series of crushing defeats of the Song dynasty at the hands of the Jurchens who gained control over half of the Song territories and established the Jin dynasty in northern China. After Jinan came under control of the Jin dynasty, both Li Qingzhao and Xin Qiji had to abandon their homes and reflected this experience in their works. During the Civil War that followed the proclamation of Kublai Khan as Great Khan in 1260 CE, Jinan was at the center of a rebellion by Yizhou governor Li Tan against Mongol rule in 1262 CE; the rebellion was crushed in a decisive battle, fought not far from Jinan in late March or early April 1262 CE. After losing 4000 of his troops in the battle, Li Tan retreated to Jinan to make his last stand. After defections of his defenders had made his position untenable, Li Tan tried to commit suicide by drowning himself in Daming Lake. However, he was rescued by the Mongols in order to execute him by trampling him to death with their h
Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.
Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.
With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE.
The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.
The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name; the modern provinc
Chinese ceramics show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art and ceramics globally. The first pottery was made during the Palaeolithic era. Chinese ceramics range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court and for export. Porcelain was a Chinese invention and is so identified with China that it is still called "china" in everyday English usage. Most Chinese ceramics of the finest quality, were made on an industrial scale, thus few names of individual potters were recorded. Many of the most important kiln workshops were owned by or reserved for the Emperor, large quantities of Chinese export porcelain were exported as diplomatic gifts or for trade from an early date to East Asia and the Islamic world, from around the 16th century to Europe. Chinese ceramics have had an enormous influence on other ceramic traditions in these areas.
Over their long history, Chinese ceramics can be classified between those made for the imperial court, either to use or distribute, those made for a discriminating Chinese market, those for popular Chinese markets or for export. Some types of wares were made only or for special uses such as burial in tombs, or for use on altars; the earliest Chinese pottery was earthenware, which continued in production for utilitarian uses throughout Chinese history, but was less used for fine wares. Stoneware, fired at higher temperatures, impervious to water, was developed early and continued to be used for fine pottery in many areas at most periods. Porcelain, on a Western definition, is "a collective term comprising all ceramic ware, white and translucent, no matter what ingredients are used to make it or to what use it is put"; the Chinese tradition recognizes two primary categories of ceramics, high-fired and low-fired, so doing without stoneware, which in Chinese tradition is grouped with porcelain.
Terms such as "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used for stonewares with porcelain-like characteristics. The Erya defined porcelain as "fine, compact pottery". Chinese pottery can be classified as being either northern or southern. China comprises two separate and geologically different land masses, brought together by continental drift and forming a junction that lies between the Yellow and Yangtze rivers, sometimes known as the Nanshan-Qinling divide; the contrasting geology of the north and south led to differences in the raw materials available for making ceramics. Ware-types can be from widespread kiln-sites in either north or south China, but the two can nearly always be distinguished, influences across this divide may affect shape and decoration, but will be based on different clay bodies, with fundamental effects; the kiln types were different, in the north the fuel was coal, as opposed to wood in the south, which affects the wares. Southern materials have high silica, low alumina and high potassium oxide, the reverse of northern materials in each case.
The northern materials are very suitable for stoneware, while in the south there are areas suitable for porcelain. Chinese porcelain is made by a combination of the following materials: Kaolin – essential ingredient composed of the clay mineral kaolinite. Porcelain stone – decomposed micaceous or feldspar rocks also known as petunse. Feldspar Quartz In the context of Chinese ceramics, the term porcelain lacks a universally accepted definition; this in turn has led to confusion about. Claims have been made for the late Eastern Han dynasty, the Three Kingdoms period, the Six Dynasties period, the Tang dynasty. Kiln technology has always been a key factor in the development of Chinese pottery; the Chinese developed effective kilns capable of firing at around 1,000 °C before 2000 BC. These were updraft kilns built below ground. Two main types of kiln remained in use until modern times; these are the dragon kiln of hilly southern China fuelled by wood and thin and running up a slope, the horseshoe-shaped mantou kiln of the north Chinese plains and more compact.
Both could reliably produce the temperatures of up to 1300 °C or more needed for porcelain. In the late Ming, the egg-shaped kiln or zhenyao was developed at Jingdezhen, but used there; this was something of a compromise between the other types, offered locations in the firing chamber with a range of firing conditions. Important specific types of pottery, many coming from more than one period, are dealt with individually in sections lower down. Pottery dating from 20,000 years ago was found at the Xianrendong Cave site in Jiangxi province, making it among the earliest pottery yet found. Another reported -- 18,000 years ago in the Yuchanyan Cave in southern China. By the Middle and Late Neolithic most of the larger archaeological cultures in China were farmers producing a variety of attractive and large vessels boldly painted, or decorated by cutting or impressing. Decoration is abstract or of stylized animals – fish are a speciality at the river settlement of Banpo; the distinctive Majiayao pottery, with orange bodies and black paint, is characterised by fine past
A horse archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback. Archery has been used from the backs of other riding animals. In large open areas, it was a successful technique for hunting, for protecting the herds, for war, it was a defining characteristic of the Eurasian nomads during antiquity and the medieval period, as well as the Iranian peoples, Indians in antiquity, by the Hungarians and the Turkic peoples during the Middle Ages. By the expansion of these peoples, the practice spread to Eastern Europe and East Asia. In East Asia, horse archery came to be honored in the samurai tradition of Japan, where horse archery is called Yabusame; the term mounted archer occurs in medieval English sources to describe a soldier who rode to battle but who dismounted to shoot.'Horse archer' is the term used more to describe a warrior who shoots from the saddle at the gallop. Another term,'horseback archery', has crept into modern use. Horse archery developed separately among the peoples of the South American pampas and the North American prairies.
Since using a bow requires the rider to let go of the reins with both hands, horse archers need superb equestrian skills if they are to shoot on the move. The natives of large grassland areas used horse archery for hunting, for protecting their herds, for war. Horse archery was for many groups a basic survival skill, additionally made each able-bodied man, at need, a highly-mobile warrior; the buffalo hunts of the North American prairies may be the best-recorded examples of bowhunting by horse archers. In battle, light horse archers were skirmishers armed missile troops capable of moving swiftly to avoid close combat or to deliver a rapid blow to the flanks or rear of the foe. Captain Robert G. Carter described the experience of facing Quanah Parker's forces: "an irregular line of swirling warriors, all moving in right and left hand circles.. while advancing, to the right or left, as concentrating... in the centre... and their falling back in the same manner...all was most puzzling to our... veterans who had never witnessed such tactical maneuvers, or such a flexible line of skirmishers"In the tactic of the Parthian shot the rider would retreat from the enemy while turning his upper body and shooting backward.
Due to the superior speed of mounted archers, troops under attack from horse archers were unable to respond to the threat if they did not have ranged weapons of their own. Constant harassment would result in morale drop and disruption of the formation. Any attempts to charge the archers would slow the entire army down. An example of these tactics comes from an attack on Comanche horse archers by a group of Texas Rangers, who were saved by their muzzle-loading firearms and by a convenient terrain feature. Fifty Rangers armed with guns met about 20 Comanche hunters who were hunting buffalo and attacked them; the Comanches fled keeping clear of the Rangers, for several miles across the open prairie. They led the Rangers into a stronger force of two hundred; the Rangers retreated, only to discover they had committed a classic error in fighting mounted archers: the Comanches pursued in turn, able to shoot what seemed like clouds of arrows. The Rangers found a ravine; the horse archers did not charge but kept the Rangers under siege until seven of them were dead or dying, whereupon the Rangers retreated but claimed victory.
Horse archers may be either light, such as Scythian, Parthian, Cuman or Pecheneg horsemen, or heavy, such as Byzantine kavallarioi, Turkish timariots, Russian druzhina and Japanese samurai. Heavy horse archers fought as disciplined units. Instead of harassing without making contact, they shot in volleys, weakening the enemy before they charged. In addition to bows, they also carried close combat weapons, such as lances or spears; some nations, like medieval Mongols and Cumans fielded both light and heavy horse archers. In some armies, such as those of the Parthians and the Teutonic Order of Knights, the mounted troops consisted of both super-heavy troops without bows, light horse archers. Horse archery first developed during the Iron Age replacing the Bronze Age chariot; the earliest depictions of horse archers are found in artwork of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of about the 9th century BC and reflects the incursions of the early Iranian peoples. Early horse archery, depicted on the Assyrian carvings, involved two riders, one controlling both horses while the second shot.
Heavy horse archers first appeared in the Assyrian army in the 7th century BC after abandoning chariot warfare and formed a link between light skirmishing cavalrymen and heavy cataphract cavalry. The heavy horse archers had mail or lamellar armour and helmets, sometimes their horses were armoured. Skirmishing requires vast areas of free space to run and flee, if the terrain is close, light horse archers can be charged and defeated easily. Light horse archers are very vulnerable to foot archers and crossbowmen, who are smaller targets and can outshoot horsemen. Large armies seldom relied on skirmishing horse archers, but there are many examples of victories in which horse archers played a leading part; the Roman general Crassus led a large army, with inadequate cavalry and missile troops, to catastrophe against Parthian horse archers and cataphracts at the Battle of Carrhae. The Persian king Darius the Great led a campaign against the mounted Scythians, who r
Emperor Wen of Han
Emperor Wen of Han was the fifth emperor of the Han dynasty of ancient China. His personal name was Liu Heng. Liu Heng was a son of Emperor Gao of Han and Consort Bo empress dowager; when Emperor Gao suppressed the rebellion of Dai, he made Liu Heng Prince of Dai. After Empress Dowager Lü's death, the officials eliminated the powerful Lü clan, deliberately chose the Prince of Dai as the emperor, since his mother, Consort Bo, had no powerful relatives, her family was known for its humility and thoughtfulness, his reign brought a much needed political stability that laid the groundwork for prosperity under his grandson Emperor Wu. According to historians, Emperor Wen consulted with ministers on state affairs. Historians noted that the tax rates were at a ratio of "1 out of 30" and "1 out of 60", corresponding to 3.33% and 1.67%, respectively. Warehouses were so full of grain. Emperor Wen was said by Liu Xiang to have devoted much time to legal cases, to have been fond of reading Shen Buhai, using Xing-Ming, a form of personnel examination, to control his subordinates.
In a move of lasting importance in 165 BC, Wen introduced recruitment to the civil service through examination. Potential officials never sat for any sort of academic examinations, their names were sent by local officials to the central government based on reputations and abilities, which were sometimes judged subjectively. In 196 BC, after Emperor Gao defeated the Chen Xi rebellion in the Dai region, he made Liu Heng, his son by Consort Bo, the Prince of Dai; the capital of the principality was at Jinyang. Dai was a region on the boundaries with Xiongnu, Emperor Gao created the principality with the mind to use it as a base to defend against Xiongnu raids. For the first year of the principality's existence, whose army was defeated but who eluded capture, remained a threat, until Zhou Bo killed him in battle in autumn 195 BC, it is not known whether at this time Prince Heng, seven years old, was in Dai, but it seems because his brother Liu Ruyi was the only prince at the time explicitly to have been recorded to be remaining at the capital Chang'an rather than being sent to his principality.
In 181 BC, after Prince Heng's brother, Prince Liu Hui of Zhao, committed suicide over his marital problems, Grand Empress Dowager Lü, in effective control of the imperial government, offered the more prosperous Principality of Zhao to Prince Heng, but Prince Heng, judging that she was intending to make her nephew Lü Lu prince, politely declined and indicated that he preferred remaining on the border. The grand empress dowager made Lü Lu Prince of Zhao. During these years, the Principality of Dai did in fact become a key position in the defense against Xiongnu, Prince Heng became well-acquainted with Xiongnu customs and military strategies, although the extent of his own participation in military actions was unknown. In 180 BC, after Grand Empress Dowager Lü died and the officials made a coup d'etat against her clan and slaughtered them, after some deliberation, the officials offered the imperial throne to Prince Heng, rather than Prince Liu Xiang of Qi, the oldest grandson of Emperor Gao.
The key to their decision was that Prince Xiang's maternal clan was domineering and might repeat the behaviors of the Lü clan, while the clan of Prince Heng's maternal clan, the Bos, were considered to be kind and humble. After some hesitation, Prince Heng 23 years old, accepted the throne as Emperor Wen, his nephew, Emperor Houshao, viewed as a mere puppet of Grand Empress Dowager Lü and suspected of not being a son of Emperor Wen's older brother Emperor Hui, was deposed and executed. Emperor Wen showed an aptitude to govern the empire with diligence, appeared to be genuinely concerned for the people's welfare. Influenced by his wife Empress Dou, an adherent of Taoism, Emperor Wen governed the country with the general policies of non-interference with the people and relaxed laws, his personal life was marked by general willingness to forgive. He was very deferential to Zhou Bo, Chen Ping, Guan Ying, who were instrumental in his accession, they served as successive prime ministers. Examples of Emperor Wen's policies that showed kindness and concern for the people include the following: In 179 BC, he abolished the law that permitted the arrest and imprisonment of parents and siblings of criminals, with the exception of the crime of treason.
In 179 BC, he created a governmental assistance program for those in need. Loans or tax exemptions were offered to widowers, widows and seniors without children, he ordered that monthly stipends of rice and meat be given to seniors over 80 years of age, that additional stipends of cloth and cotton be given to seniors over 90 years of age. In 179 BC, he made peace with Nanyue, whose king Zhao Tuo Empress Dowager Lü had offended with an economic embargo and which therefore engaged in raids against the Principality of Changsha and the Commandery of Nan. Emperor Wen accomplished this by writing humble yet assertive letters to Zhao offering peace with dignity and by caring for Zhao's relatives remaining in his native town of Zhending. In 178 BC, after a solar eclipse, he requested that o
Lu'an, is a prefecture-level city in western Anhui province, People's Republic of China, bordering Henan to the northwest and Hubei to the southwest. At the 2010 census, it had a total population of 5,612,590, whom 1,644,344 resided in the built-up area made of 2 urban districts. Neighbouring prefecture-level cities are the provincial capital of Hefei to the east, Anqing to the south and Xinyang to the west, Huainan and Fuyang to the north. Although the character "六" is pronounced "Liù", in this case it changes to "Lù" on account of the historical literary reading. Lu'an is marked by the southern fringes of the North China Plain in its north and the northern part of the Dabie Mountains in its south, its administrative area spans 31°01′−32°40′ N latitude and 115°20′−117°14′ E longitude. Lu'an has a humid subtropical climate, with four distinct seasons. Winters are damp, with average low temperatures in January dipping just below freezing. Summers are hot and humid, with a July average of 27.8 °C.
The annual mean is 15.68 °C, while annual precipitation averages just above 1,100 millimetres, a majority of which occurs from May to August. Annual sunshine duration is 2,000 to 2,300 hours; the prefecture-level city of Lu'an administers seven county-level divisions, including three districts and four counties. These are further divided into 142 township-level divisions. China National Highway 312 Hewu Railway Government website of Lu'an