SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the 12th and current president of the Republic of Turkey. He served as Prime Minister of Turkey from 2003 to 2014 and as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998, he founded the Justice and Development Party in 2001, leading it to election victories in 2002, 2007 and 2011 before standing down upon his election as President in 2014. He returned to the AKP leadership in 2017 following the constitutional referandum that year. Coming from an Islamist political background and as a self-described conservative democrat, he has promoted conservative and liberal economic policies during his administration. Erdoğan played football for Kasımpaşa before being elected as the Mayor of Istanbul in 1994, as the candidate of the Islamist Welfare Party, he was stripped of his position, banned from political office, imprisoned for four months for inciting religious hatred, due to his recitation of a poem by Ziya Gökalp. Erdoğan subsequently abandoned Islamist politics, establishing the moderate conservative AKP in 2001, which he went on to lead to a landslide victory in 2002.

With Erdoğan still technically prohibited from holding office, the AKP's co-founder, Abdullah Gül, instead became Prime Minister, annulled Erdoğan's political ban. After winning a by-election in Siirt in 2003, Erdoğan replaced Gül as Prime Minister, with Gül instead becoming the AKP's candidate for the presidency. Erdoğan led the AKP to two more election victories in 2007 and 2011, before being elected President in 2014, re-elected in 2018; the early years of Erdoğan's tenure as prime minister saw advances in negotiations for Turkey's membership of the European Union, an economic recovery following a financial crash in 2001 and investments in infrastructure including roads, a high-speed train network. He won two successful constitutional referendums in 2007 and 2010. However, his government remained controversial for its close links with Fethullah Gülen and his Gülen Movement, now designated as a terrorist organisation, with whom the AKP was accused of orchestrating purges against secular bureaucrats and military officers through the Balyoz and Ergenekon trials.

In late 2012, his government began peace negotiations with the Kurdistan Workers Party to end the ongoing PKK insurgency that began in 1978. The ceasefire broke down in 2015. Erdoğan's foreign policy has been described as Neo-Ottoman and has involved attempts to prevent Syrian-Kurdish PYD/YPG forces from gaining ground on the Turkish–Syrian border during the Syrian Civil War. Erdoğan's government has been accused of democratic backsliding and corruption in years. Starting with the anti-government protests in 2013, his government imposed growing censorship on the press and social media, imposing blocks on sites such as YouTube and Wikipedia; this stalled negotiations related to EU membership. A US$100 billion corruption scandal in 2013 led to the arrests of Erdoğan's close allies, incriminated Erdoğan. Following a souring in relations with Gülen, Erdoğan proceeded to purge his supporters from judicial and military positions. A failed military coup d'état attempt in July 2016 resulted in further purges and a state of emergency.

The government claimed that the coup leaders were linked to Gülen. As a long-standing proponent of changing Turkey's parliamentary system of government into an executive presidency, Erdoğan formed an alliance with the far-right Nationalist Movement Party to establish an executive presidency in 2017, where the changes were accepted in a constitutional referendum; the new system of government formally came into place after the 2018 general election, where Erdoğan and the new AKP-MHP People's Alliance was re-elected. He has since been tackling, but accused of contributing to, the Turkish currency and debt crisis of 2018, which has caused a significant decline in his popularity and is believed to have contributed to his loss in the 2019 local elections in which the ruling party lost control of Ankara and Istanbul for the first time in 25 years. After the loss, the Turkish government ordered a re-election in Istanbul, in which the ruling party lost the elections again with an greater margin; the two successive losses was seen as a huge blow to Erdoğan, who had once said that if his party "lost Istanbul, we would lose Turkey," and has been called to be the "beginning of the end" of him.

Erdoğan ranked first in the World's 500 Most Influential Muslims 2019 list from the Jordan-based Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. Erdoğan was born in the Kasımpaşa, a poor neighborhood of Istanbul, to which his family had moved from Rize Province in the 1930's, his parents were Tenzile Erdoğan. Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a captain in the Turkish Coast Guard, his summer holidays were spent in Güneysu, where his family originates. Throughout his life he returned to this spiritual home, in 2015 he opened a vast mosque on a mountaintop near this village; the family returned to Istanbul. As a teenager, Erdoğan's father provided him with a weekly allowance of 2.5 Turkish lira, less than a dollar. With it, Erdoğan resold them on the street, he sold bottles of water to drivers stuck in traffic. Erdoğan worked as a street vendor selling simit, wearing a white gown and selling the simit from a red three-wheel cart with the rolls stacked behind glass. In his youth, Erdoğan played semi-professional football at a local club.

Fenerbahçe wanted him to transfer to the club

George Findlay

Colonel George de Cardonnel Elmsall Findlay VC MC & Bar was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Findlay was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in January 1910, he was awarded a Military Cross for gallantry at the Battle of Passchendale after which he took command of 409 Field Company, a territorial company in June 1917. He was 29 years old, an acting major in the 409 Field Company, Corps of Royal Engineers, British Army during the First World War when the following deed took place during the second battle of Sambre for which he was awarded the VC. On 4 November 1918 during the forcing of the Sambre-Oise Canal at the lock south of Catillon, Major Findlay was with the leading bridging and assaulting parties which came under heavy fire and the advance was stopped, he collected what men he could and repaired the bridge, under incessant fire. Although wounded he continued with his task and after two unsuccessful efforts managed to place the bridge in position across the lock and was the first man across, remaining at this dangerous post until further work was completed.

The family story goes. The Germans thus missed him as he led his men across the bridge. Findlay was educated at St Ninian's Prep School and Harrow School, he achieved the rank of Colonel and served in World War II. He became Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Dumbarton in 1957. Findlay is buried at Kilmarnock Churchyard, near Gartocharn, West Dunbartonshire, Scotland in his family plot, his Victoria Cross is displayed at the Royal Engineers Museum, Kent. Monuments to Courage The Register of the Victoria Cross The Sapper VCs Scotland's Forgotten Valour VCs of the First World War - The Final Days 1918 Royal Engineers Museum Sappers VCs Location of grave and VC medal

Twin Rivers Primary School

Twin Rivers Primary School is a co-educational private school in Harare, Zimbabwe. It is situated in the Avondale area behind the'Reps Theatre'. Mrs Blanche Davie is the headmistress and Mr. Ryan Vickery is the deputy headmaster Twin Rivers Primary School is a member of the Association of Trust Schools and the Headmistress is a member of the Conference of Heads of Independent Schools in Zimbabwe, it opened in 1993 with Mrs. Hilary Middleton as the headmistress. Before the school was built it ran classes in the garden of a church not far from the site of the school itself. Many of the teachers who taught at the school before it had been built remain with it; the school was built on vlei. There was a small river that ran along the back of the school but was out of bounds for pupils. There were three houses into which the pupils were divided - Angwa and Mazoe, named after three rivers in Zimbabwe and colour-coded: Angwa - yellow, Gwebi - red, Mazoe - Blue; the logo reflects the'twin rivers' where the two blue lines at the top of the shield unite into one river.

After 2000 a school hall, consisting of staff room, tuck shop and other storage rooms, was built, costing in the region of ZW$6 million. The pupils do not have many responsibilities until they reach Grade 7 when they will be appointed as head of the three different houses, heads of sports events and Head Boy and Girls. Badges are worn by those who have been appointed such positions and prefects can be identified by the square, plain turquoise ties that they wear - this includes the girls who do not wear ties as part of their uniform. List of schools in Zimbabwe