The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns; these were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont, he encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call.
Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church. The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli; the enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church; some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God's forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain; the two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291, there were no more Crusades.
The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea; the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444. Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492; the idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World. Modern historians hold varying opinions of the Crusaders.
To some, their conduct was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy, as evidenced by the fact that on occasion the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders pillaged as they travelled, their leaders retained control of captured territory instead of returning it to the Byzantines. During the People's Crusade, thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade. However, the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: Italian city-states gained considerable concessions in return for assisting the Crusaders and established colonies which allowed trade with the eastern markets in the Ottoman period, allowing Genoa and Venice to flourish; the Crusades reinforced a connection between Western Christendom and militarism. The term crusade used in modern historiography at first referred to the wars in the Holy Land beginning in 1095, but the range of events to which the term has been applied has been extended, so that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence regarding the early Crusades.
The term used for the campaign of the First Crusade was iter "journey" or peregrinatio "pilgrimage". The terminology of crusading remained indistinguishable from that of pilgrimage during the 12th century, reflecting the reality of the first century of crusading where not all armed pilgrims fought, not all who fought had taken the cross, it was not until the late 12th to early 13th centuries that a more specific "language of crusading" emerged. Pope Innocent III used the term negotium crucis "affair of the cross" for the Eastern Mediterranean crusade, but was reluctant to apply crusading terminology to the Albigensian crusade; the Song of the Albigensian Crusade from about 1213 contains the first recorded vernacular use of the Occitan crozada. This term was adopted into French as croisade and in English as crusade; the modern spelling crusade dates to c. 1760. Sinibaldo Fieschi used the terms crux transmarina for crusades in Outremer against Muslims and crux cismarina for crusades in Europe against other enemies of the church.
The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271–72. This conv
Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management
The book best known as Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management published as Mrs Beeton's Cookery Book, is an extensive guide to running a household in Victorian Britain, edited by Isabella Beeton and first published as a book in 1861. Published in parts, it and bore the title Beeton's Book of Household Management, as one of the series of guide-books published by her husband, Samuel Beeton; the recipes were structured, in contrast to those in earlier cookbooks. It was illustrated with many colour plates. Although Mrs Beeton died in 1865, the book continued to be a best-seller; the first editions after her death contained an obituary notice, but editions did not, allowing readers to imagine that every word was written by an experienced Mrs Beeton personally. The personal significance of a "Mrs Beeton" found expression in one of Arthur Conan Doyle's novels of 1899, where a character declares: "Mrs Beeton must have been the finest housekeeper in the world, therefore Mr. Beeton must have been the happiest and most comfortable man".
Many of the recipes were copied from the most successful cookery books of the day, including Eliza Acton's Modern Cookery for Private Families, Elizabeth Raffald's The Experienced English Housekeeper, Marie-Antoine Carême's Le Pâtissier royal parisien, Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy, Maria Eliza Rundell's A New System of Domestic Cookery, the works of Charles Elmé Francatelli. This practice of Mrs Beeton's has in modern times been described as plagiarism; the book expanded in length, until by 1907 it reached 74 chapters and over 2000 pages. Nearly two million copies were sold by 1868, as of 2016 it remained in print. Between 1875 and 1914 it was the most often-consulted cookery book. Mrs Beeton has been compared on the strength of the book with modern "domestic goddesses" like Nigella Lawson and Delia Smith; the author, Isabella Beeton, was 21 years old. It was serialised in 24 monthly instalments, in her husband Samuel Orchart Beeton's publication The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine.
On 1 October 1861, the instalments were collected into one volume with the title The Book of Household Management, comprising information for the Mistress, Cook, Kitchen-Maid, Footman, Valet and Under House-Maids, Lady's-Maid, Maid-of-all-Work, Laundry-Maid and Nurse-Maid, Monthly Wet and Sick Nurses, etc. etc.—also Sanitary, Medical, & Legal Memoranda: with a History of the Origin and Uses of all Things Connected with Home Life and Comfort. In its preface she wrote: I must frankly own, that if I had known, that this book would have cost me the labour which it has, I should never have been courageous enough to commence it. What moved me, in the first instance, to attempt a work like this, was the discomfort and suffering which I had seen brought upon men and women by household mismanagement. I have always thought that there is no more fruitful source of family discontent than a housewife's badly-cooked dinners and untidy ways. Beeton's half-sister, Lucy Smiles, was asked about her memories of the book's development.
She recalled: Different people gave their recipes for the book. That for Baroness pudding was given by the Baroness de Tessier. No recipe went into the book without a successful trial, the home at Pinner was the scene of many experiments and some failures. I remember Isabella coming out of the kitchen one day,'This won't do at all,' she said, gave me the cake that had turned out like a biscuit. I thought it good, it had currants in it. Published as a part-work, it was first published as a book in 1861 by S. O. Beeton Publishing, 161 Bouverie Street, London, a firm founded by Samuel Beeton; the book was an immediate best-seller, selling 60,000 copies in its first year and totalling nearly two million by 1868. In 2010 a copy of the first edition of Household Management in "top condition" was stated to be worth more than £1,000. In 1863 a revised edition was issued. In 1866, a year after Isabella's death, Samuel was in debt due to the collapse of Overend and Gurney, a London discount house to which he owed money.
To save himself from bankruptcy he sold the copyright to all of his publications for a little over £19,000. Of that, the rights to Household Management were sold to publishers Ward and Tyler for £3,250; the early editions included an obituary notice for Beeton, but the publishers insisted it be removed "allowing readers to imagine – even as late as 1915 – that some mob-capped matriarch was out there still keeping an eye on them". Revisions to Household Management by its publisher have continued to the present day; the effort has kept the Beeton name in the public eye for over 125 years, although current editions are far removed from those published in Mrs. Beeton's lifetime. By 1906 the book had 2,056 pages, "exclusive of advertising", with 3,931 recipes and was "half as large again" as the previous edition; the following description refers to the 1907 edition. The book begins with general chapters on the duties of the "mistress", the housekeeper, the cook. There follow chapters on the kitchen itself, "marketing", an introduction to cookery.
Together, these take up over 100 pages. Chapters 7 to 38 cover English cooking, with recipes for soups, fish, meat
Rosmarinus officinalis known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, needle-like leaves and white, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae; the name "rosemary" derives from the Latin for "dew" and "sea", or "dew of the sea". The plant is sometimes called anthos, from the ancient Greek word ἄνθος, meaning "flower". Rosemary has a fibrous root system. Rosmarinus officinalis is one of 2–4 species in the genus Rosmarinus; the other species most recognized is the related, Rosmarinus eriocalyx, of the Maghreb of Africa and Iberia. The name of ros marinus is the plant's ancient name in classical Latin. Elizabeth Kent noted in her Flora Domestica, "The botanical name of this plant is compounded of two Latin words, signifying Sea-dew; the name of the genus was applied by the 18th-century naturalist and founding taxonomist Carl Linnaeus. Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen shrub with leaves similar to hemlock needles, it is reasonably hardy in cool climates.
It can withstand droughts. Forms range from upright to trailing; the leaves are evergreen, 2–4 cm long and 2–5 mm broad, green above, white below, with dense, woolly hair. The plant flowers in spring and summer in temperate climates, but the plants can be in constant bloom in warm climates. Rosemary has a tendency to flower outside its normal flowering season. In some parts of the world, it is considered an invasive species. Upon cultivation, the leaves and flowering apices are extracted for use. Rosemary is used as a decorative plant in gardens; the leaves are used such as stuffing and roast meats. Since it is attractive and drought-tolerant, rosemary is used as an ornamental plant in gardens and for xeriscape landscaping in regions of Mediterranean climate, it is considered easy to pest-resistant. Rosemary can grow quite large and retain attractiveness for many years, can be pruned into formal shapes and low hedges, has been used for topiary, it is grown in pots. The groundcover cultivars spread with a dense and durable texture.
Rosemary grows on loam soil with good drainage in an sunny position. It will not withstand waterlogging and some varieties are susceptible to frost, it grows best in neutral to alkaline conditions with average fertility. It can be propagated from an existing plant by clipping a shoot 10–15 cm long, stripping a few leaves from the bottom, planting it directly into soil. Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use.'Albus' – white flowers'Arp' – leaves light green, lemon-scented and cold-hardy'Aureus' – leaves speckled yellow'Benenden Blue' – leaves narrow, dark green'Blue Boy' – dwarf, small leaves'Blue Rain' – pink flowers'Golden Rain' – leaves green, with yellow streaks'Gold Dust' -dark green leaves, with golden streaks but stronger than'Golden Rain"Haifa' – low and small, white flowers'Irene' – low and lax, intense blue flowers'Lockwood de Forest' – procumbent selection from'Tuscan Blue"Ken Taylor' – shrubby'Majorica Pink' – pink flowers'Miss Jessop's Upright' – distinctive tall fastigiate form, with wider leaves.'Pinkie' – pink flowers'Prostratus' – lower groundcover'Pyramidalis' – fastigate form, pale blue flowers'Remembrance' – taken from the Gallipoli Peninsula'Roseus' – pink flowers'Salem' – pale blue flowers, cold-hardy similar to'Arp"Severn Sea' – spreading, low-growing, with arching branches, flowers deep violet'Sudbury Blue' – blue flowers'Tuscan Blue' – traditional robust upright form'Wilma's Gold' – yellow leavesThe following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:'Miss Jessop's Upright"Severn Sea"Sissinghurst Blue"Benenden Blue' Rosemary leaves are used as a flavoring in foods, such as stuffing and roast lamb, pork and turkey.
Fresh or dried leaves are used in traditional Mediterranean cuisine. They have a characteristic aroma which complements many cooked foods. Herbal tea can be made from the leaves; when roasted with meats or vegetables, the leaves impart a mustard-like aroma with an additional fragrance of charred wood that goes well with barbecued foods. In amounts used to flavor foods, such as one teaspoon, rosemary provides no nutritional value. Rosemary extract has been shown to improve the shelf life and heat stability of omega 3-rich oils which are prone to rancidity. Rosemary oil is used for purposes of fragrant bodily perfumes, it is burnt as incense, used in shampoos and cleaning products. Rosemary contains a number of phytochemicals, including rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, carnosic acid, carnosol. Rosemary essential oil contains 10–20% camphor; the plant or its oil have been used in folk medicine in the belief it may have medicinal effects, although there is no scientific evidence it has such properties.
Rosemary was considered sacred to ancient Egyptians and Greeks. Don Quixote mixes it in his recipe of fierabras; the plant has been used as a symbol for remembrance during war commemorations and funerals in Europe and Australia. Mourne
English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles and recipes associated with England. It has distinctive attributes of its own, but shares much with wider British cuisine through the importation of ingredients and ideas from the Americas and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration. Traditional meals have ancient origins, such as bread and cheese and stewed meats and game pies, boiled vegetables and broths, freshwater and saltwater fish; the 14th-century English cookbook, the Forme of Cury, contains recipes for these, dates from the royal court of Richard II. English cooking has been influenced by cooking styles since the Middle Ages. Curry was introduced from the Indian subcontinent and adapted to English tastes from the eighteenth century with Hannah Glasse's recipe for chicken "currey". French cuisine influenced English recipes throughout the Victorian era. After the rationing of the Second World War, Elizabeth David's 1950 A Book of Mediterranean Food had wide influence, bringing Italian cuisine to English homes.
Her success encouraged other cookery writers to describe other styles, including Chinese and Thai cuisine. England continues to absorb culinary ideas from all over the world. English cookery has developed over many centuries since at least the time of The Forme of Cury, written in the Middle Ages around 1390 in the reign of King Richard II; the book offers imaginative and sophisticated recipes, with spicy sweet and sour sauces thickened with bread or quantities of almonds boiled, peeled and ground, served in pastry. Foods such as gingerbread are described, it was not at all, emphasises Clarissa Dickson Wright in her A History of English Food, a matter of large lumps of roast meat at every meal as imagined in Hollywood films. Instead, mediaeval dishes had the texture of a pureé containing small fragments of meat or fish: 48% of the recipes in the Beinecke manuscript are for dishes similar to stews or pureés; such dishes could be broadly of three types: somewhat acid, with wine and spices in the sauce, thickened with bread.
An example of such a sweet pureé dish for meat from the Beinecke manuscript is the rich, saffron-yellow "Mortruys", thickened with egg: Take brawn of capons & porke, sodyn & groundyn. Set hit on the fyre; when hit boyleth, tak som of thy milk, fro the fyre & aley hit up with yolkes of eyron that hit be ryght chargeaunt. Put therto that othyr, & ster hem togedyr, & serve hem forth as mortruys. Another manuscript, Utilis Coquinario, mentions dishes such as "pyany", poultry garnished with peonies; the early modern period saw the gradual arrival of printed cookery books, though the first, the printer Richard Pynson's 1500 Boke of Cokery was compiled from medieval texts. The next, A Proper Newe Booke of Cokerye, was published sometime after 1545; the Secretes of the Reverende Maister Alexis of Piermont was published in 1558, translated from a French translation of Alessio Piemontese's original Italian work on confectionery. The number of titles expanded towards the end of the century to include Thomas Dawson's The Good Huswifes Jewell in 1585, the Book of Cookrye by "A. W." in 1591, John Partridge's The Good Hous-wives Handmaide in 1594.
These books were of two kinds: collections of so-called secrets on confectionery and health remedies, aimed at aristocratic ladies. English tastes evolved during the sixteenth century in at least three ways. First, recipes emphasise a balance of sour. Second, butter becomes an important ingredient in sauces, a trend which continued in centuries. Third, which could be grown locally but had been little used in the Middle Ages, started to replace spices as flavourings. In A. W.'s Book of Cookrye, 35% of the recipes for meat stews and sauces include herbs, most thyme. On the other hand, 76% of those meat recipes still used the distinctly mediaeval combination of sugar and dried fruit, together or separately. New ingredients were arriving from distant countries, too: The Good Huswifes Jewell introduced sweet potatoes alongside familiar Medieval recipes. Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book, compiled in 1604 gives an intimate view of Elizabethan cookery; the book provides recipes for various forms such as buttered loaves.
New ingredients appear. Put the mutton the gravie and these thinges together and boyle yt between two dishes, wringe the juice of an oringe into yt as yt boyleth, when yt is boyled enough lay the bone of the mutton beinge first Broyled in the dish with it Cut slices of limonds and lay on the mutton and so serve yt in. Pies were important both for show. // When the pie was opened, The birds began to sing" refers to the co
Child care, otherwise known as day care, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time, whose ages range from six weeks to thirteen years. Child care is the action or skill of looking after children by a day-care center, babysitter, teachers or other providers. Child care is a broad topic that covers a wide spectrum of professionals, contexts and social and cultural conventions. Early child care is an important and overlooked component of child development. Child care providers can be children's first teachers, therefore play an integral role in systems of early childhood education. Quality care from a young age can have a substantial impact on the future successes of children; the main focus of childcare is on the development of the child, whether that be mental, social, or psychological. In most cases children are taken care of by legal guardians, or siblings. In some cases, it is seen that children care for other children; this informal care includes verbal direction and other explicit training regarding the child's behavior, is as simple as "keeping an eye out" for younger siblings.
Care facilitated by similar-aged children covers a variety of developmental and psychological effects in both caregivers and charge. This is due to their mental development being in a particular case of not being able to progress as it should be at their age; this care giving role may be taken on by the child's extended family. Another form of childcare, on the rise in contrast to familial caregiving is that of center-based child care. In lieu of familial care giving, these responsibilities may be given to paid caretakers, orphanages or foster homes to provide care and schooling. Professional caregivers work within the context of a home-based care; the majority of child care institutions that are available require that child care providers to have extensive training in first aid and be CPR certified. In addition, background checks, drug testing at all centers, reference verification are a requirement. Child care can consist of advanced learning environments that include early childhood education or elementary education.
“The objective of the program of daily activities should be to foster incremental developmental progress in a healthy and safe environment and should be flexible to capture the interests of the children and the individual abilities of the children.” In many cases the appropriate child care provider is a teacher or personal with educational background in child development, which requires a more focused training aside from the common core skills typical of a child caregiver. As well as these licensed options, parents may choose to find their own caregiver or arrange childcare exchanges/swaps with another family. At home, care is provided by nannies, au pairs, or friends and family; the child is watched inside their own home which could expose them to outside children and illnesses. Depending on the number of children in the home, the children utilizing in-home care could enjoy the greatest amount of interaction with their caregiver, in turn forming a close bond. There are no required licensing or background checks for in-home care, making parental vigilance essential in choosing an appropriate caregiver.
Nanny and au pair services provide certified caregivers and the cost of in-home care is the highest of childcare options per child, though a household with many children may find this the most convenient and affordable option. Many nannies study towards childcare qualifications; this means they are trained to create a safe and stimulating environment for your child to enjoy and thrive in. Au pairs or nannies provide more than routine child care providing assistance with daily household activities which include running errands, doing laundry, fixing meals, cleaning the house; the most now common way to find a nanny is via a nanny agency. Nanny agencies will check an applicant's references and run a criminal background check on the successful candidate. Having a nanny could be cheaper than putting multiple children in a daycare setting full-time. Nannies could provide stability for the child. Nannies work overtime and babysit, providing less stress for parents running late without being charged excessive late fees.
They care for sick children whereas nurseries do not. This enables the parents to continue working without being interrupted. All nannies have first aid and background checks which are either checked by the agency or the family themselves, they can be subject to visits from their local childcare regulatory bodies. Children with nannies could be well socialized as nannies could be able to take them out and attend more playdates. Family child care providers care for children in the provider's own home; the children could be in a mixed age group with a low adult-to-child ratio. Care can potentially be personalized and individual; the hours may be more flexible and the provider may offer evening and weekend care for parents who work shifts. The cost in a family child care could be lower on average than that of a center. Child care facilities in the US have the option of becoming accredited; this standard is regulated by an outside agency. In centers, National Association for the Education of Young Children institutes it.
For family child care providers, the National Association of Family Child Care Providers award the credentials. Licensed or unlicensed home daycare is referred to as family child care, or in home care, it refers to the care pro