In evolutionary biology, reciprocal altruism is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a time. The concept was developed by Robert Trivers to explain the evolution of cooperation as instances of mutually altruistic acts; the concept is close to the strategy of "tit for tat" used in game theory. The concept of "reciprocal altruism", as introduced by Trivers, suggests that altruism, defined as an act of helping another individual while incurring some cost for this act, could have evolved since it might be beneficial to incur this cost if there is a chance of being in a reverse situation where the individual, helped before may perform an altruistic act towards the individual who helped them initially; this concept finds its roots in the work of W. D. Hamilton, who developed mathematical models for predicting the likelihood of an altruistic act to be performed on behalf of one's kin.
Putting this into the form of a strategy in a repeated prisoner’s dilemma would mean to cooperate unconditionally in the first period and behave cooperatively as long as the other agent does as well. If chances of meeting another reciprocal altruist are high enough, or if the game is repeated for a long enough amount of time, this form of altruism can evolve within a population; this is close to the notion of "tit for tat" introduced by Anatol Rapoport, although there still seems a slight distinction in that "tit for tat" cooperates in the first period and from thereon always replicates an opponent’s previous action, whereas “reciprocal altruists” stop cooperation in the first instance of non-cooperation by an opponent and stay non-cooperative from thereon. This distinction leads to the fact that in contrast to reciprocal altruism, tit for tat may be able to restore cooperation under certain conditions despite cooperation having broken down. Christopher Stephens shows a set of necessary and jointly sufficient conditions “… for an instance of reciprocal altruism: the behaviour must reduce a donor's fitness relative to a selfish alternative.
There are two additional conditions necessary "…for reciprocal altruism to evolve:" A mechanism for detecting'cheaters' must exist. A large number of opportunities to exchange aid must exist; the first two conditions are necessary for altruism as such, while the third is distinguishing reciprocal altruism from simple mutualism and the fourth makes the interaction reciprocal. Condition number five is required as otherwise non-altruists may always exploit altruistic behaviour without any consequences and therefore evolution of reciprocal altruism would not be possible. However, it is pointed out. Condition number six is required to avoid cooperation breakdown through backwards induction—a possibility suggested by game theoretical models; the following examples could be understood as altruism. However, showing reciprocal altruism in an unambiguous way requires more evidence as will be shown later. An example of reciprocal altruism is cleaning symbiosis, such as between cleaner fish and their hosts, though cleaners include shrimps and birds, clients include fish, turtles and mammals.
Aside from the apparent symbiosis of the cleaner and the host during actual cleaning, which cannot be interpreted as altruism, the host displays additional behaviour that meets the criteria for altruism: The host fish allows the cleaner fish free entrance and exit and does not eat the cleaner after the cleaning is done. The host signals the cleaner it is about to depart the cleaner's locality when the cleaner is not in its body; the host sometimes chases off possible dangers to the cleaner. The following evidence supports the hypothesis: The cleaning by cleaners is essential for the host. In the absence of cleaners the hosts leave the locality or suffer from injuries inflicted by ecto-parasites. There is danger in finding a cleaner. Hosts leave their element to get cleaned. Others wait no longer than 30 seconds before searching for cleaners elsewhere. A key requirement for the establishment of reciprocal altruism is that the same two individuals must interact as otherwise the best strategy for the host would be to eat the cleaner as soon as cleaning was complete.
This constraint imposes both a temporal condition on the cleaner and on its host. Both individuals must remain in the same physical location, both must have a long enough lifespan, to enable multiple interactions. There is reliable evidence that individual hosts do indeed interact repeatedly; this example meets some, but not all, of the criteria described in Trivers’s model. In the cleaner-host system the benefit to the cleaner is always immediate. However, the evolution of reciprocal altruism is contingent on opportunities for future rewards through repeated interactions. In one study, nearby host fish subsequently avoided them. In these examples, true reciprocity is difficult to demonstrate since failure means the death of the cleaner. However, if Randall’s claim that hosts sometimes chase off possible dangers to the cleaner is correct, an experiment might be constructed in which reciprocity could be demonstrated. Warning calls, although exposing a bird and putting it in danger, are given by birds.
An explanation in terms of altruistic behaviors given by Trivers:It has been shown that predators
The push of pike was a particular feature of late medieval and Early Modern warfare that occurred when two opposing columns of pikemen met and became locked in position along a front of interleaved pikes. During push of pike, opposing blocks of pikemen would advance with their pikes "charged" horizontally at shoulder level to jab at one another until bodily contact was made; the two sides would push physically until one or other of them gave way. The push of pike would continue until one of the opposing formations routed or fled, which would lead to massive casualties; each man pressed on the one in front, so sometimes the formations would crush against each other and many pikemen would have to fight in closer melee combat. The rear ranks would sometimes join the fray but their primary role was to add more weight to the push. Aside from getting impaled by enemy pikes, those in the front ranks died from getting crushed or suffocated due to the sheer number of bodies pressing from each side; the Italians referred to this as'Bad War' after seeing Swiss pikemen become locked in thick combat, where – because both formations refused to back down – both sides lost huge numbers of men in the bloody melee.
There are instances when both sides agree to a break for a short rest the pikemen resume their clash. Rodeleros along with the Doppelsöldner were used in order to break push of pike engagements; the push of pike played an important role in the English civil war as one-third of the infantry consisted of pikemen. Pikemen cut down the lengths of their pikes in order to make them more manageable; this habit had on many occasions disastrous consequences as the side with the longest pikes had the advantage during push of pike. The push of pike was still crucial and decided the outcome of battles up to the early part of the 17th century. Battle of Arbedo Italian Wars: Battle of Ravenna Battle of Novara Battle of Pavia Battle of Ceresole Marian civil war Battle of Langside Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Santo Domingo Eighty Years' War: Battle of Zutphen Battle of Nieuwpoort Irish Confederate Wars: Battle of Benburb Oman, Charles. A History of the Art of War in the Sixteenth Century. ISBN 9781853673849. "The ECW Pages - Infantry".
Retrieved 3 December 2011
"Whenever I Say Your Name" is a duet by English musician Sting and American singer Mary J. Blige, it serves as the second single from Sting's seventh studio album Sacred Love. It was not included on Blige's sixth studio album Love & Life but was added to the album's international re-release; the recording won Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals at the 46th Grammy Awards in 2004. The single was the final non-US single from Love & Life; the track was released in mid-2004, only peaking at #60 in the UK, marking Sting's lowest charting single since "They Dance Alone" reached #94 in 1988. It became Mary J. Blige's smallest hit there since the first release of "Real Love" in 1992. "Whenever I Say Your Name" "Whenever I Say Your Name" "Whenever I Say Your Name"
PRO Romania is a social-liberal political party in Romania. The founding of PRO Romania was initiated in 2017 by former Prime Minister Victor Ponta, former acting Prime Minister and Minister of Education Sorin Cîmpeanu and former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Environment and Climate Change Daniel Constantin; the party was formally established on 20 February 2018 in Bucharest. Corina Crețu, European Commissioner for Regional Policy, announced on 17 January 2019 that she will candidate in the European Parliament election on behalf of PRO Romania, she will be at the second position in the list after Victor Ponta. Only 4 days senator and former Minister of National Defence Adrian Țuțuianu announced that he joined the party, becoming the first senator to join PRO Romania. PRO Romania is represented in the Romanian Parliament by 20 members of the Chamber of Deputies, 1 senator and in the European Parliament by 2 MEPs; the party joined the European political party European Democratic Party in February 2019.
However, its MEP sit in the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats and not in the Renew Europe group. Since its establishment, many high-profile former members of PSD or ALDE have joined PRO Romania, including: Mihai Tudose - member of the Chamber of Deputies and former Prime Minister. Notes: 1 Mircea Diaconu was the candidate of the "One Man" Alliance. Official website
Expletive infixation is a process by which an expletive or profanity is inserted into a word for intensification. It is similar to tmesis, but not all instances are covered by the usual definition of tmesis because the words are not compounds; the most inserted English expletives are adjectival: either participles or adjectives. Although most speakers are not exposed to these formations until after childhood, they can form new examples once introduced to the process, their judgments of which formations are acceptable are remarkably consistent; this suggests that the rules for the placement of the expletive are not arbitrary, but instead derive from fundamental aspects of English phonology. A simple rule is that the insertion occurs at a syllable boundary just before the primary stressed syllable. Thus, one hears abso-fuckin'-lutely rather than *ab-fuckin'-solutely; this rule is insufficient to describe examples such as un-fuckin'-believable, however, so modifications to this rule are proposed such as morpheme boundaries taking precedence over stress.
Counterexamples to this exception do exist: unbe-fuckin'-lievable. A more fundamental theory due to John McCarthy is based on prosody, its basic principle is that "the metrical stress tree of the host is minimally restructured to accommodate the stress tree of the infix". For example, although unbelievable and irresponsible have identical stress patterns and the first syllable of each is a separate morpheme, the preferred insertion points are different: un-fuckin'-believable, but irre-fuckin'-sponsible. McCarthy explains this by saying; the infix can not re because they form a single prosodic foot. "abso-bloomin'-lutely" in "Wouldn't It Be Loverly", a song from My Fair Lady "Viet-fuckin'-nam!" from Abbie Hoffman in Forrest Gump "Out-bloody-rageous", the title of a track in the album Third by the band Soft Machine Affix Discussion of where to properly insert the expletive
No Podrás Escapar de Mí is the second album released by Colombian singer/composer Carlos Vives. It was released in 1987, Vives was best known as the star of soap operas at the time of its release; the album contains Rock music sung in Spanish. Vives embraced Vallenato in his career. Although the title track reached number 30 in the Billboard Hot Latin Tracks, the album was ignored by the public, is a collector's item for fans, it was released in 1987, can not escape me is a record made at the end of the 80s in which Vives makes this production. Despite its characteristic hair that adorns the cover of the album, the music is different from that of Vives did with the album Clásicos de la Provincia in 1993. Instead where it is known Vives with the sound vallenato, the songs are mixed with the sound of pure pop Latino 80s and Rock in Spanish of the time. While Vives would make her acting career in Puerto Rico and doing what he liked "Music", this album is filled with a slower pace, ballads romantic and Rock much like he wanted.
Vives, despite his distinctive voice, made a more commercial music attributed the interest of the record Sony Music at the time, allowing the directives and take agreement the album had this label. Most of the album and arranged by the Cuban Jorge Luis Piloto, contains songs like "Tu Y Yo" written by Eros Ramazzotti, Piero Cassano and Adelio Cogliati, "Sin Negativo" of Mario Patino, "Si Es Que Te Vas" of Sergio Villar dealing with love and longing, this was part of the image Vives should be maintained as heartthrob star of soap operas not only in Colombia, but Puerto Rico. Apart from softer ballads, heavy songs like Charly Garcia as "Yo No Quiero Volverme Tan Loco" with a rocker style to what he Vives and while the song "Quizas Porque" ends with soft acoustic style driven by sound. In the back of the album says Vives this: "A todos los seres que amaron este proyecto. Algunos en escritorios de papeles, cigarrillos y café. Otros piloteando hábilmente la nave en su cabina de cristal y bluejeans.
A todos nosotros los seres de la tierra donde estamos: Santa Marta, Bogotá, San Juan, Miami... en este disco es nuestro. A mi amiga Nuyorquina Liesa "Little Eva" Dileo de Oncean a Central Park llevando al top la banana. A los actores, a los músicos, a mis amigos de la infancia y a toda mi familia, que mi voz les llegue como un beso en la boca del alma. A Lucia la mujer que nunca conocí y para ti la mujer de las dos flores." Carlos Vives Translated into English and is: "All beings who loved this project in desks Some papers and coffee Other skillfully piloting the ship in his glass booth and bluejeans All of us beings on earth where we are... Santa Marta, San Juan, Miami... in this record is ours. My friend Nuyorquina Liesa "Little Eva " Dileo of Oncean to Central Park leading to the top banana; the actors, musicians, my childhood friends and all my family, my voice reaches them like a kiss on the mouth of the soul. A woman Lucia I never knew you and the wife of the two flowers." Carlos Vives Vives was nominated for Premios Lo Nuestro in 1987 Breakthrough Artist won the " Prize Stereo Tempo " in Puerto Rico in 1988 and " Too Much Awards " Miami, Florida in 1988, this latest award is one of the most important in the world of music awards.
This is beginning to consider in the world of rock ballad with these awards. I performed at the program called Julio Enrique Sanchez and Julio Sanchez Cristo Espectaculares JES, for this presentation sang songs like No Podrás Escapar De Mí, Yo No Quiero Volverme Tan Loco, Quédate Aquí y Tú Y Yo