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Recitative is a style of delivery in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms and delivery of ordinary speech. Recitative does not repeat lines, it resembles sung ordinary speech more than a formal musical composition. Recitative can be distinguished on a continuum from more speech-like to more musically sung, with more sustained melodic lines; the syllabic recitativo secco is at one end of a spectrum, through recitativo accompagnato, the more melismatic arioso, the full-blown aria or ensemble, where the pulse is governed by the music. Secco recitatives can be more improvisatory and free for the singer, since the accompaniment is so sparse; the term recitative is applied to the simpler formulas of Gregorian chant, such as the tones used for the Epistle, Gospel and collects. The first use of recitative in opera was preceded by the monodies of the Florentine Camerata in which Vincenzo Galilei, father of the astronomer Galileo Galilei, played an important role; the elder Galilei, influenced by his correspondence with Girolamo Mei on the writings of the ancient Greeks and with Erycius Puteanus on the writings of Hucbald and wishing to recreate the old manner of storytelling and drama, pioneered the use of a single melodic line to tell the story, accompanied by simple chords from a harpsichord or lute.

In the Baroque era, recitatives were rehearsed on their own by the stage director, the singers supplying their own favourite baggage arias which might be by a different composer. This division of labour persisted in some of Rossini's works. Secco recitatives, popularized in Florence though the proto-opera music dramas of Jacopo Peri and Giulio Caccini during the late 16th century, formed the substance of Claudio Monteverdi's operas during the 17th century, continued to be used into the 19th century Romantic era by such composers as Gaetano Donizetti, reappearing in Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress, they influenced areas of music outside opera from the outset. In the early operas and cantatas of the Florentine school, secco recitatives were accompanied by a variety of instruments plucked fretted strings including the chitarrone with a pipe organ to provide sustained tone. In the operas of Vivaldi and Händel, the accompaniment was standardised as a harpsichord and a bass viol or violoncello; when the harpsichord was phased out over the late 18th century, disappeared in the early 19th century, many opera-houses did not replace it with the fortepiano, a hammered-string keyboard invented in 1700.

Instead the violoncello was left to carry with reinforcement from a double bass. A 1919 recording of Rossini's Barber of Seville, issued by Italian HMV, gives a unique glimpse of this technique in action, as do cello methods of the period and some scores of Meyerbeer. There are examples of the revival of the harpsichord for this purpose as early as the 1890s, but it was not until the 1950s that the 18th-century method was observed once more. In the 2010s, the early music revival movement has led to the re-introduction of harpsichord in some Baroque performances. Accompanied recitative, known as accompagnato or stromentato, employs the orchestra as an accompanying body; the composer writes an arrangement for the orchestra musicians. As a result, it is less improvisational and declamatory than recitativo secco, more song-like; this form is employed where the orchestra can underscore a dramatic text, as in Thus saith the Lord from Händel's Messiah. A more inward intensification calls for an arioso.

Sometimes a distinction is made between the more dramatic, expressive, or interjecting'orchestral recitative' and a more passive and sustained'accompanied recitative'. Operas, under the influence of Richard Wagner, favored through-composition, where recitatives, arias and other elements were seamlessly interwoven into a whole. Many of Wagner's operas employ sections. Recitative is occasionally used in musicals, being put to ironic use in the finale of Kurt Weill's The Threepenny Opera, it appears in Carousel and Of Thee I Sing. George Gershwin used it in his opera Porgy and Bess, though sometimes the recitative in that work is changed to spoken dialogue. Porgy and Bess has been staged as a musical rather than as an opera. Recitative has sometimes been used to refer to parts of purely instrumental works which resemble vocal recitatives, in terms of their musical style. In an instrumental recitative, one instrument are given the melody line and another instrument are given the accompaniment role.

One of the earliest ex

Eberbach Pax

The Eberbach Pax is an early Renaissance pax and reliquary from Eberbach Abbey, now in the Limburg Cathedral Treasury. The pax was an object used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance for the Kiss of Peace in the Catholic Mass. Direct kissing among the celebrants and congregation was replaced by each in turn kissing the pax, carried around those present; the form of the pax was variable but included a flat surface to be kissed. The pax was created in the Middle Rhine at the beginning of the sixteenth century. According to an inscription on the pax, the Papal Legate Cardinal Raymond Peraudi gave the pax to Martin Rifflinck, Abbot of Eberbach, in 1503; the pax was a reliquary, if of a lower grade, since it contained a relief medallion consecrated by Pope Alexander VI, which depicts the Agnus Dei. Each believer who kissed the pax would receive a forty-day indulgence. In the following years, the pax remained in the Abbey's relic collection. During the Thirty Years War, the Abbey was able to hide it before it was plundered by Swedish troops in 1631.

At the secularisation of the Abbey in 1803, the pax became the property of the Duchy of Nassau. The court sold it to the Frühmesser Müller of Winkel, he gave it to Josephine Brentano. After her death, her husband Anton Theodor Brentano donated the pax to the Bishop of Limburg, Peter Joseph Blum. Blum left the pax to the Limburg Cathedral treasury, as "Donation of Josephine and Anton Brentano." At this point the pax was restored. The relief medallion of the Agnus Dei had been lost by this point, but it was replaced with a new one, blessed by Pope Pius VIII; the pax is a 19 x 11.5 cm gilt pax made with a simple base and a rounded top. The oval medallion of the Agnus Dei is located on the front; this is surrounded by quartz crystals. The edge consists of fourteen crockets of Gothic scrollwork. Two saints are engraved on the back. On the left is St Martin of Tours in a bishop's costume with a kneeling beggar, he is balanced on the right by St Catherine with a kneeling abbot. The decoration thus refers to the original recipient, Abbot Martin Rifflinck, who shared his name with the former and was devoted to the latter.

Between the two saints is a hinged handle. The base describes the donation in 1503. On the sides of the base are the arms of the monastery and of Abbot Martin. Willy Schmidtt-Lieb, "Künstlerische Impressionen von Kloster Eberbach" in Der Hessische Minister für Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Freundeskreis Kloster Eberbach: Eberbach im Rheingau. Zisterzienser – Kultur – Wein. Der Hessische Minister für Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Wiesbaden/Eltville 1986, pp. 161–163. Luthmer, Ferdinand. Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Lahngebiets: Oberlahnkreis, Kreis Limburg, Unterlahnkreis. Frankfurt am Main: Bezirksverband des Regierungsbezirk Wiesbaden. Pp. 110–111

Marquis of Lista

Marquis of Lister was a title of the Norwegian nobility. Lista lies in Southern Norway; the title was given to the Italian Hugo Octavius Accoramboni of Florence by Frederick IV of Norway on 22 April 1709. The coat of arms of the Marquis of Lister is described in the Encyclopedia of Noble Families in Denmark and the Duchies. A book by Amund Helland cites the following description in Danish: Skioldet rødt, kantet med en af Guld og Hermelin sammensat Rand, deri en opreist sølv Grif, holdende i venstre Forben et guld Bierg, i høire et draget Sverd, fire blaae høire Skraabielker over hele Skioldemærket. Paa Skioldet en markgrevelig Krone. Hele Vaabenet er omgivet af to sammensatte Palmegrene. In English: The shield red, bordered with an of gold and ermine composed bordure, therein a rampant silver gryphon holding in the left paw a golden mountain, in the right a sword in a hand, four blue right bends over the whole arms. Upon the shield a coronet of a marquis; the whole coat of arms is surrounded by two joint palm branches.

Marquis of Mandal Helland, Amund: Topografisk-statistisk beskrivelse over Lister og Mandals amt: Første del: Den almindelige del 1903, Kristiania P. 643f. Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter. "Danish-Norwegian nobiliary titles for Italian gentlemen." Rivista Araldica: Rivista del Collegio Araldico 2008, 55-62

Libertarian Party of Indiana

The Libertarian Party of Indiana is the Indiana affiliate of the Libertarian Party. The founding meeting of the Libertarian Party of Indiana was held on July 14, 1974 at the Holiday Inn at Weir Cook Airport. 20-25 people attended including Paul Hyatt, Tom Duncan, Marvin Lazaro, Brian Bernstein, Dick Smith, Steve Butterbaugh and Charlie Reisert. Reisert made the motion to start the Libertarian Party of Indiana; the first headquarters was located at 1430 N. Capitol Avenue in Indianapolis; the LPIN became a minor political party in 1994 after achieving ballot access when Steve Dillon received more than 2% of the vote running for Secretary of State. The Libertarian Party of Indiana has continually earned ballot access since 1994. In 2008, the Libertarian presidential ticket of Bob Barr and Wayne Allyn Root had their strongest showing in Indiana receiving 1.1% of the vote. On February 17, 2009, Indianapolis city councilmember Edward Coleman publicly announced that he had left the Republican Party and joined the Libertarian Party.

The party's best finish in a statewide race came in 2006 when US Senate candidate Steve Osborn received about 13% of the vote. Osborn had the best result for a third party candidate running for the Senate in the 2006 elections; the Libertarian Party of Indiana is the only party other than the Democrats and Republicans with ballot access in Indiana. Hoosier Libertarians have earned ballot access since 1994. Hoosier Libertarians advocate smaller government while defending civil liberties. In the last decade, they have come to the defense of eminent domain victims, marched in opposition to property tax laws, fought for reduced small business licensing, pursued fairness and transparency in our elections. Indiana Libertarians lobbied dozens of city and town councils across Indiana to allow property owners to make the decision on smoking on their property; as of 2019, there are eight Libertarian members. 1. Susan Bell: Town Judge, Hagerstown 2. Cheryl Heacox: Advisory Board, Clay Township 3. Dennis Denney: Town Council, North Ward 4.

Larry Walker: Town Council, Dublin 5. Elizabeth Brewer: Clerk-Treasurer, Claypool 6. Joel Samuelson: Town Council, Culver 7. Jessica Whitfield: Town Council, Larwill 8. Renee Sweeney: Town Council, Ossian Scott Baker, Elkhart County Convention & Visitors Commission Rex Bell, Hagerstown Board of Zoning Appeals Rex Bell, Hagerstown Plan Commission, Chairman Al Cox, Brown County Property Tax Assessment Board of Appeals Michael Dowden, Town of Brownsburg Economic Development Commission Michael Dowden, Town of Brownsburg Improvement Committee Michael Dowden, Town of Brownsburg Redevelopment Authority Brad Klopfenstein, Indianapolis Metropolitan Board of Zoning Appeals II Mark W. Rutherford, Indiana Public Defender Commission, Chairman Mark Smith, Centerville Plan Commission Mark Smith, Wayne County Economic Development Commission. Chris Spangle, Vote Indiana Team/Indiana HAVA Commission Margaret Fette, Bloomington Urban Enterprise Area Board, secretary. Steve Osborn is an American politician, he was the 2006 Libertarian Party nominee for US Senate from Indiana.

He lost to incumbent Republican Senator Dick Lugar in the United States Senate election in Indiana, 2006. He was Lugar's only opponent on the ballot in that election, as the Democratic Party did not field a candidate. Osborn received about 13% of the vote, the best result for a Libertarian in the 2006 U. S. national-level elections. His previous political experience includes attempted bids for the Democratic nomination for U. S. Representative in his home district in 2000 and 2002. Steve Osborn is from Indiana. Paul Hager ran for the U. S. Representative in Indiana’s 8th district in 1994, 1996, 1998, he ran for US Senate in 2000. In 2002, he ran for Indiana’s Secretary of State on the issue of voting reform. Awards are presented at the LPIN Convention each year. With the exception of one award, all winners are granted their award by a vote of the LPIN membership. Dr. Barbara Bourland Light of Liberty Award The recipient is honored as the person most responsible for the growth of the party and dedication to the libertarian cause.

Susan Bell Officeholder of the Year Award Awarded to a current elected officeholder of the Libertarian Party that best promotes libertarian principles and values through public service. Ken Bisson Outreach Award Awarded to a party member who has strived to spread the message of libertarian principles to as many potential voters as is possible. Joe Hauptmann Campaign Leadership Award Awarded to a campaign volunteer who has worked above and beyond in an extraordinary fashion, has contributed to the success of a campaign. Phil Miller Candidate of the Year Awarded to a Libertarian Candidate that has shown an extraordinary ability to reach and connect with voters, as well as further the cause of libertarianism. Steve Dasbach Chairman's Award for Extraordinary Service Awarded to an individual that has helped grow the Libertarian Party of Indiana in extraordinary ways over many years; this award is not voted on by LPIN membership, it is the sole privilege of the Chair of the LPIN to award it to the recipient.

Eric Schansberg Libertarian Party of Indiana homepage Principles and Activism.

Kosugi Station (Imizu)

Kosugi Station is a railway station on the Ainokaze Toyama Railway Line in Imizu, Japan, operated by the third-sector railway operator Ainokaze Toyama Railway. Kosugi Station is served by the 100.1 km Ainokaze Toyama Railway Line, is 30.2 kilometres from the starting point of the line at Kurikara. Kosugi Station has one island platform connected by a footbridge; the station is staffed. The station opened on 20 March 1899. With the privatization of JNR on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR West. From 14 March 2015, with the opening of the Hokuriku Shinkansen extension from Nagano to Kanazawa, local passenger operations over sections of the Hokuriku Main Line running parallel to the new shinkansen line were reassigned to different third-sector railway operating companies. From this date, Kosugi Station was transferred to the ownership of the third-sector operating company Ainokaze Toyama Railway. In fiscal 2015, the station was used by an average of 3,064 passengers daily. Imizu City Hall Toyama Prefectural University Toyama College of Business and Information Technology List of railway stations in Japan Official website

Stanford, New York

Stanford is a town in the north-central part of Dutchess County, New York, United States. The population was 3,823 at the 2010 census. Stanford was first settled around 1750; the town was part of the Great Nine Partners Patent of 1697. The town of Stanford was formed in 1793 from the town of Washington. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 50.3 square miles, of which 49.7 square miles is land and 0.66 square miles, or 1.29%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,544 people, 1,398 households, 973 families residing in the town; the population density was 70.9 people per square mile. There were 1,712 housing units at an average density of 34.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.95% White, 1.52% African American, 0.20% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.82% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.65% of the population. There were 1,398 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families.

24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.99. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 30.4% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $54,118, the median income for a family was $62,171. Males had a median income of $40,746 versus $30,625 for females; the per capita income for the town was $29,236. About 2.7% of families and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over. Alfred Mosher Butts, inventor of Scrabble James Cagney, actor George Washington Gale, minister David Levering Lewis, history professor at New York University and winner of the Pulitzer Prize for his biography of Martin Luther King Orville Redenbacher, international popcorn magnate and snackfood tycoon Kermit Love, costume designer, actor H. David Politzer, 2004 Nobel laureate Issac R. Sherwood, Union Army officer and United States congressman Attlebury – A hamlet in the northeast corner of the town.

Bangall – A hamlet northeast of Stanfordville. It is the location of Immaculate Conception Church; the Bangall Post Office was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. Bear Market – A hamlet northwest of Stanfordville. Lenihan – A hamlet north of Stanfordville. McIntyre – A hamlet north of Stanfordville. Stanfordville – A hamlet in the south half of the town on Route 82; the Dr. Cornelius Nase Campbell House was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2007. Stissing – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town, southwest of Attlebury. Willow Brook – A hamlet southwest of Stanfordville. Town of Stanford official website Stanford Free Library