Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, JGSDF referred to as the Japanese Army, is the land-warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces and the de facto army of Japan. Created on July 1, 1954, it is the largest of the three services branches. New military guidelines, announced in December 2010, direct the Japan Self-Defense Forces away from their Cold War focus on the Soviet Union to a new focus on China in respect of the dispute over the Senkaku Islands; the JGSDF operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichigaya, Tokyo. The present chief of staff is General Gorō Yuasa; the JGSDF numbered around 150,000 soldiers in 2008. Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration in 1945, and, in compliance with Article 9, the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy were dismantled. Both were replaced by the United States Armed Forces occupation force, which assumed responsibility for the external defense of Japan. Despite MacArthur and the SCAP's strict insistence on Japan having no military or self defence by constitution, Japanese prime minister Hitoshi Ashida amended article 9 of the constitution to allow the creation of military forces in Japan which would operate under the name of self-defence forces.
Which the ground and air self defence forces all originate from. Rendering the occupations desire for a demilitarised Japan rather moot. Under the terms of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, United States forces stationed in Japan were to deal with external aggression against Japan while Japanese forces, both ground and maritime, would deal with internal threats and natural disasters. Accordingly, in mid-1952, the National Police Reserve was expanded to 110,000 men and named the National Safety Forces. Japan continued to improve its defensive capabilities. On July 1, 1954, the National Security Board was reorganized as the Defense Agency, the National Security Force was reorganized afterwards as the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, with General Keizō Hayashi appointed as the first Chairman of Joint Staff Council—professional head of the three branches; the enabling legislation for this was the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Act.
For a long period, the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force possessed a dubious ability to hold off a Soviet invasion of Hokkaido. Zbigniew Brzezinski observed in 1972 that it seemed optimized to fight ‘a Soviet invasion conducted on American patterns of a quarter of a century ago. While the force is now an efficient army of around 150,000, its apparent importance had, until seemingly declined with the end of the Cold War, attempts to reorient the forces as a whole to new post Cold War missions have been tangled in a series of internal political disputes. On March 27, 2004, the Japan Defense Agency activated the Special Operations Group with the mandate under the JGSDF as its Counter-terrorist unit. In 2015, the Japanese Diet passes a law that allowed for the reinterpretation of Article 9 of the constitution. JSDF personnel train with the American forces in amphibious assault units designed to take outlying islands. Japan activated its first marine unit since World War II on April 7, 2018; the marines of the Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade are trained to counter invaders from occupying Japanese islands along the edge of the East China Sea.
In 1989, basic training for lower-secondary and upper-secondary academy graduates began in the training brigade and lasted three months. Specialized enlisted and non-commissioned officer candidate courses were available in branch schools and qualified NCOs could enter an eight-to-twelve-week officer candidate program. Senior NCOs and graduates of an eighty-week NCO pilot course were eligible to enter officer candidate schools, as were graduates of the National Defense Academy at Yokosuka and graduates of all four-year universities. Advanced technical, flight and command and staff officer courses were run by the JGSDF. Like the maritime and air forces, the JGSDF ran a youth cadet program offering technical training to lower-secondary school graduates below military age in return for a promise of enlistment; because of population density and urbanization on the Japanese islands, only limited areas are available for large-scale training, in these areas, noise restrictions are extensive. The JGSDF has adapted to these conditions by conducting command post exercises, map manoeuvres, investing in simulators and other training programs, as well as conducting live fire exercises overseas at locations such as the Yakima Training Center in the United States.
The JGSDF has two reserve components: the rapid-reaction reserve component and the main reserve component. Members of the rapid-reaction component train 30 days a year. Members of the main reserve train five days a year; as of December 2007, there were 8,425 members of the rapid-reaction reserve component and 22,404 members of the main reserve component. Ground Component Command is headquartered in Saitama Prefecture, it was reorganized from the Central Readiness Force on March 27, 2018. In wartime, it would take command of two to five armies. Northern Army, headquartered in Sapporo, Hokkaido North Eastern Army, headquartered in Sendai, Miyagi Eastern Army, headquartered in Nerima, Tokyo Central Army, headquartered in Itami, Hyōgo Western Army, headquartered at Kumamoto, Kumamoto JGSDF has 9 active duty divisions 1st Division, in Nerima. 2nd Division, in Asahikawa. 3rd Division, in Itami. 4th Division, in Kasuga. 6th Division, in Higashine. 7th Division (7th Armored d
Hydrographic survey is the science of measurement and description of features which affect maritime navigation, marine construction, offshore oil exploration/offshore oil drilling and related activities. Strong emphasis is placed on soundings, tides, currents and submerged obstructions that relate to the mentioned activities; the term hydrography is used synonymously to describe maritime cartography, which in the final stages of the hydrographic process uses the raw data collected through hydrographic survey into information usable by the end user. Hydrography is collected under rules. Traditionally conducted by ships with a sounding line or echo sounding, surveys are conducted with the aid of aircraft and sophisticated electronic sensor systems in shallow waters. Hydrographic offices evolved from naval heritage and are found within national naval structures, for example Spain's Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina. Coordination of those organizations and product standardization is voluntarily joined with the goal of improving hydrography and safe navigation is conducted by the International Hydrographic Organization.
The IHO publishes Standards and Specifications followed by its Member States as well as Memoranda of Understanding and Co-operative Agreements with hydrographic survey interests. The product of such hydrography is most seen on nautical charts published by the national agencies and required by the International Maritime Organization, the Safety of Life at Sea and national regulations to be carried on vessels for safety purposes; those charts are provided and used in electronic form unders IHO standards. Governmental entities below the national level conduct or contract for hydrographic surveys for waters within their jurisdictions with both internal and contract assets; such surveys are conducted by national organizations or under their supervision or the standards they have approved when the use is for the purposes of chart making and distribution or the dredging of state-controlled waters. In the United States, there is coordination with the National Hydrography Dataset in survey collection and publication.
State environmental organizations publish hydrographic data relating to their mission. Commercial entities conduct large-scale hydrographic and geophysical surveying in the dredging, marine construction, oil exploration, drilling industries. Industrial entities installing submarine communications cables or power require detailed surveys of cable routes prior to installation and use acoustic imagery equipment found only in military applications when conducting their surveys. Specialized companies exist that haveboth the equipment and expertise to contract with both commercial and governmental entities to perform such surveys. Companies and investment groups will fund hydrographic surveys of public waterways prior to developing areas adjacent those waterways. Survey firms are contracted to survey in support of design and engineering firms that are under contract for large public projects. Private surveys are conducted before dredging operations and after these operations are completed. Companies with large private slips, docks, or other waterfront installations have their facilities and the open water near their facilities surveyed as do islands in areas subject to variable erosion such as in the Maldives.
Crowdsourcing is entering hydrographic surveying, with projects such as OpenSeaMap, TeamSurv and ARGUS. Here, volunteer vessels record position and time data using their standard navigation instruments, the data is post-processed to account for speed of sound and other corrections. With this approach there is no need for a specific survey vessel, or for professionally qualified surveyors to be on board, as the expertise is in the data processing that occurs once the data is uploaded to the server after the voyage. Apart from obvious cost savings, this gives a continuous survey of an area, but the drawbacks are time in recruiting observers and getting a high enough density and quality of data. Although sometimes accurate to 0.1 - 0.2m, this approach cannot substitute for a rigorous systematic survey, where this is required. The results are more than adequate for many requirements where high resolution, high accuracy surveys are not required or are unaffordable; the history of hydrographic surveying dates as far back as that of sailing.
For many centuries, a hydrographic survey required the use of lead lines – ropes or lines with depth markings attached to lead weights to make one end sink to the bottom when lowered over the side of a ship or boat – and sounding poles, which were poles with depth markings which could be thrust over the side until they touched bottom. In either case, the depths measured had to be read manually and recorded, as did the position of each measurement with regard to mapped reference points as determined by three-point sextant fixes; the process was labor-intensive and time-consuming and, although each individual depth measurement could be accurate a thorough survey as a practical matter could include only a limited number of sounding measurements relative to the area being surveyed leaving gaps in coverage between single soundings. Single-beam echosounders and fathometers began to enter service in the 1930s which used sonar to measure the depth beneath a vessel; this increased the speed of acquiring sounding data over that possible with lead lines and sounding poles by allowing information on depths beneath a vessel to be gathered in a series of lines spaced at a specified distance.
Armoured reconnaissance is the combination of terrestrial reconnaissance with armoured warfare by soldiers using tanks and wheeled or tracked armoured reconnaissance vehicles. While the mission of reconnaissance is to gather intelligence about the enemy with the use of reconnaissance vehicles, armoured reconnaissance adds the ability to fight for information, to have an effect on and to shape the enemy through the performance of traditional armoured tasks. In the Australian Army the main reconnaissance vehicle is the ASLAV armoured scout car, the Australian version of the LAV 25; the Army Reserve regiments use the Light Cavalry Patrol Vehicle, aka the Regional Force Surveillance Vehicle, a variant of the Land Rover Perentie. Armoured reconnaissance regiments in the Australian Army Regular 2nd Cavalry Regiment 2nd/14th Light Horse Regiment Reserve 1st/15th Royal New South Wales Lancers 3rd/9th Light Horse 4th/19th Prince of Wales's Light Horse 10th Light Horse Regiment The Belgian Army has two armoured reconnaissance regiments 1st Regiment Mounted Rifles – Guides 2nd/4th Regiment Mounted Rifles In the Canadian Army, formation armoured reconnaissance regiments are equipped with tanks and gather and fight for information, as well as performing more traditional armour tasks such as seizing and exploiting.
There has not been a formation armoured reconnaissance regiment in Canada since 1988. While there are no armoured reconnaissance regiments in the Regular Force in the present day, each Regular Force armoured regiment does provide a formation armoured reconnaissance squadron equipped with armoured cars to each mechanised brigade. Lord Strathcona's Horse is a tank-heavy regiment with two squadrons of tanks and one squadron of armoured cars, while both the Royal Canadian Dragoons and the 12e Régiment blindé du Canada are armoured car-heavy regiments, with three armoured car squadrons each and one shared tank squadron. Although the Reserve Force regiments continue to be known as armoured reconnaissance regiments, since the loss of the medium tank from their organisation, they have in reality only been employed in the light reconnaissance role. Armoured reconnaissance regiments in the Reserve Force; the Governor General's Horse Guards The Halifax Rifles 8th Canadian Hussars The Ontario Regiment The Queen's York Rangers Sherbrooke Hussars 12e Régiment blindé du Canada 1st Hussars The Prince Edward Island Regiment The Royal Canadian Hussars The British Columbia Regiment The South Alberta Light Horse The Saskatchewan Dragoons The King's Own Calgary Regiment The British Columbia Dragoons The Fort Garry Horse Le Régiment de Hull The Windsor Regiment There is only one armoured reconnaissance battalion in the Danish army.
3rd Battalion, Guard Hussar Regiment The following Danish reconnaissance units were disbanded after the Cold War: 5th Battalion, disband in 2005 Jydske Dragonregiment Recce-Squadron, disband in 2000 Bornholms Værn. On the island of Bornholm In 2005 the reconnaissance units of the German Army were restructured; the former Panzeraufklärungstruppe, Fernspähtruppe, Feldnachrichtentruppe and UAV units of the Artillerietruppe haven been combined to the new Heeresaufklärungstruppe. Now the German Army is operating five reconnaissance battalions and five independent companies: Armoured Reconnaissance Aufklärungslehrkompanie 90, Munster Aufklärungskompanie 210, Augustdorf Long Range Reconnaissance Fernspählehrkompanie 200, Pfullendorf Airborne Reconnaissance Luftlandeaufklärungskompanie 260, Zweibrücken Luftlandeaufklärungskompanie 310, SeedorfReconnaissance Bataillons: Aufklärungslehrbataillon 3, Lüneburg Aufklärungsbataillon 6, Eutin Aufklärungsbataillon 8, Freyung Aufklärungsbataillon 13, Gotha Gebirgsaufklärungsbataillon 230, FüssenReserve units: Aufklärungsbataillon 910, Gotha Aufklärungsbataillon 911, Füssen Aufklärungsbataillon 912, LüneburgEvery Battalion is structured in four companies: 1.
HQ & Support Company The first company provides the battalion with communication and transport.2. Armoured Reconnaissance Company The armoured reconnaissance company operates all Fennek vehicle of the battalion, they are organized in six platoons of each four vehicle. Two Fennek form a scout squad.3. Light Reconnaissance Company The light reconnaissance company includes three HUMINT platoons and one scout platoon equipped with six Dingo.4. UAV Company The fourth company operates the two UAV platoons with LunaX and KZO. There is a radar platoon, equipped with eight Dingo and the new radar system BÜR. Ghana's Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment is the oldest armoured unit in the Ghanaian Army, it consists of two squadrons. The regiment has served with distinction in various African peacekeeping missions, is equipped with EE-9 Cascavel and Ratel-90 armoured cars. 1st Ghanaian Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment The Kenyan Army has a single armoured reconnaissance battalion, equipped with Panhard AML-90 armoured cars.
76 ARB The Dutch Army has one regiment, the Regiment Huzaren van Boreel, named after Willem Francois Boreel. The Regiment consists of 4 squadrons: 2 squadrons belong to the ISTAR battalion and the other 2 each belonging to 1 of the 2 Netherlands Mechanised Brigades; the difference in organisation between the
Type 87 ARV
The Type 87 Reconnaissance and Patrol Vehicle known as Burakkuai or Type 87 ARV for short, is a 6x6 wheeled Armoured Fighting Vehicle designed and manufactured by multinational heavy industry manufacturer Komatsu Limited and employed by the Japanese Ground Self-Defense Forces. The JGSDF continued to commission new units up until as as 2013 After World War 2, the United States provided the newly-created Japanese Ground Self-Defense Forces with a number of variants of the M8 Greyhound armoured car. However, a small number of these were employed due to concerns about the poor quality of roads in Japan, as many Japanese roads were unpaved and poorly maintained, limiting the feasibility of wheeled vehicles for military service. By 1982, Japanese infrastructure had improved, motivating the development of the first armoured fighting vehicle developed and manufactured by Japanese industry for the Japanese armed forces, the successful Type 82'Shikitsu' Command Vehicle. Tests for the Type 87 began in 1985 and the Type 87 would finish developed by Komatsu based on the earlier Type 82.
The Type 87 features the same kind of hull construction, common for armored military vehicles, where the armoured exterior of the vehicle acts both as protection and as the main structural framework, as opposed to the chasis-and-coachwork structure, typical of civilian and non-armored construction. Its rectangular body is sloped in the front and accommodates five crew members, two of which occupy the powered-traverse turret located in the center of the hull; the vehicle's door is on the left of the main body. The Type 87's hull is made out of steel and is welded, utilizes many of the same automotive components of the Type 82 and features power steering; the main armament is a Japanese version of the Oerlikon Contraves 25 millimeter autocannon produced under licence, which can fire various kinds of ammunition at up to 600 rounds per minute. Its armor, while sturdy enough to protect the vehicle and crew against small arms fire and grenade shrapnel, will not protect against heavier ordnance, it is well armed for its class but lacks amphibious capabilities, being only able to ford up to 1.5 metres of water.
Chant, Christopher. A Compendium of Armaments and Military Hardware. Routledge. Www.army-technology.com www.tanks-encyclopedia.com perfiles.elgrancapitan.org www.deagel.com
The FV107 Scimitar is an armoured reconnaissance vehicle used by the British Army. It was manufactured by Alvis in Coventry, it is similar to the FV101 Scorpion, but mounts a high velocity 30 mm L21 RARDEN cannon instead of a 76 mm gun. It was issued to Royal Armoured Corps armoured regiments in the reconnaissance role; each regiment had a close reconnaissance squadron of five troops, each containing eight FV107 Scimitars. The FV107 Scimitar is one of the CVR series of vehicles, it entered service in 1971. The engine was the Jaguar J60 4.2-litre 6-cylinder petrol engine, the same as used by several Jaguar cars. This has now been replaced by a Cummins BTA 5.9 diesel engine in British Army Scimitars, under the CVR Life Extension Program. The Scimitar lifespan has once again been extended to accommodate the shift in timeframe of the Future Rapid Effect System program, which would have seen new armoured vehicles introduced to replace the ageing CVR range of vehicles. With new modifications, air filtration units and gearbox upgrades, as well as hull alterations and the creation of a CVR Spartan & CVR Scimitar hybrid the CVR range is expected to continue well beyond 2017.
Following a risk mitigation programme, in December 2010 a contract was awarded for the development and management of an upgraded Scimitar. This was undertaken by the Vehicles Military & Technical Services team, BAE Systems Telford, which co-ordinated the build of 50 vehicles at the nearby DSG, Donnington, to be completed in early 2012; the Scimitar Mark 2 combat vehicle is one of five enhanced CVR types. The Scimitar Mk II was: Rehulled to give better mine-blast protection for troops Improved armour fitted to enhance resistance to blasts and ballistic threats Provide mine-protected seating in every crew position Improve available space and improve crew conditions Mitigate repairs while reducing maintenance and life-cycle costs, extend in-service life; the resulting vehicles have since been re-engined with a Cummins BTA 5.9 litre diesel engine and David Brown TN15E+ automatic gearbox. In addition to providing power for an air conditioning system, the new more fuel-efficient engine extends the vehicle's operational range, while the re-designed internal layout allows better-protected fuel tanks to be repositioned for reduced vulnerability to blast and ballistic threats.
The new engine and transmission package promised straightforward servicing and support for the Mk II during its in-service life, refurbished dampers improving crew comfort - and hence reducing fatigue - while extending the life of vehicle components and maintaining the tactical mobility of the original vehicle despite an increase to an operation weight of c12,000 kg. BAE Systems have proposed improved road wheels, new conventional metal tracks with guaranteed mileage and continuous'rubber' band tracks, which decrease both vibration and noise, allowing crew to operate more and for longer in the harshest environments, while reducing the vehicle's acoustic signature. Ground clearance: 0.35 m Main armament: 30 mm L21 RARDEN cannon. Ammunition types: High Explosive Incendiary High Explosive Armour Piercing APSE Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot-Tracer Additional defence: 2 × 4-barrel smoke launchers. Ammunition stores: 30 mm – 165 rounds 7.62 mm – 2,000 rounds As with all UK armoured vehicles, Scimitar is equipped with a forced air system, so the crew can lock down in a CBRN environment.
For this reason, the vehicle is equipped with a boiling vessel, to make hot drinks. United Kingdom – 325 unitsThe Scimitar is used by the five formation reconnaissance regiments of the British Army. Four of the regiments are organised with each of 12 Scimitars, it is used by some support groups within infantry battalions, like the Irish Guards recce platoon. After the Strategic Defence and Security Review in 2010, some regiments are seeing their Challenger 2 tanks replaced with CVR Scimitars. Latvia -123 unitsIn September 2014, Latvia signed a contract with Great Britain for the purchase of 123 armored combat vehicles as part of the Latvian National Armed Forces infantry brigade mechanization program. Belgium – 141 units, withdrawn from active service in 2004. Two troops from B Squadron and Royals served in the Falklands War. One troop was equipped with the other with four Scimitars; these CVRs were the only armoured vehicles used in action by the British Army during the conflict. At least one Scimitar was damaged by an Argentinian landmine, but the crew were unscathed, the vehicle was salvaged by a Chinook HC.1 helicopter and soon brought back into service by the attached REME section.
Scorpion and Scimitar provide air defence support with machine guns and 30 mm guns. First Gulf War, 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards, with attached reinforcements, fought as a regiment during this war and was equipped with Scimitar. A troop of Scimitars engaged and knocked out Iraqi T-62s, penetrating their frontal armour with sabot rounds. One Scimitar was engaged and hit by an Iraqi T-55 and the penetrating round passed through the thin aluminium armour without injuring the crew. Scimitars of C Squadron were used in the Battle of Al Faw in the opening days of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. Plans for an amphibious landing by Scimitars were abandoned due
United States Army Rangers
The United States Army Rangers are designated U. S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U. S. Army Ranger School; the term ranger has been in use unofficially in a military context since the early 17th century. The first military company commissioned as rangers were English soldiers fighting in King Philip's War and from there the term came into common official use in the French and Indian Wars. There have been American military companies called Rangers since the American Revolution; the 75th Ranger Regiment is an elite airborne light infantry combat formation within the United States Army Special Operations Command. The six battalions of the modern Rangers have been deployed in wars in Korea, Vietnam and Iraq, saw action in several conflicts, such as those in Panama and Grenada; the Ranger Regiment traces its lineage to three of six battalions raised in World War II, to the 5307th Composite Unit —known as "Merrill's Marauders", reflagged as the 475th Infantry later as the 75th Infantry.
The Ranger Training Brigade —headquartered at Fort Benning—is an organization under the U. S. Army's Training and Doctrine Command and is separate from the 75th Ranger Regiment, it has been in service in various forms since World War II. The Ranger Training Brigade administrates Ranger School, the satisfactory completion of, required to become Ranger qualified and to wear the Ranger Tab. Rangers served in the 17th and 18th-century wars between colonists and Native American tribes; the British regulars were not accustomed to frontier warfare and so Ranger companies were developed. Rangers were full-time soldiers employed by colonial governments to patrol between fixed frontier fortifications in reconnaissance providing early warning of raids. In offensive operations, they were scouts and guides, locating villages and other targets for taskforces drawn from the militia or other colonial troops. In Colonial America, "The earliest mention of Ranger operations comes from Capt. John "Samuel" Smith," who wrote in 1622, "When I had ten men able to go abroad, our common wealth was strong: with such a number I ranged that unknown country 14 weeks."
Robert Black stated that, In 1622, after the Berkeley Plantation Massacre... grim-faced men went forth to search out the Indian enemy. They were militia—citizen soldiers—but they were learning to blend the methods of Indian and European warfare... As they went in search of the enemy, the words range and Ranger were used... The American Ranger had been born; the father of American ranging is Colonel Benjamin Church. He was the captain of the first Ranger force in America.:33 Church was commissioned by the Governor of the Plymouth Colony Josiah Winslow to form the first ranger company for King Philip's War. He employed the company to raid Acadia during King William's War and Queen Anne's War. Benjamin Church designed his force to emulate Native American patterns of war. Toward this end, Church endeavored to learn to fight like Native Americans from Native Americans.:35 Americans became rangers under the tutelage of the Indian allies.:34–35Church developed a special full-time unit mixing white colonists selected for frontier skills with friendly Native Americans to carry out offensive strikes against hostile Native Americans in terrain where normal militia units were ineffective.
His memoirs Entertaining Passages relating to Philip's War is considered the first American military manual. Under Church served the father and grandfather of two famous rangers of the eighteenth century: John Lovewell and John Gorham respectively.:38 John Lovewell served during Dummer's War. He lived in present-day Nashua, New Hampshire, he fought in Dummer's War as a militia captain, leading three expeditions against the Abenaki Indians. John Lovewell became the most famous Ranger of the eighteenth century.:50During King George's War, John Gorham established "Gorham's Rangers". Gorham's company fought on the frontier at Acadia and Nova Scotia. Gorham was commissioned a captain in the regular British Army in recognition of his outstanding service, he was the first of three prominent American rangers–himself, his younger brother Joseph Gorham and Robert Rogers—to earn such commissions in the British Army.:76Rogers' Rangers was established in 1751 by Major Robert Rogers, who organized nine Ranger companies in the American colonies.
These early American light infantry units, organized during the French and Indian War, bore the name "Rangers" and were the forerunners of the modern Army Rangers. Major Rogers drafted the first currently-known set of standard orders for rangers; these rules, Robert Rogers' 28 "Rules of Ranging", are still provided to all new Army Rangers upon graduation from training, served as one of the first modern manuals for asymmetric warfare. When the American Revolution began, Major Robert Rogers offered his services to General George Washington. Fearing that Rogers was a spy, Washington refused. An incensed Rogers instead joined forces with the Loyalists, raised the Queen's Rangers, fought for the Crown. While serving with the British, Col. Rogers was responsible for capturing America's most famous spy in Nathan Hale. Not all of Rogers' Rangers went with him, including such notable figures as Israel Putnam. On during the war, General Washington ordered Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton to select an elite group of men for reconnaissance missions.
This unit was known as Knowlton's Rangers, and
A reconnaissance satellite or intelligence satellite is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. The first generation type took photographs ejected canisters of photographic film which would descend to earth. Corona capsules were retrieved in mid-air. Spacecraft had digital imaging systems and downloaded the images via encrypted radio links. In the United States, most information available is on programs that existed up to 1972, as this information has been declassified due to its age; some information about programs prior to that time is still classified, a small amount of information is available on subsequent missions. A few up-to-date reconnaissance satellite images have been declassified on occasion, or leaked, as in the case of KH-11 photographs which were sent to Jane's Defence Weekly in 1984. On 16 March 1955, the United States Air Force ordered the development of an advanced reconnaissance satellite to provide continuous surveillance of "preselected areas of the Earth" in order "to determine the status of a potential enemy’s war-making capability".
There are several major types of reconnaissance satellite. Missile early warning Provides warning of an attack by detecting ballistic missile launches. Earliest known are Missile Defense Alarm System. Nuclear explosion detection characterizes nuclear explosions in space. Vela is the earliest known. Photo surveillance Provides imaging of earth from space. Images can be close-look telephoto. Corona is the earliest known. Spectral imaging is commonplace. Electronic reconnaissance Signals intelligence, intercepts stray radio waves. Samos-F is the earliest known. Radar imaging Most space-based radars use synthetic aperture radar. Can be used at night or through cloud cover. Earliest known are the Soviet US-A series. Examples of reconnaissance satellite missions: High resolution photography Measurement and Signature Intelligence Communications eavesdropping Covert communications Monitoring of nuclear test ban compliance Detection of missile launchesOn 28 August 2013, it was thought that "a $1-billion high-powered spy satellite capable of snapping pictures detailed enough to distinguish the make and model of an automobile hundreds of miles below" was launched from California's Vandenberg Air Force Base using a Delta IV Heavy launcher, America's highest-payload space launch vehicle.
On 17 February 2014, a Russian Kosmos-1220 launched in 1980 and used for naval missile targeting until 1982, made an uncontrolled atmospheric entry. Reconnaissance satellites have been used to enforce human rights, through the Satellite Sentinel Project, which monitors atrocities in Sudan and South Sudan. During his 1980 State of the Union Address, President Jimmy Carter explained how all of humanity benefited from the presence of American spy satellites:...photo-reconnaissance satellites, for example, are enormously important in stabilizing world affairs and thereby make a significant contribution to the security of all nations. Additionally, companies such as GeoEye and DigitalGlobe have provided commercial satellite imagery in support of natural disaster response and humanitarian missions. During the 1950s, a Soviet hoax had led to American fears of a bomber gap. In 1968, after gaining satellite photography, the United States' intelligence agencies were able to state with certainty that "No new ICBM complexes have been established in the USSR during the past year."
President Lyndon B. Johnson told a gathering in 1967: I wouldn't want to be quoted on this... We've spent $35 or $40 billion on the space program, and if nothing else had come out of it except the knowledge that we gained from space photography, it would be worth ten times what the whole program has cost. Because tonight we know how many missiles the enemy has and, it turned out, our guesses were way off. We were doing things. We were building things. We were harboring fears. Spy satellites are seen in spy fiction and military fiction; some works of fiction that focus on spy satellites include: The OMAC Project Enemy of the State Body of Lies Ice Station Zebra Karlsson-on-the-Roof is Sneaking Around Again Parmanu: The Story of Pokhran Defense Support Program European Union Satellite Centre List of intelligence gathering disciplines List of Kosmos satellites National Reconnaissance Office Satcom On The Move Kupperberg, Paul. Spy satellites. Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8239-3854-9 Richelson, Jeffrey.
America's Secret Eyes in Space: the U. S. Keyhole Spy Satellite Program. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-88730-285-8 Norris, Pat. "Spies in the Sky: Surveillance Satellites in War and Peace". Berlin. Retrieved 15 February 2012. FAS Intelligence Resource Program – Imagery Intelligence GlobalSecurity.org: Imagery Intelligence Iran to Launch first spy satellite Egyptsat1 Spaceports Around the World: Iraq's Al-Anbar Space Research Center Military Intelligence Satellites