A reconnaissance satellite or intelligence satellite is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. The first generation type took photographs ejected canisters of photographic film which would descend back down into Earth's atmosphere. Corona capsules were retrieved in mid-air. Spacecraft had digital imaging systems and downloaded the images via encrypted radio links. In the United States, most information available is on programs that existed up to 1972, as this information has been declassified due to its age; some information about programs prior to that time is still classified, a small amount of information is available on subsequent missions. A few up-to-date reconnaissance satellite images have been declassified on occasion, or leaked, as in the case of KH-11 photographs which were sent to Jane's Defence Weekly in 1984. On 16 March 1955, the United States Air Force ordered the development of an advanced reconnaissance satellite to provide continuous surveillance of "preselected areas of the Earth" in order "to determine the status of a potential enemy’s war-making capability".
There are several major types of reconnaissance satellite. Missile early warning Provides warning of an attack by detecting ballistic missile launches. Earliest known are Missile Defense Alarm System. Nuclear explosion detection characterizes nuclear explosions in space. Vela is the earliest known. Photo surveillance Provides imaging of earth from space. Images can be close-look telephoto. Corona is the earliest known. Spectral imaging is commonplace. Electronic reconnaissance Signals intelligence, intercepts stray radio waves. Samos-F is the earliest known. Radar imaging Most space-based radars use synthetic aperture radar. Can be used at night or through cloud cover. Earliest known are the Soviet US-A series. Examples of reconnaissance satellite missions: High resolution photography Measurement and Signature Intelligence Communications eavesdropping Covert communications Monitoring of nuclear test ban compliance Detection of missile launchesOn 28 August 2013, it was thought that "a $1-billion high-powered spy satellite capable of snapping pictures detailed enough to distinguish the make and model of an automobile hundreds of miles below" was launched from California's Vandenberg Air Force Base using a Delta IV Heavy launcher, America's highest-payload space launch vehicle.
On 17 February 2014, a Russian Kosmos-1220 launched in 1980 and used for naval missile targeting until 1982, made an uncontrolled atmospheric entry. Reconnaissance satellites have been used to enforce human rights, through the Satellite Sentinel Project, which monitors atrocities in Sudan and South Sudan. During his 1980 State of the Union Address, President Jimmy Carter explained how all of humanity benefited from the presence of American spy satellites:...photo-reconnaissance satellites, for example, are enormously important in stabilizing world affairs and thereby make a significant contribution to the security of all nations. Additionally, companies such as GeoEye and DigitalGlobe have provided commercial satellite imagery in support of natural disaster response and humanitarian missions. During the 1950s, a Soviet hoax had led to American fears of a bomber gap. In 1968, after gaining satellite photography, the United States' intelligence agencies were able to state with certainty that "No new ICBM complexes have been established in the USSR during the past year."
President Lyndon B. Johnson told a gathering in 1967: I wouldn't want to be quoted on this... We've spent $35 or $40 billion on the space program, and if nothing else had come out of it except the knowledge that we gained from space photography, it would be worth ten times what the whole program has cost. Because tonight we know how many missiles the enemy has and, it turned out, our guesses were way off. We were doing things. We were building things. We were harboring fears. Spy satellites are seen in spy fiction and military fiction; some works of fiction that focus on spy satellites include: The OMAC Project Enemy of the State Body of Lies Ice Station Zebra Parmanu: The Story of Pokhran Defense Support Program European Union Satellite Centre List of intelligence gathering disciplines List of Kosmos satellites National Reconnaissance Office Satcom on the Move Kupperberg, Paul. Spy satellites. Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8239-3854-9 Richelson, Jeffrey. America's Secret Eyes in Space: the U. S. Keyhole Spy Satellite Program.
Harper & Row. ISBN 0-88730-285-8 Norris, Pat. "Spies in the Sky: Surveillance Satellites in War and Peace". Berlin. Retrieved 15 February 2012. FAS Intelligence Resource Program – Imagery Intelligence GlobalSecurity.org: Imagery Intelligence Iran to Launch first spy satellite Egyptsat1 Spaceports Around the World: Iraq's Al-Anbar Space Research Center Military Intelligence Satellites
Charing Cross Road is a street in central London running north of St Martin-in-the-Fields to St Giles Circus and becomes Tottenham Court Road. It is so called because it leads from the north in the direction of Charing Cross at the south side of Trafalgar Square, which it connects via St Martin's Place and the motorised east side of the square. What is now Charing Cross road was two narrow streets in the West End, Crown Street and Castle Street; the development of Regent Street in the mid-18th century coincided with not only the building up of great fields west of the area but Westminster Bridge, built as central London and the wider estuary's second bridge after more than a century of pressure, in 1750. These pressures therefore congested the north-south axis of the inner West End as much as the relieved London Bridge area. A major increase in traffic occurred around Piccadilly Circus, Charing Cross and Oxford Street, much of it destined from/to Tottenham Court Road and nearby routes to all northerly directions.
Charing Cross Road was therefore developed, in conjunction with Shaftesbury Avenue, by the Metropolitan Board of Works under an 1877 Act of Parliament. The Act's total costs, including demolition and rebuilding of many rows of buildings across London was £778,238; the two streets and others such as the Thames Embankment, Northumberland Avenue and the Kingsway-Aldwych superstructure were built to improve traffic flow through central London. The scheme abolished some of the worst slums in London which delayed progress in construction while they were rehoused; the new road met the disapprobation of Mervyn Macartney who said of it in an 1899 article: "Perhaps the worst is Charing Cross Road. It has no end. Amorphous, hideous in its tortuous course, it is a monument of the ineptitude and incompetence of its creators." Charing Cross Road is renowned for second-hand bookshops. The section from Leicester Square Underground station to Cambridge Circus is home to specialist bookshops, more general second-hand and antiquarian shops such as Quinto Bookshop, Henry Pordes and Any Amount of Books.
Most of these shops are located on the ground floor of a block owned by a housing association, which decided in 2001 to raise the rents to bring them closer to the market level. This was opposed by the book dealers, who felt that they were providing a valuable service and contributing to the unique character of the area, should not be treated in this way by a not-for-profit body; the association's counter-argument was that if the booksellers did not pay a market rent they were being subsidised by its low-income tenants. The booksellers attracted a reduced rent increase was imposed. Several of the bookshops closed nonetheless, including Silver Moon, reputedly Europe's largest women's interest bookshop, which became part of Foyles. Other shops closed more Zwemmers art bookshop, Shipley the art bookshop in December 2008 and Murder One in 2009. Smaller second-hand and specialist antiquarian bookshops can be found on the adjoining Cecil Court; the northern section between Cambridge Circus and Oxford Street includes more generalist bookshops such as the venerable Foyles.
A long-standing correspondence between New York City-based author Helene Hanff and the staff of a bookshop on the street, Marks & Co. was the inspiration for the book 84, Charing Cross Road. The book was made into a 1987 film starring Anne Bancroft and Anthony Hopkins and into a play and a BBC radio drama. 84 Charing Cross Road, located just north of Cambridge Circus, has not been a bookshop for many years. A small brass plaque, noted by Hanff in her book "Q's Legacy", remains on the stone pilaster facing Charing Cross Road; the music venue the Astoria was located here, as is one of the sites of St Martin's Arts College, opening in 1939. To the northeast of Charing Cross Road are the music shops on Denmark Street. A number of theatres are on or near Charing Cross Road, such as the Phoenix Theatre, the Garrick Theatre and Wyndham's Theatre. Beneath the grille in the traffic island between Charing Cross Road's junction with Old Compton Street, in the middle of the road, the old road signs for the now-vanished Little Compton Street can be seen.
This road once joined Old Compton Street with New Compton Street. On the east side of the road's southern end, at the joining of St Martins Lane, is a statue of Edith Cavell. Towards the north end is the Phoenix Garden – an environmental garden run by local residents. In the Harry Potter books, the Leaky Cauldron pub is located on Charing Cross Road. However, on screen, the locations used are Chez Michelle, a florist in Borough Market, for the exterior in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and the Glass House, an optician in Leadenhall Market, for the entrance in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Most interior filming was done on set. Citations Sources Book Lovers' London, by Lesley Reader, Metro Publications, paperback, 2nd edition, 2002, ISBN 1-902910-13-3. Leeper Charing Cross Road blog
TLF is a French rap band formed in the 2000s by two MCs from Val-de-Marne, namely Ikbal M'kouboi and by Alain 2 L'Ombre. In 2009, Alain 2 L'Ombre left the formation, reformed on 2010 with Ikbal, Badoo and Edwige. For the TLF live tours in 2010 and 2011, three new members pitched in: Skalp, Awa Imani and Indila and joined the group. Edwige quit in July 2011, was replaced by Léa. Alain 2 L'Ombre rejoined in 2012. TLF gained prominence in 2003 with their debut album Talents fâchés (eventually called Talents fâchés Vol. I, a compilation of songs mixed by Kore & Skalp, Mafia K-1 Fry, Sefyu, La Fouine, Kamelancien that promoted a number of artists, it was spearheaded by Ikbal Vockal, an independent music producer alongside Alain 2 L'Ombre who chose to name it TLF. Because of the success of the album, a record label was started name "Talents Fâchés Records". In 2004, a second album Talents fâchés Vol. 2 was released consolidating the first album. Ikbal and Alain 2 L'Ombre brought in materials from various producers, Sefyu, Tandem, L'Skadrille, Alibi Montana, Sté Strausz followed by Talents fâchés Vol. 3 subtitled La Dalle au mic in 2006 with Rohff, Princess Aniès, Nubi, Médine, Alibi Montana, La Fouine, LIM and Talents fâchés Vol. 4 in 2009 subtitled 04 Coins de la France with Rohff, Larsen, Keny Arkana, Salif, Nessbeal, Diam's, Soprano.
Best of the materials were included in a compilation Talents fâchés Collector in 2009. A fifth volume of Talents fâchés is planned in 2013. In between volumes 2 and 3, TLF released in 2005 a 2-CD sports compilation Rap Performance produced by "Talents fâchés Records". Besides the compilations, TLF releases its own albums notably Rêves de rue, Renaissance and OVNI in 2012, mixtapes and Ghetto drame street albums. Others2011: Renaissance Edition Deluxe 2006: Ghetto drame 2013: Ghetto drame 2 2010: Offishal Remix 2003: Talents fâchés Vol.1 2004: Talents fâchés Vol.2 2005: Rap Performance 2006: Talents fâchés Vol.3 2009: Talents fâchés Vol.4 2009: Talents fâchés Collector TLF Official page on Skyrock website
Ganita Kaumudi is a treatise on mathematics written by Indian mathematician Narayana Pandita in 1356. It was an arithmetical treatise alongside the other algebraic treatise called "Bijganita Vatamsa" by Narayana Pandit, it was written as a commentary on the Līlāvatī by Bhāskara II. Gaṇita Kaumudī contains about 475 verses of sūtra, 395 verses of udāharaṇa, it is divided into 14 sections known as vyavahāras: Weights and measures, area, etc. It describes addition, multiplication, square, square root and cube root; the problems of linear and quadratic equations described here are more complex than in earlier works. 63 rules and 82 examples Mathematics pertaining to daily life: “mixture of materials, interest on a principal, payment in instalments, mixing gold objects with different purities and other problems pertaining to linear indeterminate equations for many unknowns” 42 rules and 49 examples Arithmetic and geometric progressions and series. The generalization here was crucial for finding the infinite series for cosine.
28 rules and 19 examples. Geometry. 149 rules and 94 examples. Includes special material on cyclic quadratilerals, such as the “third diagonal”. Excavations. 7 rules and 9 examples. Stacks. 2 rules and 2 examples. Mounds of grain. 2 rules and 3 examples. Shadow problems. 7 rules and 6 examples. Linear integer equations. 69 rules and 36 examples. Quadratic. 17 rules and 10 examples. Includes a variant of the Chakravala method. Ganita Kaumudi contains many results from continued fractions. In the text Narayana Pandita used the knowledge of simple recurring continued fraction in the solutions of indeterminate equations of the type n x 2 + k 2 = y 2. Factorization. Contains Fermat's factorization method. 11 rules and 7 examples. Contains rules for writing a fraction as a sum of unit fractions. 22 rules and 14 examples. Unit fractions were known in Indian mathematics in the Vedic period: the Śulba Sūtras give an approximation of √2 equivalent to 1 + 1 3 + 1 3 ⋅ 4 − 1 3 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 34. Systematic rules for expressing a fraction as the sum of unit fractions had been given in the Gaṇita-sāra-saṅgraha of Mahāvīra.
Nārāyaṇa's Gaṇita-kaumudi gave a few more rules: the section bhāgajāti in the twelfth chapter named aṃśāvatāra-vyavahāra contains eight rules. The first few are: Rule 1. To express 1 as a sum of n unit fractions: 1 = 1 1 ⋅ 2 + 1 2 ⋅ 3 + 1 3 ⋅ 4 + ⋯ + 1 ⋅ n + 1 n Rule 2. To express 1 as a sum of n unit fractions: 1 = 1 2 + 1 3 + 1 3 2 + ⋯ + 1 3 n − 2 + 1 2 ⋅ 3 n − 2 Rule 3. To express a fraction p / q as a sum of unit fractions:Pick an arbitrary number i such that / p is an integer r, write p q = 1 r + i q r and find successive denominators in the same way by operating on the new fraction. If i is always chosen to be the smallest such integer, this is equivalent to the greedy algorithm for Egyptian fractions, but the Gaṇita-Kaumudī's rule does not give a unique procedure, instead states evam iṣṭavaśād bahudhā Rule 4. Given n arbitrary numbers k 1, k 2, …, k n, 1 = k 1 k 2 ⋅ k 1 + k 1 k 3 ⋅ k 2 + ⋯ + k 1 k n ⋅ k n
Thomas Slaney Poole referred to as "Justice Poole" was a South Australian lawyer. Poole was born in Strathalbyn, South Australia, the eldest son of Frederic Slaney Poole "Canon Poole" and Rebecca Poole, née Scott, he attended St. Peter's College, he entered Trinity College, University of Melbourne, graduating BA with first class honours in Greek and comparative philology in 1894. In December 1894 Professor E. V. Boulger resigned his position as Professor of Classics and Comparative Philology and Literature at the University of Adelaide. Poole was appointed to take over his Classics lectures for the months of March to May 1895, he returned to Melbourne, where he graduated MA in 1896 and LLB in 1897. He was called to the Victorian Bar the same year, he became associate to Justice Bundey in Adelaide entered a partnership with Percy Emerson Johnstone from around 1910 to 1919. Despite Poole's notorious misogyny, Mary Kitson was articled to this partnership, which became Johnstone and Kitson. Poole took silk in 1919 and was appointed fourth judge of the Supreme Court of South Australia on 25 September that same year.
Arthur William Piper succeeded him on the bench on 16 June 1927. Poole acted as Administrator of South Australia from 9 April 1925 to the end of November while the Governor, Sir Tom Bridges and the Chief Justice Sir George Murray were absent from the State, he was a committed Anglican and served for some time as the Chancellor of the Diocese of Adelaide. He was a warden of Adelaide University from 1922 until his death, he was an active Freemason and was for several years until his death Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of South Australia. He laid the foundation stone of the new Masonic Temple on North Terrace on 15 April 1925. In 1903 the judge married Dora Frances Williams, a daughter of Rev. Francis Williams, for many years headmaster of St. Peter's College, they had three daughters: Katherine Slaney Poole Gertrude Slaney Poole married Arthur Reginald Evans Cynthia Slaney Poole He died at his home Alpha road, Prospect after several months' ill-health. His remains were buried at the North Road Cemetery following a State Funeral.
P. A. Howell. "Poole, Frederic Slaney ". Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University
Since 1980, British pop musical group Level 42 have released 11 studio albums. The band's latest was Retroglide, released in 2006; the group have one Top 10 hit on the American Billboard Hot 100 chart and six top 10s on the British UK single charts. In Canada, they've achieved two gold singles. Level 42 have sold 31 million units worldwide. 1985 - A Physical Presence 1996 - Live at Wembley 2001 - Live 2001 Reading UK / Re-released in 2006 as Greatest Hits Live in Concert 2001 at the Reading Hall England / Re-released in 2007 as Live In Concert At The Reading Hall 2001 In England, as Greatest Hits Performed Live in Reading 2001 and as The Essential Collection / Re-released in 2013 as Best Of Live 2003 - Greatest Hits Live / Re-released in 2005 and as Greatest Hits Live Tour 2004 - Live at the Apollo, London / Re-released in 2005 / Re-released in 2007 and 2008 as Live at the Apollo / Re-released in 2008 as Highlights From Live In London 2004 - The Sun Goes Down – The Best Of Level 42 – Live In Concert 2005 - The River Sessions 2006 - Level 42 2007 - The Retroglide Tour 2009 - Live in Holland 2009 2013 - Live from Metropolis Studio 2015 - Live - 30th Anniversary Concert 2015 - Sirens Tour Live 1987 - The Family Edition 1989 - Level Best 1989 - On the Level 1989 - Level 42 Box Set 1991 - 1980 - 1989 Complete 1992 - The Remixes 1993 - On a Level 1993 - Lessons in Love - Level 42 Best 1995 - To Be with You Again 1996 - Turn it On 1996 - The Remix Collection 1997 - The Very Best of Level 42 Re-released in 1998 The Very Best of Level 42 1998 - Greatest Hits and More 1999 - Classic Level 42 - The Universal Masters Collection Re-released in 2009 2000 - Physical Presence - Best Level 2000 - The Star Collection - Running in the Family 2000 - Millennium Edition Re-released in 2004 as Popstars of the 20th Century 2002 - The Ultimate Collection / / Re-released in 2005 as Gold 2003 - The Collection + 2003 - The Collection 2003 - Forever Gold 2003 - 20th Century Masters - The Best of Level 42: The Millennium Collection 2004 - The Ultimate Collection - Sound + Vision Deluxe 2005 - The Ultimate Collection II - B-Sides Remixes & RaritiesI 2006 - The Definitive Collection 2006 - The Love Collection 2006 - Something About You - The Best of Level 42 2007 - The Silver Collection 2007 - Past Lives – The Best of the RCA Years 2007 - Best Level 2007 - Weave Your Spell: The Collection 2008 - Running in the Family 2008 - The Collection 2008 - Classic Level 42 2010 - The Acoustic Album 2010 - Living it Up 2010 - Lessons in Love: The Collection Re-released in 2017 as Lessons in Love - The Essential Level 42 2013 - Running in the Family - Acoustic Re-Interpretations 25 Years On 2015 - Something About You: The Collection 2016 - Collected 2017 - The Ultimate Collection A Physical Presence EP Sirens Between 1980 and 1994, Level 42 had a total of 30 singles, 20 of those reaching the Top 40 of the UK Singles Chart.
In the US, only two songs made the Top 40 on the Billboard Hot 100. A - 1100 white label records released commercially - Level 42 provided the B-side. A-side'Journey to...' by'Powerline'. The release was purely commercial, the'white labels' were used to give the record'underground' credibility. B - "Something About You" and "Leaving Me Now" both charted on the U. S. Adult Contemporary chart. "Something About You" hit #45 on the U. S. Album Rock Tracks chart. 1987 - The Family of Five 2003 - The Collection 2003 - Live at Reading UK 2003 - Live at Reading Concert Hall 2003 - Level 42 Live Apollo 2003 2005 - Live at Wembley 2005 - Level 42 at Rock Palast 2006 - Retroglide Tour the most comprehensive online Level 42 discography Level 42 official website forevernow.com