The Red Army Faction known as the Baader–Meinhof Group or Baader–Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970. Key early figures included Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Mahler and Ulrike Meinhof, among others. Ulrike Meinhof was involved in Baader's escape from jail in 1970; the West German/German government as well as most Western media and literature considered the Red Army Faction to be a terrorist organization. The Red Army Faction engaged in a series of bombings, kidnappings, bank robberies and shoot-outs with police over the course of three decades, their activity peaked in late 1977, which led to a national crisis that became known as the "German Autumn". The RAF has been held responsible for thirty-four deaths, including many secondary targets, such as chauffeurs and bodyguards, as well as many injuries throughout its thirty years of activity. Although better-known, the RAF conducted fewer attacks than the Revolutionary Cells, held responsible for 296 bomb attacks and other attacks between 1973 and 1995.
Sometimes the group is talked about in terms of generations: the "first generation", which consisted of Baader, Ensslin and others. On 20 April 1998, an eight-page typewritten letter in German was faxed to the Reuters news agency, signed "RAF" with the submachine-gun red star, declaring that the group had dissolved. In 1999, after a robbery in Duisburg, traces of Ernst-Volker Staub and Daniela Klette were found, causing an official investigation into a re-founding. In total, the RAF killed 34 people, 27 members or supporters were killed; the usual translation into English is the Red Army Faction. The group always called itself the Rote Armee Fraktion, never Gang; the name refers to all incarnations of the organization: the "first generation" RAF, which consisted of Baader, Ensslin and others. The terms "Baader-Meinhof Gang" and "Baader-Meinhof Group" were first used by the media and the government; the group never used these names to refer to itself, since it viewed itself as a co-founded group consisting of numerous members and not a group with two figureheads.
The Red Army Faction's Urban Guerrilla Concept is not based on an optimistic view of the prevailing circumstances in the Federal Republic and West Berlin. The origins of the group can be traced back to the student protest movement in West Germany. Industrialized nations in the late 1960s experienced social upheavals related to the maturing of the "baby boomers", the Cold War, the end of colonialism. Newly found youth identity and issues such as racism, women's liberation, anti-imperialism were at the forefront of left-wing politics. Many young people were alienated, from both their parents and the institutions of state; the historical legacy of Nazism drove a wedge between the generations and increased suspicion of authoritarian structures in society. In West Germany there was anger among leftist youth at the post-war denazification in West Germany and East Germany, perceived as a failure or as ineffective, as former Nazis held positions in government and the economy; the Communist Party of Germany had been outlawed since 1956.
Elected and appointed government positions down to the local level were occupied by ex-Nazis. Konrad Adenauer, the first Federal Republic chancellor, had appointed former Nazi sympathiser Hans Globke as Director of the Federal Chancellery of West Germany; the radicals regarded the conservative media as biased—at the time conservatives such as Axel Springer, implacably opposed to student radicalism and controlled the conservative media including all of the most influential mass-circulation tabloid newspapers. The emergence of the Grand Coalition between the two main parties, the SPD and CDU, with former Nazi Party member Kurt Georg Kiesinger as chancellor, occurred in 1966; this horrified many on the left and was viewed as a monolithic, political marriage of convenience with pro-NATO, pro-capitalist collusion on the part of the social democratic SPD. With about 90% of the Bundestag controlled by the coalition, an Extra-Parliamentary Opposition was formed with the intent of generating protest and political activity outside of government.
In 1972 a law was passed—the Radikalenerlass—that banned radicals or those with a "questionable" political persuasion from public sector jobs. Some radicals used the supposed association of large parts of society with Nazism as an argument against any peaceful approaches: They'll kill us all. You know; this is the Auschwitz generation. You can't argue with people, they have weapons and we haven't. We must arm ourselves! The radicalized were, like many in the New Left, influenced by: Sociological developments, pressure within the educational system in and outside Europe and the U. S. together with the background of counter-cultural movements. The writings of Mao Zedong adapted to Western European conditions. Post-war writings on class society and empire as w
The Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railroad is an historic railway corridor running through Santa Cruz County, California. It runs from Davenport to the Watsonville Junction; the line was constructed as the Santa Cruz Railroad between 1873–1876 and was laid with narrow gauge rail. Sold to Southern Pacific after foreclosure, converted the line to standard gauge and operated until the actual merger into Southern Pacific on 14 May 1888; the 3.7-mile Aptos branch from Aptos to Loma Prieta was built as the Loma Prieta Railroad in 1883 and abandoned in 1928. The line was extended to Davenport in 1905; until 1940, the line connected in Santa Cruz with the former South Pacific Coast Railroad to San Jose, California as an alternative Southern Pacific Coast Line route north of Watsonville Junction. A cement kiln in Davenport provided one hundred carloads weekly of inbound outbound cement. Inbound lumber and outbound refrigerator cars of locally grown Brussels sprouts and lettuce provided additional freight traffic.
Suntan Special summer excursion trains carried 900 passengers per trip from San Francisco to the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk from July 1947 to September 1959. There was a railway turntable and 5-stall roundhouse in Santa Cruz, but steam locomotives were replaced by EMD GP9s in 1955. Daily local freight service was replaced in 1982 by tri-weekly branch line trains operating at 20 mi per hour including a caboose until 1986; the Pajaro River bridge was damaged by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The line came under ownership of Union Pacific in 1996; as of 2012 the corridor is owned by the Santa Cruz County Regional Transportation Commission. At that time freight operations were contracted out to Iowa Pacific Holdings, commencing service in November 2012. In 2018, Progressive Rail, Inc. was chosen as the replacement freight operator under a 10-year contract. The right of way begins in Watsonville Junction, where it interchanges with Union Pacific's Coast Line; the line features street running sections in Watsonville and Santa Cruz where trains interact directly with roadway traffic.
The Santa Cruz, Big Trees and Pacific Railway operates part of its heritage railway service along SCMB tracks from the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk to that railroad's main line east of the Beach Street roundabout, before turning onto its own tracks at the Santa Cruz Wye towards Felton on the former South Pacific Coast Railroad mainline. After leaving Santa Cruz, the line runs parallel to Highway 1 until Davenport, where the tracks end suddenly. Iowa Pacific: Santa Cruz & Monterey Bay Railway
George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer or was an English nobleman. George Neville was the fifth son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, by his second wife Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, he succeeded to the Latymer estates on the death of his half-uncle John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer, in 1430, on 25 February 1432 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron Latimer. Lord Latimer fought in Scotland in 1436, was a Justice of the Peace for Cumberland in 1437 and admitted to the Privy Council in 1439. In 1437, Lord Latimer married Lady Elizabeth, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, by his first wife, Elizabeth Berkeley, they had four children: Katherine Neville. Sir Henry Neville, who married Joan Bourchier, daughter of John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners, Marjorie Berners, had: Joan Neville, born ca 1464, Buckinghamshire, England. Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer, married in Grafton, Worcestershire, in 1490 to Anne Stafford, daughter of Sir Humphrey Stafford of Grafton and Catherine Fray, had issue which included John Neville, 3rd Baron Latimer.
Thomas Neville, born in Shenstone, England. He was Lord of Mathom. Thomas Neville, of Shenstone, Staffordshire. Jane Neville, who married Oliver Dudley. George Neville appears to have suffered from some form of dementia in his years, as he was described as an "idiot," and the guardianship of his lands was given to his nephew, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker. George Neville, Lord Latimer, died on 30 December 1469 and was succeeded in the barony by his grandson Richard, his eldest son Sir Henry Neville having predeceased him by several months, dying at the Battle of Edgecote Moor, 26 July 1469. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage