Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers and layering. It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks, stratigraphy has two related subfields, lithologic stratigraphy or lithostratigraphy, and biologic stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. The first practical application of stratigraphy was by William Smith in the 1790s. Another influential application of stratigraphy in the early 19th century was a study by Georges Cuvier, variation in rock units, most obviously displayed as visible layering, is due to physical contrasts in rock type. This variation can occur vertically as layering, or laterally, and these variations provide a lithostratigraphy or lithologic stratigraphy of the rock unit. Key concepts in stratigraphy involve understanding how certain geometric relationships between rock layers arise and what these geometries imply about their original depositional environment. The basic concept in stratigraphy, called the law of superposition, states, in a stratigraphic sequence.
Chemostratigraphy studies the changes in the proportions of trace elements and isotopes within. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios vary with time, and researchers can use those to map subtle changes that occurred in the paleoenvironment and this has led to the specialized field of isotopic stratigraphy. Biostratigraphy or paleontologic stratigraphy is based on evidence in the rock layers. Strata from widespread locations containing the fossil fauna and flora are said to be correlatable in time. Biologic stratigraphy was based on William Smiths principle of succession, which predated. It provides strong evidence for the formation and extinction of species, the geologic time scale was developed during the 19th century, based on the evidence of biologic stratigraphy and faunal succession. One important development is the Vail curve, which attempts to define a global historical sea-level curve according to inferences from worldwide stratigraphic patterns, stratigraphy is commonly used to delineate the nature and extent of hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir rocks and traps of petroleum geology.
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that places an absolute age, a gap or missing strata in the geological record of an area is called a stratigraphic hiatus. This may be the result of a halt in the deposition of sediment, the gap may be due to removal by erosion, in which case it may be called a stratigraphic vacuity. It is called a hiatus because deposition was on hold for a period of time, a physical gap may represent both a period of non-deposition and a period of erosion. A geologic fault may cause the appearance of a hiatus, magnetostratigraphy is a chronostratigraphic technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences
Seymour is a city in and the county seat of Baylor County, United States. The population was 2,740 as of the 2010 Census, Seymour is located at 33°35′30″N 99°15′39″W, on the Brazos River. It is 52 miles southwest of Wichita Falls and 102 miles north-northeast of Abilene, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.9 square miles, of which 0.004 square miles, or 0. 20%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Seymour has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,740 people, there were 1,451 housing units,249 of which were vacant. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,908 people,1,273 households, the population density was 1,067.5 people per square mile. There were 1,534 housing units at a density of 563.1 per square mile. 35. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 21. 9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the city, the population was out with 24. 3% under the age of 18,6. 1% from 18 to 24,20. 9% from 25 to 44,23. 9% from 45 to 64. The median age was 44 years, for every 100 females there were 83.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.6 males, the median income for a household in the city was $23,662, and the median income for a family was $32,917. Males had an income of $21,891 versus $19,292 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,062, about 15. 6% of families and 19. 5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31. 8% of those under age 18 and 10. 7% of those age 65 or over. Seymour was founded by settlers from Oregon, who called the town Oregon City, it was located where the Western Trail crossed the Brazos River. A post office was established in 1879, at time the towns name was changed to honor local cowboy Seymour Munday. Commerce, a newspaper, a hotel, and the county courthouse all followed soon after, as did violence between cowboys and settlers.
The town experienced two distinct economic booms, the first, short-lived, with the construction of the Wichita Valley rail line in 1880, and the second due to the discovery of oil in 1906. The population grew from 500 in 1884 to almost 3800 in 1950, it remained at about that level for more than thirty years, agribusiness, as well as some tourism from nearby Lake Kemp, has overtaken oil as the driving factor of the local economy
Dimetrodon is an extinct genus of synapsid that lived during the Cisuralian Permian, around 295–272 million years ago. It is a member of the family Sphenacodontidae, the most prominent feature of Dimetrodon is the large neural spine sail on its back formed by elongated spines extending from the vertebrae. It walked on four legs and had a tall, curved skull with teeth of different sizes set along the jaws. Most fossils have found in the southwestern United States, the majority coming from a geological deposit called the Red Beds of Texas. More recently, fossils have found in Germany. Over a dozen species have been named since the genus was first described in 1878, Dimetrodon is often mistaken for a dinosaur or as a contemporary of dinosaurs in popular culture, but it became extinct some 40 million years before the first appearance of dinosaurs. Reptile-like in appearance and physiology, Dimetrodon is nevertheless more closely related to mammals than to modern reptiles, Dimetrodon is assigned to the stem-mammals or non-mammalian synapsids, a group traditionally called mammal-like reptiles.
This groups Dimetrodon together with mammals in a clade called Synapsida, while placing dinosaurs and birds in a separate clade, Sauropsida. Single openings in the skull behind each eye, known as temporal fenestrae, Dimetrodon was probably one of the apex predators of the Cisuralian ecosystems, feeding on fish and tetrapods, including reptiles and amphibians. Smaller Dimetrodon species may have had different ecological roles, the sail of Dimetrodon may have been used to stabilize its spine or to heat and cool its body as a form of thermoregulation. Some recent studies argue that the sail would have been ineffective at removing heat from the body, Dimetrodon was a quadrupedal, sail-backed synapsid. Most Dimetrodon species ranged in length from 1.7 to 4.6 metres and are estimated to have weighed between 28 and 250 kilograms. The largest known species of Dimetrodon is D. angelensis at 4.6 metres, although some Dimetrodon species could grow very large, many juvenile specimens are known. Features such as ridges on the inside of the nasal cavity, the skull of Dimetrodon is tall and compressed laterally, or side-to-side.
The eye sockets are positioned high and far back in the skull, behind each eye socket is a single hole called an infratemporal fenestra. An additional hole in the skull, the fenestra, can be seen when viewed from above. The back of the skull is oriented at an upward angle. The upper margin of the skull slopes downward in an arc to the tip of the snout
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals and other organisms from the remote past. The totality of fossils, both discovered and undiscovered, and their placement in fossiliferous rock formations and sedimentary layers is known as the fossil record. The study of fossils across geological time, how they were formed, such a preserved specimen is called a fossil if it is older than some minimum age, most often the arbitrary date of 10,000 years. The observation that fossils were associated with certain rock strata led early geologists to recognize a geological timescale in the 19th century. The development of dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed geologists to determine the numerical or absolute age of the various strata. Like extant organisms, fossils vary in size from microscopic, even single bacterial cells one micrometer in diameter, to gigantic, such as dinosaurs, Fossils may consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces.
These types of fossil are called trace fossils, as opposed to body fossils, past life leaves some markers that cannot be seen but can be detected in the form of biochemical signals, these are known as chemofossils or biosignatures. The process of fossilization varies according to type and external conditions. Permineralization is a process of fossilization that occurs when an organism is buried, the empty spaces within an organism become filled with mineral-rich groundwater. Minerals precipitate from the groundwater, occupying the empty spaces and this process can occur in very small spaces, such as within the cell wall of a plant cell. Small scale permineralization can produce very detailed fossils, for permineralization to occur, the organism must become covered by sediment soon after death or soon after the initial decay process. The degree to which the remains are decayed when covered determines the details of the fossil, some fossils consist only of skeletal remains or teeth, other fossils contain traces of skin, feathers or even soft tissues.
This is a form of diagenesis, in some cases the original remains of the organism completely dissolve or are otherwise destroyed. The remaining organism-shaped hole in the rock is called an external mold, if this hole is filled with other minerals, it is a cast. An endocast or internal mold is formed when sediments or minerals fill the cavity of an organism. This is a form of cast and mold formation. If the chemistry is right, the organism can act as a nucleus for the precipitation of minerals such as siderite, if this happens rapidly before significant decay to the organic tissue, very fine three-dimensional morphological detail can be preserved. Nodules from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek fossil beds of Illinois, USA, are among the best documented examples of such mineralization, replacement occurs when the shell, bone or other tissue is replaced with another mineral
Calamites is a genus of extinct arborescent horsetails to which the modern horsetails are closely related. Unlike their herbaceous modern cousins, these plants were medium-sized trees and they were components of the understories of coal swamps of the Carboniferous Period. A number of taxa have been identified as part of a united organism. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, there are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the void in the centre of the trunk. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include, Arthropitys Astromyelon Annularia, the trunks of Calamites had a distinctive segmented, bamboo-like appearance and vertical ribbing. The branches and cones were all borne in whorls, the leaves were needle-shaped, with up to 25 per whorl.
Their trunks produced secondary xylem, meaning they were made of wood, the vascular cambium of Calamites was unifacial, producing secondary xylem towards the stem center, but not secondary phloem. The stems of modern horsetails are typically hollow or contain numerous elongated air-filled sacs, Calamites was similar in that its trunk and stems were hollow, like wooden tubes. When these trunks buckled and broke, they could fill with sediment and this is the reason pith casts of the inside of Calamites stems are so common as fossils. Calamites reproduced by means of spores, which were produced in small sacs organized into cones and they are known to have possessed massive underground rhizomes, which allowed for the production of clones of one tree. This is the group of trees of their period known to have a clonal habit. This type of reproduction would allow them to spread quickly into new territory. The rhizomes of Calamites look quite similar to the stems in most cases, Calamites come in a variety of different form genera.
One type, Calamites suckowi, is distinguishable from other Calamites forms by its prominent, swollen nodes, another example, Calamites cisti, has much smaller nodes and the ribs are typically closer together. In addition, the distance between successive node lines on a Calamites suckowi specimen is typically wider than the diameter. In other forms like Calamites cisti, the opposite is true or the specimen is just slightly wider than the diameter, the value of these form taxa is limited
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U. S. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the states struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texan state flag, the origin of Texass name is from the word Tejas, which means friends in the Caddo language. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas land area is desert. Most of the centers are located in areas of former prairies, forests. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the term six flags over Texas refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas, Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic.
In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state, the states annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, after the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle, due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The states economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated a boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy, as of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, aerospace. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.
The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning friends or allies, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, during Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas, La Provincia de Texas. Texas is the second largest U. S. state, behind Alaska, though 10 percent larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile, Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers, the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south
Harvard Museum of Natural History
The Harvard Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum on the grounds of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The museum is connected to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. With more than 210,000 visitors in 2013, the Harvard Museum of Natural History is the University’s most-visited museum. The Harvard Museum of Natural History is one of four public museums which are part of a new consortium created in 2012, the mineralogical galleries present a systematic display of meteorites and gemstones. In addition, a series of changing exhibitions bring focus to new research at the University, current exhibitions include Thoreaus Maine Woods, A Journey in Photographs with Scot Miller, Shelled Masters of the Marine Realm, and New England Forests in the Zofnass Family Gallery. The Museum’s educational programs provides a hands-on, observation-based approach, public lectures are another of the Museum’s activities. A travel program complements the museum’s mission to enhance awareness of the natural world, travelling in small groups often led by Harvard science faculty, Museum travellers experience destinations that are of particular importance as recognized hotspots of biodiversity.
The museum is member-based, with over 3,200 current members, the Museum is located in 26 Oxford Street, Massachusetts. It can be reached by a less than 10 minute walk from the Harvard on the red line or by various bus lines that serve Harvard Square such as 68. For more information, check out MBTAs website here, for accurate rates for admission, please check the museums website here. Take note of the offers for Boston area residents. As of June 2014, the museum offers free admission to Boston residents every Sunday morning from 9,00 am to noon and on Wednesdays from 3,00 to 5,00 pm excluding commercial groups, please be prepared to present proof of residency
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms evolution and interactions with each other, paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuviers work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, i. e. old, ancient, ὄν, on, i. e. being, creature and λόγος, logos, i. e. speech, study. Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology, but differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of modern humans. It now uses techniques drawn from a range of sciences, including biochemistry, mathematics. The final quarter of the 20th century saw the development of molecular phylogenetics, molecular phylogenetics has been used to estimate the dates when species diverged, but there is controversy about the reliability of the molecular clock on which such estimates depend.
The simplest definition is the study of ancient life, paleontology is one of the historical sciences, along with archaeology, astronomy, cosmology and history itself. This means that it aims to describe phenomena of the past, hence it has three main elements, description of the phenomena, developing a general theory about the causes of various types of change, and applying those theories to specific facts. Sometimes the smoking gun is discovered by an accident during other research. Paleontology lies on the boundary between biology and geology since paleontology focuses on the record of past life but its source of evidence is fossils. In addition paleontology often uses techniques derived from other sciences, including biology, ecology, techniques developed in engineering have been used to analyse how ancient organisms might have worked, for example how fast Tyrannosaurus could move and how powerful its bite was. As knowledge has increased, paleontology has developed specialised subdivisions, vertebrate paleontology concentrates on fossils of vertebrates, from the earliest fish to the immediate ancestors of modern mammals.
Invertebrate paleontology deals with fossils of such as molluscs, arthropods. Paleobotany focuses on the study of plants, but traditionally includes the study of fossil algae. Palynology, the study of pollen and spores produced by plants and protists. Micropaleontology deals with all microscopic fossil organisms, regardless of the group to which they belong, one example is the development of oxygenic photosynthesis by bacteria, which hugely increased the productivity and diversity of ecosystems. This caused the oxygenation of the atmosphere, these were a prerequisite for the evolution of the most complex eukaryotic cells, from which all multicellular organisms are built
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earths surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation is the name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles to settle in place. The particles that form a rock by accumulating are called sediment. Sedimentation may occur as minerals precipitate from solution or shells of aquatic creatures settle out of suspension. The sedimentary rock cover of the continents of the Earths crust is extensive, sedimentary rocks are only a thin veneer over a crust consisting mainly of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rocks are deposited in layers as strata, forming a structure called bedding, sedimentary rocks are important sources of natural resources like coal, fossil fuels, drinking water or ores. The study of the sequence of rock strata is the main source for an understanding of the Earths history, including palaeogeography, paleoclimatology. The scientific discipline that studies the properties and origin of rocks is called sedimentology.
Sedimentology is part of both geology and physical geography and overlaps partly with other disciplines in the Earth sciences, such as pedology, geochemistry, sedimentary rocks have been found on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of rock fragments that were cemented by silicate minerals. Clastic rocks are composed largely of quartz, rock fragments, clay minerals, and mica, any type of mineral may be present, clastic sedimentary rocks, are subdivided according to the dominant particle size. Most geologists use the Udden-Wentworth grain size scale and divide unconsolidated sediment into three fractions, gravel and mud and this tripartite subdivision is mirrored by the broad categories of rudites and lutites, respectively, in older literature. The subdivision of these three categories is based on differences in clast shape and breccias), composition. Conglomerates are dominantly composed of rounded gravel, while breccias are composed of dominantly angular gravel, composition of framework grains The relative abundance of sand-sized framework grains determines the first word in a sandstone name.
Naming depends on the dominance of the three most abundant components quartz, feldspar, or the lithic fragments that originated from other rocks, all other minerals are considered accessories and not used in the naming of the rock, regardless of abundance. Clean sandstones with open space are called arenites. Muddy sandstones with abundant muddy matrix are called wackes, six sandstone names are possible using the descriptors for grain composition and the amount of matrix. Mudrocks are sedimentary rocks composed of at least 50% silt- and clay-sized particles and these relatively fine-grained particles are commonly transported by turbulent flow in water or air, and deposited as the flow calms and the particles settle out of suspension
Red beds are sedimentary rocks, which typically consist of sandstone and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides. Frequently, these sedimentary strata locally contain thin beds of conglomerate, limestone. The ferric oxides, which are responsible for the red color of red beds, classic examples of red beds are the Permian and Triassic strata of the western United States and the Devonian Old Red Sandstone facies of Europe. Van Houten developed the idea to include the in situ reddening of the sediment by the dehydration of brown or drab colored ferric hydroxides and these ferric hydroxides commonly include goethite and so-called amorphous ferric hydroxide or limonite. Much of this material may be the mineral ferrihydrite, thus detrital ferric hydroxides, including goethite and ferrihydrite, will spontaneously transform into red-colored hematite pigment with time. This process not only accounts for the progressive reddening of alluvium, the formation of red beds during burial diagenesis was clearly described by Walker and Walker et al.
The key to this mechanism is the alteration of ferromagnesian silicates by oxygenated groundwaters during burial. Walker’s studies show that the hydrolysis of hornblende and other iron-bearing detritus follows Goldich dissolution series and this is controlled by the Gibbs Free Energy of the particular reaction. These include mixed layer clays, potassium feldspar and carbonates as well as the pigmentary ferric oxides, reddening progresses as the diagenetic alteration becomes more advanced and is thus a time dependent mechanism. The other implication is that reddening of this type is not specific to a depositional environment. Secondary red beds are characterized by irregular color zonation, often related to sub-unconformity weathering profiles, the color boundaries may cross-cut lithological contacts and show more intense reddening adjacent to unconformities. Johnson et al. have showed how secondary reddening phases might be superimposed on earlier formed primary red beds in the Carboniferous of the southern North Sea, the general conditions leading to post-diagenetic alteration have been described by Mücke.
They are linked to the uplift and surface weathering of previously deposited sediments and require conditions similar to primary, chugwater Formation Red Hills, Kansas Old Red Sandstone New Red Sandstone American Geological Institute, Dictionary of Geological Terms, p.416. Goethite stability and origin of red beds, geochimica Cosmomochimica Acta,35, pp 267-273. Krynine, P. D.1950, stratigraphy, langmuir, D.1971, Particle size effect on the reaction Goethite = Hematite + Water. American Journal of Science,271, pp 147-156, postdiagenetic ferruginization of sedimentary rocks - including a comparative study of the reddening of red beds. Wolf, K. H. and Chilingarian, G V. pp 361-395 Diagenesis, developments in Sedimentology 51, Amsterdam. Annual Review Earth Planetary Science,1, pp 39-61 Walker, T. R.1967, Formation of red beds in modern, Bulletin of the Geological Society of America,78, pp 353-368
The Queensland lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, is a surviving member of the family Neoceratodontidae and order Ceratodontiformes. It is one of six extant lungfish species in the world. Endemic to Australia, the Neoceratodontidae are an ancient family belonging to the class Sarcopterygii, fossil records of this group date back 380 million years, around the time when the higher vertebrate classes were beginning to evolve. It is one of six extant representatives of the ancient air-breathing Dipnoi that flourished during the Devonian period and is the most primitive surviving member of this lineage. The five other freshwater species, four in Africa and one in South America, are very different morphologically from N. forsteri. The Queensland lungfish can live for days out of the water, if it is kept moist. The small settlement of Ceratodus, derives its name from that of the Queensland lungfish, the Queensland lungfish is native only to the Mary and Burnett River systems in south-eastern Queensland.
It has been distributed to other, more southerly rivers, including the Brisbane, Albert and Coomera Rivers. The Queensland lungfish has introduced to the Pine and Condamine Rivers. Formerly widespread, at one time at least seven species of lungfish were in Australia and this species lives in slow-flowing rivers and still water that have some aquatic vegetation present on banks. It occurs over mud, sand, or gravel bottoms, the lungfish is tolerant of cold, but prefers waters with temperatures between 15 and 25 °C. The Queensland lungfish is incapable of surviving complete desiccation of its habitat, unlike the African species, Protopterus, it does not survive dry seasons by secreting a mucous cocoon and burying itself in the mud. The Queensland lungfish is essentially a sedentary species, spending its life within a restricted area and its home range rarely extends beyond a single pool or, two adjacent pools. It does not follow a set path, but may actively seek out suitable spawning habitats between July and December.
Queensland lungfish are olive-green to dull brown on the back, sides and fins and they have been described as having a reddish colouring on their sides which gets much brighter in the males during the breeding season. This colouration is the only distinguishing sexual characteristic of the lungfish and they have stout, elongated bodies and flattened heads with small eyes. The mouth is small and in a subterminal position, the lungfish can grow to a length of about 150 cm, and a weight of 43 kg. It is commonly found to be about 100 cm and 20 kg on average, both sexes follow similar growth patterns, although the females grow to a slightly larger size
Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. Grain size is up to 0.0625 mm with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope, with increased pressure over time, the platey clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering. This finely bedded material that splits readily into thin layers is called shale, the lack of fissility or layering in mudstone may be due to either original texture or the disruption of layering by burrowing organisms in the sediment prior to lithification. Mud rocks such as mudstone and shale comprise some 65% of all sedimentary rocks, mudstone looks like hardened clay and, depending upon the circumstances under which it was formed, it may show cracks or fissures, like a sun-baked clay deposit. Mudstone can be separated into categories, Siltstone – more than half of the composition is silt-sized particles. Claystone – more than half of the composition is clay-sized particles, mudstone – hardened mud, a mix of silt and clay sized particles.
Mudstone can include, Shale – exhibits lamination or fissility, argillite – has undergone low-grade metamorphism. In the Dunham classification of limestones, a mudstone is a carbonate rock that contains less than 10% allochems in a carbonate mud matrix. As defined by the Dunham classification, a mudstone is more or less synonymous with calcilutite, on December 13,2016, NASA reported further evidence supporting habitability on the planet Mars as the Curiosity rover climbed higher, studying younger layers, on Mount Sharp. Also reported, the soluble element boron was detected for the first time on Mars. Since landing on Mars in August 2012, Curiosity has driven 15.0 km, mudstone on planet Mars Aeolis quadrangle Composition of Mars Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory Tonstein