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Red Bull

Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Red Bull GmbH, an Austrian company created in 1987. Red Bull has the highest market share of any energy drink in the world, with 6.790 billion cans sold in a year. Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz was inspired by an existing energy drink named Krating Daeng, first introduced and sold in Thailand by Chaleo Yoovidhya, he took this idea, modified the ingredients to suit the tastes of Westerners, and, in partnership with Chaleo, founded Red Bull GmbH in 1987 in Chakkapong, Thailand. In Thai, daeng means red, a krating is a large species of wild bovine native to South Asia. Yoovidhya's heirs own majority stakes in both brands, they both use the same red bull on yellow sun logo while continuing to market the separate drinks to the respective Thai and Western markets. Red Bull is sold in a slim blue-silver can. Only available in a single nondescript flavor and regular or sugar-free formulas, a line of "color editions" with artificial fruit flavors were added to the line beginning in 2013.

The Red Bull company slogan is "Red Bull gives you wings" "No Red Bull, no wings". Rather than following a traditional approach to mass marketing, Red Bull has generated awareness and created a'brand myth' through proprietary extreme sport event series such as Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series, Red Bull Air Race, Red Bull Crashed Ice and stand-out stunts such as the Stratos space diving project. Red Bull's marketing includes multiple sports team ownerships, celebrity endorsements, music, through its record label Red Bull Records. Energy drinks have been associated with health risks, such as masking the effects of intoxication when consumed with alcohol, excessive or repeated consumption can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions. However, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that an adequate consumption of Red Bull and other popular energy drinks is safe and that the amount of caffeine in a standard Red Bull can is unlikely to interact adversely with other typical constituents of energy drinks or with alcohol.

Energy drinks have the effects that caffeine and sugar give, but there is no distinct evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients has any effect. In 1976, Chaleo Yoovidhya introduced a drink called Krating Daeng in Thailand, which means "red gaur" in English, it labourers. While working for German manufacturer Blendax in 1982, Dietrich Mateschitz travelled to Thailand and met Chaleo, owner of T. C. Pharmaceutical. During his visit, Mateschitz discovered. In 1984, Mateschitz co-founded Red Bull GmbH with Yoovidhya and turned it into an international brand; each partner invested US$500,000 of savings to found the company. Yoovidhya and Mateschitz each held a 49 percent share of the new company, they gave the remaining two percent to Yoovidhya's son, but it was agreed that Mateschitz would run the company. The product was launched in Austria in 1987. In Thailand, energy drinks are most popular with blue-collar workers. Red Bull re-positioned the drink as a trendy, upscale drink, first introducing it at Austrian ski resorts.

Pricing was a key differentiator, with Red Bull positioned as a premium drink and Krating Daeng as a lower cost item. In many countries, both drinks are available. In 1992, the product expanded to Slovenia, it entered Germany and the UK in 1994, the United States in 1997 and the Middle East in 2000. In 2008, Forbes magazine listed both Chaleo and Mateschitz as the 250th richest people in the world with an estimated net worth of US$4 billion. Red Bull GmbH is headquartered in Fuschl am See, an Austrian village of about 1,500 inhabitants near Salzburg; the company is 51 percent controlled by the Yoovidhya family who, for technical reasons, own the trademark in Europe and the US. In 1995, Krating Daeng authorized its drink, labelled as Red Bull. Since 2014, the Austrian Red Bull has been exported to China; this has created confusion since both drinks use the same brand name, in both Chinese. In Southeast Asia, Red Bull and Krating Daeng are confused as both use the Red Bull name in their packaging, although they are two separate products aimed at different markets.

The main difference is that Red Bull comes in a tall blue and silver can while the Thailand Red Bull, or Krating Daeng, is in a smaller gold can. The two drinks differ in terms of taste—Red Bull has less sugar and is carbonated; the flavouring used for Red Bull is still exported worldwide. Depending on the country, Red Bull contains different amounts of caffeine, taurine, B vitamins and simple sugars in a buffer solution of carbonated water, baking soda and magnesium carbonate. To produce Red Bull Sugarfree, sugars sucrose and glucose have been replaced by the sweeteners acesulfame K and aspartame/sucralose. Previous formulations of Red Bull contained 0.24 % glucuronolactone. Red Bull identifies its flavours as "editions". Original Sugar-free Total Zero Red Ruby/Red Blue Yellow/Tropical Orange/Mandarin Green/Kiwi White/Coconut Peach Pear Sugar-Free Lime Sugar-Free Purple/Acai Sugar-F

Theobald Smith

Prof Theobald Smith FRS HFRSE was a pioneering epidemiologist, bacteriologist and professor. He is considered to be America's first internationally significant medical research scientist, his work included the study of Texas cattle fever and the epidemiology of cattle infected by ticks transmitting protozoa. He discovered a species of Salmonella, named for his chief, studied anaphylaxis referred to as Theobald Smith phenomenon. Smith taught at Columbian University and established the school's department of bacteriology, the first at a medical school in the United States, he worked at Harvard University and the Rockefeller Institute. Smith was born in the son of Philip Smith and his wife, Theresa Kexel, he received a Bachelor of Philosophy degree from Cornell University in 1881, followed by an MD from Albany Medical College in 1883. After his graduation from medical school, Smith held a variety of temporary positions which might broadly be considered under the modern heading of "medical laboratory technician".

After some prodding by his former professors, Smith secured a new research lab assistant position with the Veterinary Division of the US Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C. beginning his position there in December 1883. Smith became the Inspector of the newly created Bureau of Animal Industry in 1884. Established by Congress to combat a wide range of animal diseases—from infectious disease of swine to bovine pneumonia, Texas cattle fever to glanders—Smith worked under Daniel E. Salmon, a veterinarian and Chief of the BAI. Smith discovered the bacterial species which would form the genus Salmonella. After two years of work studying the efficacy of bacterial vaccination in pigs, Smith erroneously believed he had found the causative agent of hog cholera. Smith turned his attention to a debilitating cattle disease. In 1889, he along with the veterinarian F. L. Kilbourne discovered Babesia bigemina, the tick-borne protozoan parasite responsible for Texas fever; this marked the first time that an arthropod had been definitively linked with the transmission of an infectious disease and presaged the eventual discovery of insects as important vectors in a number of diseases.

Smith taught at Columbian University in Washington, D. C. from 1886 to 1895, establishing the school's Department of Bacteriology. In 1887, Smith began research on water sanitation in his spare time, investigating the level of fecal coliform contamination in the Potomac River. Over the next five years, Smith expanded his studies to include the Hudson River and its tributaries. While Smith's work at the BAI had been productive, he chafed against the federal government bureaucracy and the lack of leadership from his supervisor. In 1895 Smith moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts to accept a dual appointment: serve as professor of comparative pathology at Harvard University, direct the pathology lab at the Massachusetts State Board of Health. Smith joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research as Director of the Department of Animal Pathology in 1915 and remained there until his retirement in 1929. In 1933, Smith was awarded the Royal Society's prestigious Copley Medal "For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man.".

Parasitism and Disease Observed differences between bovine tuberculosis. Discussed the possibility of mosquitos as a malaria transmission vector. Variation and bacterial pathogenesis. Discovered anaphylaxis, sometimes referred to as "Theobald Smith's phenomenon". Brucellosis infections Used toxin/antitoxin as a vaccine for diphtheria. In the process of investigating an epidemic of infectious abortions of cattle in 1919, Smith described the bacteria responsible for fetal membrane disease in cows now known as Campylobacter fetus. "Smith, Theobald". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1922

Scottish Volleyball Association

The Scottish Volleyball Association is the national governing body for volleyball, beach volleyball and sitting volleyball in Scotland. It is responsible for the development and delivery of district and international volleyball in Scotland, it is a private company limited by guarantee, with its members acting as its guarantors. The SVA is affiliated to the following organisations: British Olympic Association British Volleyball Federation Commonwealth Games Scotland Confédération Européenne de Volleyball CEV Small Countries Association Fédération Internationale de Volleyball In order to participate as a player, coach or official in an SVA-approved competition, to hold an elected office within a member club or to play in a representative national team of the SVA, it is necessary to become a member of the Association. There are various categories of membership: Tier 1 - players, coaches or officials involved in National Competitions Tier 2 - players, coaches or officials involved in Local or District Competitions Tier 3 - players, coaches or officials involved in School Competitions Associate - a person, not a registered player, coach or official.

Club - volleyball clubs based in Scotland Group - Schools or other organisations in Scotland who play volleyball but are not volleyball clubs Honorary - awarded to individual members at the discretion of the Board of Directors To assist with the running of the association, the SVA and its board of directors, establish various commissions staffed by volunteer members, each with specific areas of responsibility. These include: Beach Commission Coaches Commission Competitions Commission / Competitions Advisory Group Referees Commission Student Commission Youth and Schools Commission Each season, the SVA organises various senior and junior league and cup competitions; these competitions are governed by the FIVB's Official Volleyball Rules, the FIVB's Official Beach Volleyball Rules and the SVA's Rules of Scottish Volleyball Competitions. Organised volleyball leagues were known as the National League; the number of divisions and number of teams in each division varied over the years, with the lower divisions sometimes split into East and West.

In season 2015–16, the National League was renamed the Scottish Volleyball League, the top division renamed from Division 1 to SVL Premier and the second and third divisions renamed League One and Two. As of season 2018 -- 19, there are three divisions in two for women; the teams winning the SVL Premier division gain the title of Scottish Champions and are entitled to enter the CEV Cup the following season. The divisions are: Men's SVL Premier Women's SVL Premier Men's League One Women's League One Men's League Two The table below lists all Scottish Champions from season 1968–69 to 2018–19: As of season 2019–20, the following clubs have at least one team in the SVL: Caledonia West City of Edinburgh Dundee Glasgow International Glasgow Mets Jets Kamikaze Seaton Lenzie NUVOC Shetland South Ayrshire Su Ragazzi University of Edinburgh Volleyball Aberdeen This competition was introduced in season 2006–07 as the Top Teams Cup, as a means of providing the teams in the top divisions with an increased number of competitive matches against each other.

In 2009–10, it was renamed the John Syer Trophy in honour of the SVA's first Technical Director. Since 2015–16, it has been known as the John Syer Grand Prix. SVL Premier teams compete in this tournament in the early part of the season on the same dates that lower division teams compete in rounds 1–3 of the Scottish Cup; as of season 2019–20, the winners of this trophy are as listed in the table below: The Scottish Plate is contested by teams eliminated from the Scottish Cup in rounds 1–3. Table showing Scottish Plate winners from season 1984–85 to 2018–19: The Scottish Cup is the highest level knockout competition in Scottish volleyball; the first three rounds are organised in small pools. The eight best teams from the pool stages are joined in round 4 by the eight SVL Premier teams. Rounds 4 through to the final are single-leg, knockout rounds. There is an unseeded draw for round 4. Teams winning the Scottish Cup Final are entitled to enter the CEV Challenge Cup the following season. Table showing Scottish Cup winners from season 1963–64 to 2018–19: The top junior league was introduced in the late 1990s and, over the years, varied between an U18 and U19 competition.

Until season 2014–15, it was known as the Junior National League. In season 2015–16, it was renamed the Junior SVL and, since has been an U18 competition. Table showing Junior SVL winners from season 1998–99 to 2018–19: The U18 knockout competition was introduced in season 2012–13 as the Junior Super Cup and renamed the Junior Scottish Cup in 2015–16. Table showing U18 Junior Scottish Cup winners from season 2012–13 to 2018–19: The lower junior league was introduced in season 2006–07 and, over the years, varied between U15 and U16; until season 2014–15 it was known as the Junior National League. In season 2015–16 it was renamed the Junior SVL and, since has been an U16 competition. Table showing Junior SVL winners from season 2006–07 to 2018–19: The U16 Junior Scottish Cup was introduced in season 2015–16. Table showing U16 Junior Scottish Cup winners from season 2015–16 to 2018–19: Schools Cup1968 Coatbridge High School 1996 Stonelaw High School Scottish Beach Tour Scottish Student Volleyball operates within the constitution of the SVA and is administered and supported by Scottish Student Sport.

The Development Co-ordinator for Scottish Student Volleyball is Paul McPate of the University of Dundee's, Institute of Sport and Exercise. The following student competitions