Bayfield is a city in Bayfield County, United States. The population was 530 at the 2010 census. Wisconsin Highway 13 serves as a main arterial route in the community, it is a former county seat, lumbering town and commercial fishing community, which today is a tourist and resort destination. There are many restaurants, bed & breakfasts establishments, specialty shops, marine services. Bayfield was named in 1856 for Henry Bayfield, a British Royal Topographic Engineer who explored the region in 1822-23. A post office has been in operation at Bayfield since 1856. Bayfield is located at 46°48.7′N 90°49.2′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.87 square miles, of which, 0.86 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Bayfield is the main gateway to the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, a group of 21 islands in Lake Superior. Madeline Island is the largest of the Apostle Islands and the only one not in the National Lakeshore. A ferry to Madeline Island links Bayfield with Wisconsin, a community on the island.
As of the census of 2010, there were 487 people, 261 households, 130 families residing in the city. The population density was 566.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 482 housing units at an average density of 560.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.8% White, 0.2% African American, 14.8% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 6.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 261 households of which 16.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.5% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 50.2% were non-families. 44.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.87 and the average family size was 2.58. The median age in the city was 53.2 years. 15.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.9% male and 51.1% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 611 people, 289 households, 167 families residing in the city. The population density was 703.3 people per square mile. There were 403 housing units at an average density of 463.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.92% White, 0.65% Black or African American, 15.22% Native American, 1.31% from other races, 5.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.49% of the population. 10.5% were of American, 10.1% German, 9.4% Norwegian, 8.1% Irish, 7.4% Swedish and 5.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 289 households out of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no spouse present, 41.9% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.64. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 21.4% from 25 to 44, 33.1% from 45 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,266, the median income for a family was $36,500. Males had a median income of $34,375 versus $25,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,377. About 10.5% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over. The city of Bayfield is known in the Anishinaabe language as Oshki-oodena, opposed to Superior, known as Gete-oodena, in reference to the Ojibwa migration; the Bayfield Maritime Museum and Bayfield Heritage Museum are the city's two museums. There are several art galleries. Nearby is the 950 seat all-canvas tent theater known as Big Top Chautauqua which during its summer season has hosted such entertainers as Willie Nelson and Lyle Lovett. Bayfield's annual Apple Fest draws about 60,000 visitors during the first weekend in October.
Popular summertime events include Bayfield Race Week regatta, held during the week of the 4th of July and the Festival of Arts and Gallery Tour, which takes place the third weekend of July. It features artists from across the midwest, along with tours and demos at a diverse array of local galleries; the Apostle Islands Sled Dog Race takes place the first weekend of February. It is the largest sled dog race in the Midwest, with between 75 teams competing annually. Bayfield receives three radio stations from Ashland. Television stations come from the Duluth–Superior market. Laurie E. Carlson, Wisconsin State Representative, 1937–42, born in Bayfield Norris J. Nelson, Los Angeles City Council member, 1939–43, born in Bayfield Nathan Van Cleave, Composer for Television, including "The Twilight Zone," born in Bayfield Bayfield group City of Bayfield Bayfield Chamber of Commerce Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1886 1892 1898 1904 1911
Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians
The Bad River Lapointe Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians are a federally recognized tribe of Ojibwe people. The Bad River Reservation is located on the south shore of Lake Superior and has a land area of 156,000 acres in northern Wisconsin straddling Ashland and Iron counties; the tribe has 7,000 members, of whom about 1,800 lived on the reservation during the 2000 census. Most people live in one of four communities: Odanah, Birch Hill, or Frank's Field/Aspen Estates. Odanah, the administrative and cultural center, is located five miles east of the town of Ashland on U. S. Highway 2. New Odanah is located on the reservation. Over 90% of the reservation is undeveloped land. According to Anishinaabe prophecy, Gichi Manidoo, the Great Spirit, told the Anishinaabe people to move west from the Atlantic coast until they found the "food that grows on water." After a series of stops and divisions, the branch of Anishinaabe known as the Lake Superior Chippewa found wild rice near the Chequamegon Bay on the south shore of Lake Superior, at the site of the present-day Bad River Lapointe Reservation.
They made their final stopping place at nearby Madeline Island. After the 17th century, Anishinaabe people settled throughout northern Wisconsin into lands disputed with the Dakota Sioux and the Meskwaki; those that remained near the trading post of La Pointe on Madeline Island were known collectively as the La Pointe Band. They pursued other seasonal occupations such as berry-picking, harvesting maple sugar, ricing and gathering nuts and medicinal plants. After a disastrous attempt at removing the Lake Superior Bands in the 19th century, which resulted in the Sandy Lake Tragedy, the U. S. government agreed to set up permanent reservations in Wisconsin. At this point, the La Pointe band split: members who had converted to Roman Catholicism were led by Kechewaishke and took a reservation at Red Cliff; those who maintained traditional Midewiwin beliefs settled at Bad River. The two bands, maintain close relations to this day; the reservation land was set aside for the Bad River Lapointe Band in the Treaty of La Pointe, made with the United States and signed on Madeline Island on September 30, 1854.
The treaty land included 2,000 acres on Madeline Island, considered the center of the Ojibwe Nation. The band is one of six federally recognized tribes in present-day Wisconsin. During the late 19th century, the Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration set up St. Mary's School in Odanah, an Indian boarding school. Students came from a variety of tribes to learn western topics, as well as Christianity. During this period, timber companies on the reservation leased land for lumbering, but they cheated the tribe and destroyed much of the land by overlogging. During the Allotment period, the tribe leased half its land base, which covered all the area of modern-day Ashland, Wisconsin; as Lake Superior Ojibwe, the Bad River Lapointe Band retains its rights to hunt, gather wild rice, medicinal plants over the ceded territory of northern Wisconsin and Minnesota. The tribe pressed these claims throughout the 20th century. Tribal members from Bad River and the other Lake Superior bands resumed their traditional practice of spear fishing, resulting in the Wisconsin Walleye War with recreational and sports fishermen.
In 1996, a group of Ojibwe activists known as the Anishinaabe Ogitchida blocked a railroad shipment of sulfuric acid from crossing the reservation. The protestors complained the acid posed an environmental danger to reservation lands and the Lake Superior watershed; the national attention brought by the protests forced the Environmental Protection Agency to stop the use of acid in the mine. Sixteen thousand acres of the reservation are high-quality wetlands due the Kakagon River and Bad River sloughs, registered by the United States government under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance; the wetlands are ideal for the cultivation of the historical crop of the Ojibwe. The sloughs constitute the only remaining extensive coastal wild rice marsh in the Great Lakes region. Due to its habitat and proximity to Madeline Island, Bad River is of major importance to the Ojibwe Nation. People from all over Ojibwe Country come for the annual August Celebration of the manoomin, or wild rice harvest.
The headquarters of the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission is on the Bad River Reservation. The tribe owns and operates a fish hatchery, which stocks local rivers and lakes with 15 million walleye annually; the Bad River Band Of Lapoint Ojibwe own and operate a casino, as well as the Moccasin Trail gas station and grocery store complex. The Tribe runs a clinic, local transit, tribal school and Head Start, as well as a police and volunteer fire department for its people, it has several community facilities: a tribal fire hall and youth center in the Birch Hill community, a utility garage in the Franks Field community. In 2014, the Tribe announced it will not renew the lease of 18 non-native people's land lease, on Madeline Island, known as the Amnicon Bay Association; the 50-year lease, which began in 1967, ended in August 2017. Bad River Reservation is nearly covered by a forest and swamps. In Anishinaabemowin, they called the Anishinaabe people who lived around swamps Omashkiigowag, from mashkiig meaning "swamp".
The people go by Mashkigonaabeg, which means "Swampy-men:, where the suffix -naabe is "male" or "man" in the Anishinaabe
Grand Portage Indian Reservation
The Grand Portage Indian Reservation is located in Cook County near the tip of Minnesota's Arrowhead Region in the extreme northeast part of the state. The community was considered part of the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa, but is not a party to the treaties that group signed; the reservation was established as part of an 1854 treaty, the land area is 74.396 sq mi. The unincorporated community of Grand Portage is located within the Grand Portage Indian Reservation. Since 1934, it has been one of the six bands making up the federally recognized Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, which wrote a constitution and initiated its new government in 1936. In the federal 2000 census, the reservation had a population of 557; the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe reported in July 2007, Grand Portage had 1,127 people enrolled with the Band. The community operates the Grand Portage Lodge and Casino; the Grand Portage National Monument is located on the reservation and managed by the National Park Service. The site includes a reconstructed trading post, authentic for the 18th century.
In 2000, Minnesota returned ownership of the 300-acre Grand Portage State Park to the Chippewa Band, lost more than 50 years ago in a tax forfeiture. In a unique arrangement in the state, this is the only state park to be managed jointly by the state and an American Indian band; the park includes a 120-foot high waterfall, a landmark for centuries. The band employs its members as staff of the park. Andrea Carlson, painter George Morrison, sculptor Grand Portage National Monument Grand Portage, Minnesota – Unorganized Territory of Cook County Grand Portage, Minnesota – Unincorporated community located within both the reservation and unorganized territory Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Grand Portage Indian Reservation Grand Portage Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Minnesota United States Census Bureau
Sokaogon Chippewa Community
The Sokaogon Chippewa Community, or the Mole Lake Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, is a band of the Lake Superior Chippewa, many of whom reside on the Mole Lake Indian Reservation, located at 45°29′52″N 88°59′20″W in the Town of Nashville, in Forest County, Wisconsin. The reservation is located in the community of Mole Lake, which lies southwest of the city of Crandon; the Mole Lake Indian Reservation is 4,904.2 acres in size, includes land around Rice Lake, Bishop Lake, Mole Lake. About 500 members of the tribe live on the reservation, while an additional 1,000 members of the community live off it; the tribe is active in the harvest of wild rice in the swampy areas off their reservation. The area was the site of the 1806 Battle of Mole Lake between Sioux warriors; the constitution and by-laws of the Sokaogon Chippewa Community were approved November 9, 1938, the charter was approved October 7, 1939 as part of the Indian Reorganization Act. The 1983 decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in the Lac Courte Oreilles v. Lester B.
Voigt case called the Voigt decision, reaffirmed that the Sokaogon and other Chippewa tribes in northern Wisconsin should be allowed to exercise their treaty rights off their reservations. This allowed the Sokaogon to harvest rice on areas that the tribe did not own. Mole Lake is the site of one of Wisconsin's oldest surviving log cabins, now referred to as the Dinesen Log House; this special piece of historic American architecture built in the late 1860s–early 1870s was listed on Wisconsin's most endangered properties in 2003 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. It has undergone a complete restoration and opened to the public in April 2010. In the early 1870s, Wilhelm Dinesen, a Danish adventurer, traveled to northern Wisconsin and took residence in the cabin and became friends with the Mole Lake Chippewa, he called the cabin "Frydenlund", or "Grove of Joy". After 14 months of hunting, fur trapping, roaming the wilderness, went back to Denmark, he fathered a daughter when he returned to his homeland, who grew up as the author Karen Blixen, or Isak Dinesen and wrote a book entitled Out of Africa, which went on to become a major Hollywood motion picture.
As stated in the April 2003 issue of Wisconsin Trails magazine, "Wilhelm Dinesen's legacy among the Chippewa is assured. A few months after he left Denmark, you see, the Chippewa woman, his cook and housekeeper, bore a daughter, who went on to have children of her own."The log cabin will be the center of an annual August event and visitors may see and hear history, folk music, enjoy traditional Native American food, Native American arts and crafts, Woodland Indian beadwork, birch bark basketry, buckskin moccasin demonstrations, wild rice soup, introduction to the Ojibwe language, walk-through of historical displays, early fur trappers and traders camp and more. This event promises to be the beginning of a new era of opportunity for its citizens. In the late 1960s, Exxon discovered a zinc-copper ore deposit near Mole Lake, one of the richest ore deposits of its kind in North America. In 1976, Exxon announced its plans to explore the zinc-copper resources, which were in close proximity to four indigenous communities.
The proposed mining spurred a controversy lasting three decades. "From the perspective of the area's Indian tribes—the Sokaogon Chippewa, the Potawatomi, the Menominee, the Stockbridge Munsee—the environmental and social impacts of the proposed mine were inseparable. Any contamination of the area's surface of groundwaters was a threat to survival." Concerns about the impact of the proposed mine were diverse. In addition to the Sokaogan Chippewa's concerns regarding the impact of the mine on their wild rice fields, further downstream, the Menominee took issue with the "3000 gallons of wastewater per minute" the mine was predicted to release into a tributary leading to the Wolf River. Along with the neighboring Forest County Potawatomi Community, the Sokaogon Chippewa took over ownership and bought the nearby Crandon mine at a price of $16.5 million to prevent its reopening. The tribes argued that the opening of the zinc and copper mine would harm the environment and jeopardize access to their rice fields.
The land is now under the control of the two tribes and no mining is planned into the future. Sokaogon Chippewa Community website Mole Lake Casino website, run by the Sokaogon Karen Blixen / Isak Dinesen Site: Wilhelm Dinesen, Karen Blixen's father
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Commercial fishing is the activity of catching fish and other seafood for commercial profit from wild fisheries. It provides a large quantity of food to many countries around the earth, but those who practice it as an industry must pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions. Large-scale commercial fishing is known as industrial fishing; this profession has gained in popularity with the development of shows such as Deadliest Catch and Wicked Tuna. The major fishing industries are not only owned by small families as well; the industry has had to adapt through the years. A study taken on some small family-owned commercial fishing companies showed that they adapted to continue to earn a living but not make a large profit, it is the adaptability of the fishermen and their methods that cause some concern for fishery managers and researchers. Commercial fishermen harvest a wide variety of animals, ranging from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, lobster, clams and crab, in various fisheries for these species.
There are large and important fisheries worldwide for various species of fish, mollusks and echinoderms. However, a small number of species support the majority of the world's fisheries of these species are herring, anchovy, flounder, squid, salmon, lobster and scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together providing a catch of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species are fished in smaller numbers; the industry, in 2006 managed to generate over 185 billion dollars in sales and provide over two million jobs in the United States, according to an economic report released by NOAA's Fisheries Service. Commercial fishing may offer an abundance of jobs, but the pay varies from boat to boat, season to season. Crab fisherman Cade Smith was quoted in an article by Business Week as saying, "There was always a top boat where the crew members raked in $50,000 during the three- to five-day king crab season—or $100,000 for the longer snow crab season".
That may be true, but there are the boats who don't do well. Many people working in commercial fishing are self-employed, with some or all of their pay dependent on the proceeds from the sale of the fish caught. In the UK, the technical term for this is share fisherman, which refers to anyone working without an employment contract, on a boat manned by more than one person, relying for their livelihood at least on a share of the profits or gross sales of the fishing boat's catch. A 2009 paper in Science estimates, for the first time, the total world fish biomass as somewhere between 0.8 and 2.0 billion tonnes. Commercial fishing uses many different methods to catch a large variety of species including the use of pole and line, trolling with multiple lines, trawling with large nets, traps or pots. Sustainability of fisheries is improved by using specific equipment that eliminates or minimizes catching non-targeted species. Fishing methods vary according to the region, the species being fished for, the technology available to the fishermen.
A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish every day. Commercial fishing gears in use today include surrounding nets, seine nets, dredges and lines, lift nets, entangling nets and Line, traps Commercial fishing gear is designed and updated to avoid catching certain species of animal, unwanted or endangered. Billions of dollars are spent each year in researching/developing new techniques to reduce the injury and death of unwanted marine animals caught by the fishermen. In fact, there was a study taken in 2000 on different deterrents and how effective they are at deterring the target species; the study showed that most auditory deterrents helped prevent whales from being caught while more physical barriers helped prevent birds from getting tangled within the net. Commercial fishing has been identified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues.
During 2000–2006, commercial fishing was one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States, with an average annual fatality rate of 115 deaths per 100,000 fishermen. Falling overboard killed 182 fishermen in the period between 2000 and 2010; this fatality rate is 3 times that of the next most dangerous job in the U. S. and more than 25 times that of the national average across all workers. Between the years of 1919 and 2005, 4111 fishermen died in fishing related accidents in the United Kingdom industry alone; these deaths are a result of a combination of severe weather conditions, extreme fatigue because any one fisherman puts in a 21-hour shift, dangerous equipment. The U. S. Coast Guard has primary jurisdiction over the safety of the U. S. commercial fishing fleet, enforcing regulations of the U. S. Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988. CFIVSA regulations focus on saving lives after the loss of a vessel and not on preventing vessels from capsizing or sinking, falls overboard, or injuri