Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Koorlong is a locality in Victoria, Australia located 15 km south west of Mildura. Located in Koorlong is the 1/8 mile Sunset Strip dragstrip, the Jambaroo Park motorcycle sports complex and the Koorlong Primary School; the Post Office opened on 1 January 1912 and continues to operate alongside Koorlong Store, including a bottleshop, general store and takeaway food. On 21 January 1943, two RAAF Wirraway trainers collided over the town. 3 crew members were killed, with only the instructor of one aircraft surviving
Electoral district of Mildura
Mildura is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Victoria and sits within the Northern Victoria electorate. It is a 35,702 km² rural electorate in the far-north-west of the state, encompassing the regional towns of Hopetoun, Ouyen, Red Cliffs and Robinvale, it is represented by independent Ali Cupper. Mildura was first proclaimed in 1927 and was, for most of its history, a safe seat for the rural conservative Country Party, excluding two terms of Labor control from 1945 to 1947 and 1952–1955. In 1988, however, it became one of a number of rural seats to fall to the Liberal Party, with journalist Craig Bildstien winning the seat on Labor preferences. Bildstien held the seat for eight years before a surprise loss in 1996 to conservative independent Russell Savage. Savage was twice re-elected with large margins, but was a unexpected casualty of the 2006 election, losing his seat to the National Party's Peter Crisp in a landslide. Crisp retained the seat in 2010 and 2014, only to be swept out in a shock defeat by Cupper, only the fourth time that the seat has not been held by a conservative party.
Towns within the district include: Birchip, Boundary Bend, Irymple, Merbein, Murrayville, Patchewollock, Red Cliffs, Sea Lake, Walpeup and Wycheproof. District profile from the Victorian Electoral Commission
The Sunraysia is an ill–defined district, sometimes incorrectly referred to as an economic region, located in northwestern Victoria and southwestern New South Wales in Australia. The region is renowned for its sunshine, intensive horticulture including grapes and oranges, grain farms, its main centre is Victoria. The name Sunraysia derives from a contest that entrepreneur Jack De Garis held in 1919, as part of a promotion on behalf of the Australian Dried Fruits Association; the public were invited to submit a name to describe the dried fruits grown in the Mildura area. The winning name was Sun-Raysed, modified as Sunraysia to describe the district as a whole. In 1920, De Garis started a newspaper in Mildura called the Sunraysia Daily, helping to establish the name; the area of Victoria to the west of Sunraysia is known as Millewa, the main distinction being that Sunraysia is the irrigated area and Millewa is the dryland cropping area. The Greater Sunraysia district forms part of the Fruit Fly Free Exclusion Zone, a Pest Free Area, created in 2007 located between north-west Victoria and south-west New South Wales.
It is renowned for the production of high value horticultural crops including citrus, table grapes and stone fruit. The PFA is aligned to this production area to provide greater fruit fly control measures; the Victorian Department of Environment and Primary Industries and New South Wales Department of Primary Industries have implemented stringent legislative controls on the movement of host fruit and vegetables into the PFA to keep it free from the Queensland fruit fly and maintain high value markets, which are worth millions of dollars to local industries. The PFA enables commercial horticultural products to be marketed without postharvest chemical treatments for QFF; the PFA follows the course of the Murray River from Kerang to Wentworth and the Darling River from Wentworth to Pooncarie. Sunraysia is contained in the Murray Darling wine region. In addition to Mildura, the other major centres and towns in the district are Merbein, Red Cliffs, Irymple and Robinvale; the Sunraysia Institute of TAFE and the Sunraysia campus of the La Trobe University, are located on Benetook Ave between 11th and 14th Streets.
The main newspaper that services the region is the Sunraysia Daily, is published every day except for Sundays. Sunraysia is serviced by two free papers; the Mildura Independent was another free weekly, published from 1982 to 2007. My Mildura is a free monthly magazine. There are a number of paid weeklies covering smaller areas within Sunraysia. Local radio stations include ABC Local Radio, RIVER1467, 97.9 3MA FM, 99.5 Star FM, Hot FM. Localised television stations in Sunraysia include a local relay of the ABC's Melbourne television station, WIN Television Mildura, PTV and MDV. Geography of Victoria Mallee Millewa Regions of Victoria Regions of New South Wales Riverina
Cowangie is a locality situated on the section of the Mallee Highway between Ouyen and the South Australian border in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. The place by road, is situated about 12 kilometres southeast from Tutye and 12 kilometres northwest from Danyo; the Post Office opened on 15 July 1912 when a regular mail service was provided by the opening of the railway from Ouyen to Murrayville a month earlier. Known as Kow Plains until 1913, the office closed in 1994; the area of the locality contains a number of smaller areas namely Pallarang which had a post office open from 1915 until 1917, Daalko with an office open from 1928 until 1930, Bunurouk West with an office in 1915 and 1916, Cowangie North and Koonda. Former Formula One and V8 Supercar driver Larry Perkins grew up in Cowangie. Media related to Cowangie at Wikimedia Commons
Mildura is a regional city in north-west Victoria, Australia. Located on the Victorian side of the Murray River, Mildura had a population of 33,444 in 2016; when nearby Wentworth, Nichols Point and Merbein are included, the area had an estimated urban population of 50,998 at June 2016. It is the largest settlement in the Sunraysia region. Mildura is a major horticultural centre notable for its grape production, supplying 80% of Victoria's grapes. Many wineries source grapes from Mildura; the city's central business district is located just a short distance from the banks of the Murray. Langtree Avenue is the main shopping and dining precinct in Mildura, with the middle section of the street a pedestrian mall; the other major retail precinct is along Fifteenth Street in the Mildura South area, where a mid-sized undercover shopping mall and several big box stores are located. The city's name was taken from the Mildura homestead, an early sheep station which covered most of the area; the urban area of Mildura is surrounded by irrigated horticulture, where the original grape and citrus blocks were located with water irrigated from the Murray River.
Mildura has a long history of grape farming. There are several theories as to the origin of the name Mildura. While it was the name of the sheep station, without precedent in the English language, most historians believe it to have originated from Aboriginal Australian words. However, the etymology of Mildura is not certain, as in several local dialects, the words mill and dura have different meanings; the word dura is thought to mean "earth", "sand" or "rock" in the local Ladji Ladji language. However, usage of the word mill varies by dialect and may mean "red" or "water", thus, interpretations of the name can vary from "red earth" to "water rock". Many Aboriginal people lived around the site of Mildura because of the abundant food. Local tribes included the Jarijari; the first Europeans in the area brought sheep to graze the rich pastures. A major drought in Victoria from 1877 to 1884 prompted Alfred Deakin a minister in the State Government and chairman of a Royal Commission on water supply to visit the irrigation areas of California.
There he met William Chaffey. In 1886, Canadian-American irrigator George Chaffey came to Australia and selected a derelict sheep station known as Mildura as the site for his first irrigation settlement, signing an agreement with the Victorian government to spend at least £300,000 on permanent improvements at Mildura in the next twenty years. After much political wrangling, the settlement of Mildura was established in 1887; the Post Office opened on 23 January 1888. The nearby towns of Wentworth, Gol Gol and Yelta sprang up in the mid-to-late 19th century. In the 1890s came the scourge of the rabbit; this devastated the sheep farmers south of the Murray. There was a financial recession at this time. Combined, these factors restricted growth of the new settlement. After this period, the new settlement grew, it was soon the main town of the district. Suburbs and new satellite towns sprang up. From the 1920s, a number of ` suburban' train services were established to Red Cliffs; these were operated by railcars.
Post war Mildura experienced a large influx of migrants from European and Mediterranean countries including Italy and Greece. Many of these migrants were attracted by the unskilled labour offered by the fruit picking industry. In 1934 Mildura was proclaimed a city. In 2004 there was a controversial proposal by the Victorian Government to build a state-level Long Term Containment Facility for Industrial Waste in Nowingi 50 km south of Mildura; the site is a small enclave of state forest surrounded by national park, contains habitat important to a number of threatened species. The abandoning of the LTCF proposal was received with jubilation by opponents of the LTCF not only in the Mildura area and elsewhere in Victoria, but across the border in South Australia where there were fears that in reputation, if not in substance, the toxic waste could affect the water supply via the Murray River and thereby the fruit-growing industries of the Riverland and Murraylands; the Mildura Rural City Council and residents spent $2 million fighting the Government's proposal for the LTCF at Nowingi.
On 10 January 2007 the Victorian Government did not rule out some form of reimbursement for the Rural City of Mildura council's legal and other costs in opposing the LTCF. "The general rule is that people bear their own costs, most to apply in this case... but I've indicated and I am prepared to talk to the council and mayor about the whole issue of how Mildura moves forward and I'll do that," John Thwaites said. Mildura is situated on flat land without hills or mountains on the southern bank of the Murray River and surrounded to the west and east by lakes and billabongs including Lake Hawthorn, Lake Ranfurly and Lake Gol Gol. Several towns surround Mildura on the flat plains including Merbein to the west as well as Irymple and Red Cliffs to the south which could be considered suburban areas or satellite towns separated by small stretches of open farmland. While the land along the river and irrigation channels is fertile, much of the land around Mildura is dry and semi-arid. Mildura is a low-rise and low density urban area, overwhelmingly dependent upon private automobiles for transportation.
Residential dwellings consist solely of single-family detached homes on large allotments. The population has been growing for several decades and most of the residential growth has occurred in the south-western and southern parts of the urban area; the central business distric
Division of Mallee
The Division of Mallee is an Australian Electoral Division in the state of Victoria. It is located in the far north-west of the state, adjoining the border with South Australia in the west, the Murray River in the north. At 81,962 square kilometres, it is the largest Division in Victoria, it includes the centres of Mildura, Swan Hill, St Arnaud, Warracknabeal and Horsham. The division was proclaimed at the redistribution of 11 May 1949, was first contested at the 1949 election, it was named after the Mallee region of Victoria, in which the division is located, which itself is named after the mallee variety of eucalyptus. Note that the division includes the Wimmera region of Victoria, why the title of the sitting member's newsletter is Wimmera Mallee News. Mallee has always been a safe Country/National seat, it is the safest Coalition seat in federal parliament and the safest seat in the entire parliament as of the 2010 election, with a 24-point swing required for Labor to win it. In the 2013 election, however, a Liberal Party candidate stood against the Country/National Party, making it a contest between Coalition parties.
Division of Mallee - Australian Electoral Commission