Horses in East Asian warfare
Horses in East Asian warfare are inextricably linked with the strategic and tactical evolution of armed conflict. A warrior on horseback or horse-drawn chariot changed the balance of power between civilizations; when people with horses clashed with those without, horses provided a huge advantage. When both sides had horses, battles turned on the strength and strategy of their mounted horsemen, or cavalry. Military tactics were refined in terms of the use of horses; as in most cultures, a war horse in East Asia was trained to be controlled with limited use of reins, responding to the rider's legs and weight. Horses were significant factors in the Han-Hun Wars and Wuhu incursions against past kingdoms of China, the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia and into Europe. There were horse-driven chariots of the Shang and Zhou periods, but horseback riding in China, according to David Andrew Graff, was not seen in warfare prior to the 4th century BC. King Wuling of Zhao, after realizing the advantages of light cavalry warfare over that of the heavy and cumbersome chariots, instituted reforms known as "胡服骑射", which increased the combat-effectiveness of the army of Zhao.
Although mounted archers represented an initial tactical advantage over Chinese armies, the Chinese learned to adapt. Conservative forces opposed change, which affected the proportional balance amongst cavalrymen, horse-drawn chariots and infantrymen in Chinese armies; the benefits of using horses as light cavalry against chariots in warfare was understood when the Chinese confronted incursions from nomadic tribes of the steppes. Feeding horses was a significant problem. Climate and fodder south of the Yangtze River were unfit for horses raised on the grasslands of the western steppes; the Chinese army lacked a sufficient number of good quality horses. Importation was the only remedy but the only potential suppliers were the steppe-nomads; the strategic factor considered most essential in warfare was controlled by the merchant-traders of the most enemies. The Chinese used chariots for horse-based warfare until light cavalry forces became common during the Warring States era; the Chinese warhorses were cultivated from the vast herds roaming free on the grassy plains of northeastern China and the Mongolian plateau.
The hardy Central Asian horses were short-legged with barrel chests. Speed was not anticipated from this configuration, but strength and endurance are characteristic features. During the Han dynasty, records tell of a Chinese expedition to Fergana and the superior horses which were acquired; the horses were acquired for breeding. "Horses are the foundation of military power, the great resources of the state but, should this falter, the state will fall" -- Ma Yuan, a Han general and horse expert. During the Jin dynasty, records of thousands of "armored horses" illustrate the development of warfare in this period. Horses and skilled horsemen were in short supply in agrarian China, cavalry were a distinct minority in most Sui dynasty and Tang Dynasty armies; the Imperial herds numbered 325,700 horses in 794The Song through Ming dynasty armies relied on an supervised tea-for-horse trading systems which evolved over centuries. Tea and horses were so inextricably related that officials requested that the tea laws and the horse administration be supervised by the same man.
From the perspective of the Chinese court, government control of tea was the first step in the creation of a rational and effective policy aimed at improving the quality of horses in the army."In the late Ming Dynasty, the marked inferiority of the Chinese horses was noted by the Jesuit missionary and ambassador Matteo Ricci, who observed: " have countless horses in the service of the army, but these are so degenerate and lacking in martial spirit that they are put to rout by the neighing of the Tartars steed and so they are useless in battle." Most Japanese horses are descended from Chinese and Korean imports, there was some cross-breeding with indigenous horses which had existed in Japan since the stone age. Although records of horses in Japan are found as far back as the Jōmon period, they played little or no role in early Japanese agriculture or military conflicts until horses from the continent were introduced in the 4th century; the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki mention horses in battle. Amongst the Imperial aristocracy, some were renowned for their horsemanship.
It was cavalry, not infantry, which proved to be decisive in the Jinshin War of 672–673, in Fujiwara no Hirotsugu's rebellion in 740 and in the revolt of Fujiwara no Nakamaro in 756. Samurai fought as cavalry for many centuries, horses were used both as draft animals and for war; the elaborate decorations on harnesses and saddles of the samurai suggests the value accorded to these war horses. The samurai were skilled in the art of using archery from horseback, they used methods of training such as yabusame, which originated in 530 AD and reached its peak under Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Kamakura period. The conventions of warfare in Japan switched from an emphasis on mounted bowmen to mounted spearmen during the Sengoku period. Amongst t
Gansu is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country. It lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus, borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia to the north and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, Shaanxi to the east; the Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. Gansu covers an area of 453,700 square kilometres; the capital is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of the province. The State of Qin originated in what is now southeastern Gansu, went on to form the first dynasty of Imperial China; the Northern Silk Road ran through the Hexi Corridor. Gansu is a compound of the names of Ganzhou and Suzhou, the seat of Jiuquan Prefecture the two most important Chinese settlements in the area. Gansu is abbreviated as "甘" or "陇", is known as Longxi or Longyou, in reference to the Long Mountain east of Gansu. Gansu’s name is a compound name first used during the Song dynasty of two Sui and Tang dynasty prefectures: Gan and Su, its eastern part forms part of one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilisation.
In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to Neolithic cultures. The Dadiwan culture, from where archaeologically significant artifacts have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000 BC to about 3000 BC; the Majiayao culture and part of the Qijia culture took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively. The Yuezhi lived in the western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the Xiongnu around 177 BCE; the State of Qin to become the founding state of the Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu the Tianshui area. The Qin name is believed to have originated, from the area. Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from Fangmatan near Tianshui, including one 2200-year-old map of Guixian County. In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the Hexi Corridor runs along the "neck" of the province; the Han dynasty extended the Great Wall across this corridor, building the strategic Yumenguan and Yangguan fort towns along it.
Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there. The Ming dynasty built the Jiayuguan outpost in Gansu. To the west of Yumenguan and the Qilian Mountains, at the northwestern end of the province, the Yuezhi and other nomadic tribes dwelt figuring in regional imperial Chinese geopolitics. By the Qingshui treaty, concluded in 823 between the Tibetan Empire and the Tang dynasty, China lost much of western Gansu province for a significant period. After the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, a Buddhist Yugur state called the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was established by migrating Uyghurs from the Khaganate in part of Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036 AD. Along the Silk Road, Gansu was an economically important province, as well as a cultural transmission path. Temples and Buddhist grottoes such as those at Mogao Caves and Maijishan Caves contain artistically and revealing murals. An early form of paper inscribed with Chinese characters and dating to about 8 BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han garrison near the Yumen pass in August 2006.
The province was the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862-77. Among the Qing forces were Muslim generals, including Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang, who helped the Qing crush the rebel Muslims; the revolt had spread into Gansu from neighbouring Qinghai. There was another Dungan revolt from 1895 to 1896; as a result of frequent earthquakes and famines, the economic progress of Gansu was slower than that of other provinces of China until recently. Based on the area's abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. An earthquake in Gansu at 8.6 on the Richter scale killed around 180,000 people in the present-day area of Ningxia in 1920, another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 275 in 1932. The Muslim Conflict in Gansu was a conflict against the Guominjun. While the Muslim General Ma Hongbin was acting chairman of the province, Muslim General Ma Buqing was in virtual control of Gansu in 1940. Liangzhou District in Wuwei was his headquarters in Gansu, where he controlled 15 million Muslims.
Xinjiang came under Kuomintang control. Gansu's Tienshui was the site of a Japanese-Chinese warplane fight. Gansu was vulnerable to Soviet penetration via Xinjiang. Gansu was a passageway for Soviet supplies during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Lanzhou was a destination point via a road coming from Dihua. Lanzhou and Lhasa were designated to be recipients of a new railway; the Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China was a prolongation of the Chinese Civil War in several provinces including Gansu. Gansu has an area of 454,000 square kilometres, the vast majority of its land is more than 1,000 metres above sea level, it lies between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau, bordering Mongolia to the northwest, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Shaanxi to the east, Sichuan to the south, Xinjiang to the west. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province; the province contains the geographical centre of China, marked by the Center of the Country Monument at 35°50′40.9″N 103°27′7.5″E.
Part of the Gobi Desert is loca
Rizhao is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Shandong province, China. It is situated on the coastline along the Yellow Sea, features a major seaport, it borders Qingdao to the northeast, Weifang to the north, Linyi to the west and southwest, faces Korea and Japan across the Yellow Sea to the east. The name of the city means "sunshine"; the city is known for its sustainability, it mandates solar-water heaters in all new buildings. Rizhao city was recognized by the United Nations as one of the most habitable cities in the world in 2009; the city population stands at 2,801,100 as of the 2010 census. Out of those, a little over 865,000 people live in the urban area of Donggang district. Rizhao is located at the place where the ancient Dawenkou culture and the Longshan culture flourished. Rizhao belonged to the Dongyi people during the Xia and Shang dynasties, to Ju and Yue states in the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, it became a part of Langye Commandery in the Qin dynasty.
Rizhao was named Haiqu County during the Western Xihai County under the Eastern Han. During the Tang dynasty, together with Ju County, Rizhao belonged to Mi Prefecture of Henan Prefecture. In the second year of the Yuanyou Period of the Song dynasty, Rizhao Township was established, with the name meaning " sunshine". In the 24th year of the Dading Period of the Jin dynasty, Rizhao County was established. In 1940 it came under control of the Communist Party of China. After being a county and since 1985 a city under administration of Linyi, Rizhao became a prefecture-level city within Shandong province in 1989; the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago has done field survey archaeological work in Rizhao over years. Rizhao has a temperate, four-season, monsoon-influenced climate that lies in the transition between the humid subtropical and humid continental regimes, but favouring the former. Winter is cool to cold and windy, but dry, with a January average of −0.3 °C. Summer is hot and humid, but hot days are rare, with an August average of 25.7 °C.
Due to its proximity to the coast and being on a peninsula, it experiences a one-month delayed spring compared to much of the province. Conversely, autumn is milder than inland areas in Shandong; the annual mean temperature is 12.95 °C. On average, there are 2,530 hours of bright sunshine annually and the relative humidity is 70–74 %; the prefecture-level city of Rizhao administers four county-level divisions, including two districts and two counties. Donggang District Lanshan District Ju County Wulian County The following locations have a 4-star rating according to Chinese classification for scenic spots Wulian Mountain Fulai Mountain Daqing Mountain Wanpingkou Beach Rizhao Beach National Park Longmengu Liujiawan Park The city now mandates the incorporation of solar panels in all new buildings, oversees the construction process to ensure the panels are installed; the effort to install solar water heaters began in 1992. As of 2007, 99 percent of households in the central districts use solar water heaters, most of the lighting and traffic signals are powered with photovoltaic solar power.
In 2007 the city had over a half-million square meters of solar water heating panels, which have reduced conventional electricity usage by 348 million kilowatthours per year. The city has been designated as the Environmental Protection Model City by China's SEPA, is listed in the top 10 cities for air quality in China. Rizhao features a major seaport, located 620 km north of Shanghai, 170 km southwest of Qingdao, 120 km north of Lianyungang; the seaport serves as a site for unloading iron ore and coal. Other products passing through the harbour include cement, nickel and the like. In 2011 the Port of Rizhao, together with the cities of Qingdao and Yantai in Shandong, signed a strategic alliance with Busan, the largest port of the Republic of Korea; the alliance aims at building a shipping and logistics center in Northeast Asia. The new iron ore port of Lanqiao is located close to it. Rizhao Shanzihe Airport is an airport serving the city of Rizhao; the airport received approval from the State Council and the Central Military Commission in October 2013.
It is located in Donggang District. It was opened on 22 December 2015. Since becoming a city, Rizhao has seen a big growth in the number of universities and colleges, all of which are located in or near the University City of Donggang District. Qufu Normal University Jining Medical University Rizhao Polytechnic Shandong Foreign Languages Vocational College Shandong Maritime Vocational College Shandong Sport College Shandong Water Polytechnic Government website of Rizhao, retrieved on 2012-10-11
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou which means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, remained China's cultural and political center until 1,000 years ago. Henan province is a home to a large number of heritage sites which have been left behind including the ruins of Shang dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang and Zhengzhou are located in Henan; the practice of Tai Chi began in Chen Jia Gou Village, as did the Yang and Wu styles. Although the name of the province means "south of the river" a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River known as the Huang He. With an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain.
Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Hubei. Henan is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 14th most populous country in the world, ahead of Egypt and Vietnam. Henan is the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other central provinces. Henan is considered to be one of the less developed areas in China; the economy continues to grow based on aluminum and coal prices, as well as agriculture, heavy industry and retail. High-tech industries and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns; the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China.
In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding. Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era; the more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia dynasty, the first and legendary Chinese dynasty, established in the 21st century BC. The entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan; the Xia dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China, its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created.
In the 11th century BC, the Zhou dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, the political and economical center was moved away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an was devastated by Xionites invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang; this Autumn period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and all of China was divided into a variety of small, independent states at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang exerted over the feudal kingdoms had disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in part of modern-day Henan. On, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, the Han in the middle.
In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare. Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself as the First Emperor, he abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin dynasty and unifying the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire collapsed after the death of Ying Zheng and was replaced by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus, a golden age of Chinese culture and military power began; the capital moved east to Luoyang in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an that created the short-lived Xin dynasty. Luoyang regained control of China, the Eastern Han dynasty began, extending the golden age for another two centuries; the late Eastern Han dynasty saw rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang in central Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China by the Western Jin dynasty.
During this period Luoyang became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being damaged by warfare. With the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic peoples f
Chinese ceramics show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art and ceramics globally. The first pottery was made during the Palaeolithic era. Chinese ceramics range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court and for export. Porcelain was a Chinese invention and is so identified with China that it is still called "china" in everyday English usage. Most Chinese ceramics of the finest quality, were made on an industrial scale, thus few names of individual potters were recorded. Many of the most important kiln workshops were owned by or reserved for the Emperor, large quantities of Chinese export porcelain were exported as diplomatic gifts or for trade from an early date to East Asia and the Islamic world, from around the 16th century to Europe. Chinese ceramics have had an enormous influence on other ceramic traditions in these areas.
Over their long history, Chinese ceramics can be classified between those made for the imperial court, either to use or distribute, those made for a discriminating Chinese market, those for popular Chinese markets or for export. Some types of wares were made only or for special uses such as burial in tombs, or for use on altars; the earliest Chinese pottery was earthenware, which continued in production for utilitarian uses throughout Chinese history, but was less used for fine wares. Stoneware, fired at higher temperatures, impervious to water, was developed early and continued to be used for fine pottery in many areas at most periods. Porcelain, on a Western definition, is "a collective term comprising all ceramic ware, white and translucent, no matter what ingredients are used to make it or to what use it is put"; the Chinese tradition recognizes two primary categories of ceramics, high-fired and low-fired, so doing without stoneware, which in Chinese tradition is grouped with porcelain.
Terms such as "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used for stonewares with porcelain-like characteristics. The Erya defined porcelain as "fine, compact pottery". Chinese pottery can be classified as being either northern or southern. China comprises two separate and geologically different land masses, brought together by continental drift and forming a junction that lies between the Yellow and Yangtze rivers, sometimes known as the Nanshan-Qinling divide; the contrasting geology of the north and south led to differences in the raw materials available for making ceramics. Ware-types can be from widespread kiln-sites in either north or south China, but the two can nearly always be distinguished, influences across this divide may affect shape and decoration, but will be based on different clay bodies, with fundamental effects; the kiln types were different, in the north the fuel was coal, as opposed to wood in the south, which affects the wares. Southern materials have high silica, low alumina and high potassium oxide, the reverse of northern materials in each case.
The northern materials are very suitable for stoneware, while in the south there are areas suitable for porcelain. Chinese porcelain is made by a combination of the following materials: Kaolin – essential ingredient composed of the clay mineral kaolinite. Porcelain stone – decomposed micaceous or feldspar rocks also known as petunse. Feldspar Quartz In the context of Chinese ceramics, the term porcelain lacks a universally accepted definition; this in turn has led to confusion about. Claims have been made for the late Eastern Han dynasty, the Three Kingdoms period, the Six Dynasties period, the Tang dynasty. Kiln technology has always been a key factor in the development of Chinese pottery; the Chinese developed effective kilns capable of firing at around 1,000 °C before 2000 BC. These were updraft kilns built below ground. Two main types of kiln remained in use until modern times; these are the dragon kiln of hilly southern China fuelled by wood and thin and running up a slope, the horseshoe-shaped mantou kiln of the north Chinese plains and more compact.
Both could reliably produce the temperatures of up to 1300 °C or more needed for porcelain. In the late Ming, the egg-shaped kiln or zhenyao was developed at Jingdezhen, but used there; this was something of a compromise between the other types, offered locations in the firing chamber with a range of firing conditions. Important specific types of pottery, many coming from more than one period, are dealt with individually in sections lower down. Pottery dating from 20,000 years ago was found at the Xianrendong Cave site in Jiangxi province, making it among the earliest pottery yet found. Another reported -- 18,000 years ago in the Yuchanyan Cave in southern China. By the Middle and Late Neolithic most of the larger archaeological cultures in China were farmers producing a variety of attractive and large vessels boldly painted, or decorated by cutting or impressing. Decoration is abstract or of stylized animals – fish are a speciality at the river settlement of Banpo; the distinctive Majiayao pottery, with orange bodies and black paint, is characterised by fine past
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake; the provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political and economic hub of Central China. Hubei is abbreviated to "鄂", an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the Western Zhou dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei is "楚", after the powerful State of Chu that existed in the area during the Eastern Zhou dynasty, it borders Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located in the west of the province; the Hubei region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures. By the Spring and Autumn period, the territory of today's Hubei was part of the powerful State of Chu. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the Zhou dynasty, it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north.
During the Warring States period Chu became the major adversary of the upstart State of Qin to the northwest, which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as part of Qin's bid for the conquest of all China. Qin founded the Qin dynasty in the first unified state in the region. Qin was succeeded by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, which established the province of Jingzhou in what is now Hubei and Hunan; the Qin and Han played an active role in the agricultural colonization of Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farmland from summer floods. Towards the end of the Han dynasty in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China.
Liu Bei took control of Jingzhou. The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled north and a Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, to the South, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China by the Sui dynasty in 589. In 617 the Tang dynasty replaced Sui, on the Tang dynasty placed what is now Hubei under several circuits: Jiangnanxi Circuit in the south. After the Tang dynasty disintegrated in the 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnan in the center, Wu to the east, the Five Dynasties to the north; the Song dynasty reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered the region in 1279, under their rule the province of Huguang was established, covering Hubei and parts of Guangdong and Guangxi. During the Mongol rule, in 1334, Hubei was devastated by an outbreak of the Black Death, striking England and Italy by June 1348, which according to Chinese sources spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia.
The Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368. Their version of Huguang province was smaller, corresponded entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. While Hubei was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power. During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng; the Manchu Qing dynasty which had much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan. The Qing dynasty, continued to maintain a Viceroy of Huguang, one of the most well-known being Zhang Zhidong, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei into a prosperous center of commerce and industry; the Huangshi/Daye area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of metallurgy. In 1911 the Wuchang Uprising took place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei.
During World War II the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japan while the western parts remained under Chinese control. During the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival Red Guard factions. In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident, an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution; as the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of Sino-Soviet border conflicts in the late 1960s, t