Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Town of Ithaca
The Town of Ithaca is a former local government area of Queensland, located in inner western Brisbane. The Ithaca Division was first proclaimed in 1879, covered an area that stretched from Windsor, Kelvin Grove and Milton in the east, through to The Gap and beyond the Enoggera Dam in the west. In 1887 the division was split into the Shire of Windsor and the Enoggera Division, with the remainder in the south east becoming the Shire of Ithaca. Ithaca was proclaimed a town in 1903. On 25 February 1922, Sir Matthew Nathan, the Governor of Queensland unveiled the Ithaca War Memorial to commemorate local people who had died in World War I. In 1925, Ithaca was amalgamated into the City of Brisbane in 1925; the Town of Ithaca comprised most of the inner western suburbs of Brisbane from Kelvin Grove Road to the foot of Mount Coot-tha. Its boundary followed Enoggera Creek to the north, Coopers Camp and Boundary Roads in Bardon to the west, Baroona and Milton Roads to the south. Hale Street and an area just before the junction of Waterworks/Musgrave Road and Kelvin Grove Road formed the south-eastern extremity of the town.
This eastern boundary was shared with the Brisbane Municipal Council. The Ithaca Town Council Chambers were built in 1910 at 99 Enoggera Terrace, in the suburb of Ithaca. With the amalgamation into City of Brisbane in 1925, the building became the property of the Brisbane City Council. Since it has been used as a council depot, library and as the Red Hill Kindergarten, it is used as a community hall. The Ithaca Town Council Chambers was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register in 2000; the Ithaca Embankments, a council urban beautification scheme, were listed on the Queensland Heritage Register in 1993. 1888–1889: George Edward Cooper 1890: W. I. Boys 1901: Arthur George Clarence Hawthorn 1906: George Phillip Reading 1907: George Thomas Sweetman 1908: Robert McCook 1909: George Hall 1910: James Bray Lugg 1911: Silvanus White 1912: Frederick Thomas Morris 1913: Arthur George Clarence Hawthorn 1914: Robert Speedy 1915: William Robert Warmington 1916: James Bray Lugg 1917: John Tait 1918: Arthur Kaye 1919: John Fairfax Hayward 1920: Frederick Edward Hampson 1921: Leslie Howard Tooth 1925: William Robert Warmington History of Brisbane University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Ithaca Google map of Pre 1925 merger Brisbane Councils
Normanby Hotel is a heritage-listed hotel at 1 Musgrave Road, Red Hill, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was built in by Thomas Game, it was extended in 1917 to a design by George Henry Male Addison. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992; this two-storeyed brick hotel was constructed in 1890 for Brisbane publican Elizabeth Sophia Burton, on land acquired by her husband in 1865. In 1872 the Burtons erected the first Normanby Hotel on the site, a modest two-storeyed building which fronted Kelvin Grove Road, it is that the hotel was named after the appointed Queensland Governor George Phipps, 2nd Marquess of Normanby. In 1889, the licensee William Valentine decided to demolish the hotel to make way for the newer larger hotel facing Musgrave Road. Architect John Beauchamp Nicholson called tenders for the new Normanby Hotel in late 1889; the successful contractor was Thomas Game including fittings. The new hotel was formally opened on Monday 1 December 1890 with a dinner for fifty men, most of them prominent citizens including James Drake and John Annear.
Alterations were made to plans prepared by architect George Henry Male Addison. The Burton family owned the hotel until 1944, were both licensees and occupants for much of that time; the Normanby Hotel has become a Brisbane landmark, lends its name to the adjacent Normanby Fiveways, the intersection of five inner city arterial roads. The substantial, Queen Anne styled brick hotel stands in a prominent location on the northern ridge above Petrie Terrace, dominates the vista at the Normanby Fiveways, it occupies a corner site and is two-storeyed to Musgrave Road and three to Kelvin Grove Road at the rear, where the land drops steeply. The building consists of a central rectangular block with two wings at the rear and projecting bays at the front; the whole is capped by an elaborately gabled roof of corrugated iron, with Tudor style timber detailing in the gable ends, cast-iron finials above, decorative brick chimneys. The principal facades to the southwest and southeast are richly ornamented with cantilevered balconies beneath the gables, arcaded verandahs, an oriel window which once overlooked the city.
The Musgrave Road facade has been altered at street level. At the rear are two additions: an interwar single-storeyed masonry extension, an unsympathetic modern brick bottle shop. Established shade trees to the southeast now obscure the city facade, a terraced beer garden has been created beneath them. Internally the ground floor has been remodelled, but the upper floor remains intact. Despite the alterations and painting of the face brickwork, the Normanby Hotel retains its picturesque quality. Normanby Hotel was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. The Normanby Hotel at Red Hill, constructed in 1890 as the second Normanby Hotel on the site, is important in demonstrating the evolution of Petrie Terrace/Musgrave Road as a major arterial road in Brisbane's inner northwestern suburbsThe place demonstrates rare, uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland's cultural heritage.
It demonstrates an early Brisbane use of Queen Anne stylistic elements in commercial design, along with the Norman Hotel at Buranda, is important as one of the few known examples of the commercial work of Brisbane architect JB Nicholson. The interwar bottleshop is significant as a intact and rare example of its type; the place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places. It is a picturesque intact, late 19th century hotel, employing decorative elements calculated to be popularly pleasing, is important in illustrating the principal characteristics of its type, it demonstrates an early Brisbane use of Queen Anne stylistic elements in commercial design, along with the Norman Hotel at Buranda, is important as one of the few known examples of the commercial work of Brisbane architect JB Nicholson. The place is important because of its aesthetic significance, it is a picturesque intact, late 19th century hotel, employing decorative elements calculated to be popularly pleasing, is important in illustrating the principal characteristics of its type.
The place has strong landmark quality, both the 1890 main building and the interwar bottleshop, along with mature trees in the grounds, make a significant contribution to the Red Hill/Petrie Terrace townscape. The place has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in Queensland's history, it demonstrates an early Brisbane use of Queen Anne stylistic elements in commercial design, along with the Norman Hotel at Buranda, is important as one of the few known examples of the commercial work of Brisbane architect JB Nicholson. This Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. Drevins, Desley M, History of the Normanby triangle, Albany Creek, Desley Drevins Official website Baker, Liam. "Sundays at the Normanby: Another beer or should we just move on to spirits?".
Haunts of Brisbane. — the facts behind ghost stories at the Normanby
Warriston, Red Hill
Warriston is a heritage-listed duplex at 6-8 Musgrave Road, Red Hill, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was built c. 1886. It is known as Berley Flats, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. Warriston was built c. 1886 for David Pringle Milne, a Brisbane west ward alderman from 1870–76, retired boot and shoe importer/manufacturer, proprietor of the Glasgow Boot and Shoe Mart in Queen Street. The semi-detached houses may have been named after a northern district of Glasgow. In 1866 and 1874 Milne had acquired two blocks of land fronting Petrie Terrace, was recorded as resident on the site from the late 1860s; the kitchen houses attached to the present Warriston may be the original Milne residence. The Milnes occupied No. 2 Warriston until David Milne's death in 1897, while the other side was let to a succession of middle class occupants. These included surveyors WM Davidson and CT Bedford, Albert E Harte, Captain James C O'Brien of the Queensland Defence Force. During the 1890s a private school operated in Warriston No. 1.
From the 1910s Warriston served as a boarding house, in the second half of the 20th century was converted into twelve flats, the verandahs being enclosed and the exterior sheeted with asbestos-cement and stucco. In 1986-88 new owners undertook a careful restoration and recycling project to convert the semi-detached houses into offices. Warriston stands on the crest above the Normanby Fiveways, on the edge of the suburb of Petrie Terrace; the building is associated visually with the Normanby Hotel, together these buildings frame the view of the city from Musgrave Road. Warriston comprises a pair of two-storeyed, semi-detached timber residences with verandahs on both levels and back, they are surmounted by a corrugated iron roof with a single hip to the front, but with a divided roof to the rear. Separated by a brick party wall which does not rise above the roofline, from the street, the two houses appear as a single entity. A double staircase with a cross-braced timber balustrade leads to the first level, high set at the front.
Decorative timber detailing to the front verandahs includes cross-braced balustrades with central rosettes, deep valances on the first level, double posts with capitals and brackets. The rear verandahs have been enclosed; the side windows, which are sashed, are shaded by galvanised iron hoods with timber fretwork infill and curved timber brackets. Each house is a mirror reflection of the other, with the front door opening into a long hall along the brick party wall; this hall is broken into two sections with the stairway rising from the rear. The core of each house consists of a pair of reception rooms separated by folding doors on the ground floor, three bedrooms and a bathroom upstairs, both levels opening onto the verandahs front and back; the kitchens are located in a low-set, timber building attached at the rear. It is square in shape with a short-ridged roof of corrugated iron and verandahs to either end. Although the former houses now function as offices, the fabric and structure are intact.
Paint analysis has permitted repainting to the original colours. The building is one of few 19th century semi-detached houses surviving in Brisbane, is rarer for its timber construction. Warriston was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. It is significant in illustrating the pattern of development of Petrie Terrace, one of the earliest suburbs of Brisbane; the place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places. Warriston, erected c. 1886, is significant as a rare, intact timber example of the 19th century semi-detached house form in Brisbane, in particular of the common-roof type. The place is important because of its aesthetic significance, it is important for its aesthetic contribution to the Petrie Terrace/Red Hill townscape, for the quality of its restoration and recycling, demonstrating that 19th century form and 20th century function can be compatible.
This Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. Media related to Warriston, Red Hill at Wikimedia Commons
National Rugby League
The National Rugby League is a league of professional men's rugby league teams in Australia. Run by the Australian Rugby League Commission, the NRL's main competition is known as the Telstra Premiership due to sponsorship from Telstra Corporation and is contested by sixteen teams, fifteen of which are based in Australia with one based in New Zealand, it attended rugby league club competition in the world. The National Rugby League is Australia's top-level domestic men's rugby-league club competition, it contains clubs from the original Sydney club Rugby League competition, running continuously since 1908. The NRL formed in the aftermath of the 1990s' Super League war as a joint partnership between the Australian governing body, the Australian Rugby League and media giant News Corporation-controlled Super League, after both organisations ran premierships parallel to each other in 1997; this partnership was dissolved in February 2012, with control of the NRL going to the independently formed Australian Rugby League Commission.
NRL matches are played in New Zealand from March to October. The season culminates in the premiership-deciding game, the NRL Grand Final, traditionally one of Australia's most popular sporting events and one of the world's largest attended sporting championship games. In addition, the NRL premiers play in the World Club Challenge, a pre-season match against the champions of the Super League competition; the reigning premiers are the Sydney Roosters winning their fourteenth official premiership. The New South Wales Rugby League ran the major rugby league competition of New South Wales from its inception in 1908 until 1994. Following the introduction of a new format for interstate rugby league, the State of Origin series in 1980, the decade of the 1980s brought about expansion of the NSWRL premiership, with the introduction of commercial sponsorship, the Winfield Cup, the addition of non-Sydney-based teams and Illawarra in 1982. Although this move brought more interest in the competition statewide in New South Wales, it would spell the beginning of the demise of some of the traditional Sydney-based clubs as well as having a negative effect on the Brisbane Rugby League premiership.
Following the 1983 season, Sydney foundation club Newtown Jets were forced to withdraw from the competition because of financial difficulties. Further expansion of the league followed in 1988, with another three teams based outside Sydney introduced to the competition; the Brisbane and Newcastle sides proved to be successful and popular and paved the way towards a push for a national competition. This was attempted in 1995 with control of the premiership passing from the NSWRFL to the Australian Rugby League, who invited four more teams from outside NSW to participate in 1995; this competition failed, but in its demise the National Rugby League was born, incorporating the traditional Sydney clubs coercing the Sydney market to follow the newly created national competition. The prospect of a national rugby league competition in addition to the introduction of pay television in Australia attracted the attention of global media organisation, News Corporation, it followed that professional rugby league was shaken to its foundations in the mid-1990s with the advent of the Super League war.
A conflict over broadcasting rights, it became a dispute as to who controlled the sport and which traditional clubs would survive into the new national era, as News Limited formed their own Super League and admitted some former ARL clubs, poaching players from the original ARL league with high salaries. With twenty-two teams of varying quality playing in two competitions that year, crowd attendances and corporate sponsorships were spread thinly, many teams found themselves in financial difficulty; the ARL undertook moves to invite the traditional clubs that had moved to the Super League competition back into a re-unified competition. Following a period of negotiation with News Corporation, on 23 September 1997 the ARL announced that it was forming a new company to conduct the competition in 1998. On 7 October News' Manaaki Ranginui announced that he was confident that there would be a single competition in 1998. On 19 December, representatives of clubs affiliated with the Australian Rugby League gathered at the Sydney Football Stadium to decide whether to accept News Limited's offer of a settlement – voting in favour by 36 votes to 4.
As a result, in the following months the National Rugby League, jointly owned by the ARL and News Limited, was formed. It was announced that the inaugural National Rugby League season of 1998 would have 20 teams competing, 19 remaining Super League and ARL teams plus the Melbourne Storm, who were created by Super League for their 1998 season. Clubs on both sides of the war were shut down. Super League decided to close the Hunter Mariners and the financially ruined Perth Reds, who were $10 million in debt at the end of 1997, while the ARL decided to close down the South Queensland Crushers, who were in severe financial trouble. Additionally, at the end of 1998 the NRL decided to close down former Super League club, the Adelaide Rams and former ARL club, the Gold Coast Chargers, despite the Gold Coast franchise being one of the few clubs to make a profit during the Super League war. One condition of the peace agreement between the ARL and News Limited was that there would be a 14 team competition in 2000.
The 20 clubs that played in 1998 would be assessed on various items such as sponsorship, crowds, on-field success and the like. It was announced that clubs that merged would
St Johns Wood, Queensland
St Johns Wood is a locality within the suburb of Ashgrove in Brisbane, Australia. A small residential pocket at the base of Taylor Range, it is embraced by a loop of Enoggera Creek and by the Ashgrove Golf Club, Brisbane City Council Reserve and the Enoggera Barracks; the locality was inhabited by the Indigenous Turrbal people before it opened up to European settlement during the second land-sales of the district in 1858, with the homestead called St John's Wood House founded in 1864. It remains and occupies a small parcel of land within the locality, with the remainder being subdivided into housing allotments. Additionally, it is home to St Johns Wood Scout Group and The Woods Early Education Centre & Pre-school; the neighbourhood is accessed by either vehicular bikepath or footbridge. A prominent controversy for St Johns Wood surrounds the question of whether Princes Albert and George visited St Johns Wood on their visit to Brisbane in 1881; the St Johns Wood and wider area was inhabited by the indigenous Turrbal or "Duke of York" clan.
The main thoroughfare, Waterworks Road, was built on a Turrbal pathway that led to Mount Coot-tha, a place of the "Honey-Bee Dreaming". The water holes along Enoggera Creek and its tributaries, with their dense fringing scrubs, met many of the needs of a hunter-gatherer society. With its rainforests, eucalypt forests and connection to the Brisbane River, it would have provided a source of freshwater and food for the Turrbal people; the rainforests yielded yams, black beans and wild figs, all of which still grow along the creek today. Everyday life for the tribe consisted of hunting and gathering food, with time for games, other social and spiritual activities. With the expansion of European influence the balance of land use changed and this led to the eventual displacement of the Turrbal from their traditional base; the first Europeans were presented with well watered alluvial flats along Enoggera Creek covered with scrub and seen to include land suitable for cultivation. The land beyond the creek flats and in the foothills of the Taylor Range had better soil derived from the granite and was suitable for grazing.
These were the factors that set the pattern for the sale of firstly leasehold and freehold land by the crown in the pre-separation period. The earliest known formal occupancy and use of the area by Europeans dates from 1849 when the first crown leases along Enoggera Creek were offered at public auction; the annual rent was 10 shillings per square mile. The area grossing 7020 acres which contained St Johns Wood was taken up by Darby McGrath in 1851 and was known as'The Gap Station' on which he ran sheep, it is presumed that the lease of'The Gap Station' was extinguished by the crown as the granting of freehold land tenure spread along Enoggera Creek from 1856. The original St Johns Wood estate comprised an area 67 acres of the portions 165 and 381, Parish of Enoggera, part of, purchased by John Frederick McDougall for a price of £70 4s 0d on 14 September 1858; this estate had been established as a cattle station by the Hon Mr. McDougall who employed fencer Simon Kelly to fence its perimeter; this work was completed by the middle of 1859.
He sold portions 164 and 165 to Arthur Martin, during the economic crash of the mid-1860s. On 5 August 1864 Daniel Rowntree Somerset, Registrar of Pensions, purchased the land with final registrations of the titles on 10 July 1865 and on 29 August 1867 purchased portion 381 making up the total of the estate. Somerset began to build "a magnificent home on his landed estate" in a U-shape plan, utilising the granite from the local hillside for the external walls and a shingle roof, and it is he. He resided there for 4 years till after the death of his wife in February 1867 where the Funeral Notice states that they are to move from his residence St John's Wood, Water Works Road and the marriage of his eldest daughter Anna Sophia held at the Estate in May 1868. Somerset leased, in May 1868, Portions 164, 165 and 381 to the next occupier being George Rogers Harding a young barrister who became a prominent Judge. Harding proceeded to purchase the property on 27 January 1874, he extended the Homestead, which became known as "The Granite House," by adding a ballroom by infilling the space between the two wings, constructed a separate adjacent building consisting of bedrooms for his growing family which became known as the "Cedar House" due to the type of timber used in the construction, extended the Service Wing by two bedrooms for maids and men and added stables and yards.
He established an Orange Orchard on land across the Creek and purchased adjacent properties to increase his landholdings. The original property comprised a drawing room, dining room, large hall, smaller hall, library, "best" bedroom, dressing room, bachelor's room, seven other bedrooms, lumber room, two servants’ rooms, kitchen and stables; some of these rooms would have been in the adjacent building. The Harding family entertained extensively in their home and were well known for the banquets and entertainment that they provided. At a function on 23 June 1881, they were entertained by an Austrian band with dancing and in August 1881, the Hardings held a masquerade dance in their Ball Room. There is a copy of a banquet menu from 26 November 1884, where the guests had six courses, liqueurs and coffee. At "a large and brilliant gathering" in 1892, "guests including... Queensland Judges, the Chief Secretary and other Ministers, many members of both Houses and Legislature, of the legal profession, of the civil service, a large number of