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Red Mountain (Birmingham)

Red Mountain is a long ridge running southwest-northeast and dividing Jones Valley from Shades Valley south of Birmingham, Alabama. It is part of the Ridge-and-Valley region of the Appalachian mountains; the Red Mountain Formation of hard Silurian rock strata lies exposed in several long crests, was named "Red Mountain" because of the rust-stained rock faces and prominent seams of red hematite iron ore. The mountain was the site of the Sloss Mines; the best displays of the mountain's geological strata occur at the Twentieth Street cut near the Vulcan statue and at the U. S. Route 31 highway cut leading into the suburb of Homewood. Most of Birmingham's television and radio stations have their transmission towers located on Red Mountain. Red Mountain is home to Red Mountain Park, one of the largest urban parks in the United States at 1,500 acres. At Birmingham the lower 100 feet is predominantly shaly and there is a 20-foot bed of thick-layered sandstone 34 feet above the bottom. Above this shaly part lies the Irondale ore bed, separated from the Big Seam of iron ore by a few feet of shale and of sandstone layers that carry large and small waterworn pebbles.

Next above lies the Big seam 17 feet thick, above which these is about 38 feet of red sandstone that carries small quartz pebbles, the lower 14 feet of which has yellow shale about equal in amount to sandstone. About 30 feet still higher is the Pentamerus-bearing bed, a ferruginous sandstone full of casts of the interiors of the big brachiopod Pentamerus oblongus. There is still about 70 feet more of sandstone reddish, shale to the top of the Red Mountain formation, making a total thickness in this part of Red Mountain of about 260 feet; the most interesting and valuable feature of the Red Mountain formation is its iron ore, the chief cornerstone of Alabama's industrial structure. Although ore of good quality and of workable thickness occurs elsewhere, as at Attalla, on the Red Mountain along the west side of Murphrees Valley, the main deposit, the Big seam, lies under Shades Valley and the part of the Cahaba coal field southeast of that part of Red Mountain which extends from a point a mile or two southwest of Bessemer to Morrow Gap about 8 miles northeast of Birmingham.

The Red Mountain ores are known as a red fossil ore, because the iron accumulated in extensive beds of fragments of fossils, principally the hard parts of crinoids and brachiopods. The iron, from solution in some form, was precipitated upon and within these beds of fossil fragments and thus the ore beds are a particular kind of sedimentary layers inclosed in ordinary sediments and sandstones, composing the bulk of the Red Mountain formation; as the fossil fragments were composed of calcium carbonate, the mineral that forms limestone, the iron ore beds at depth, where they are unweathered and where there has been no condition that permitted leaching of the lime content, carry a considerable percentage of lime, so that the ore is self-fluxing. Another type of ore is oolite ore, in which the iron oxide occurs in the form of small lenticular pellets; the precipitation of the iron that forms this ore started around some minute particle like a small grain of sand or fragment of fossil and built up a small lenticular body.

The two kinds of ore are more or less mixed or one or the other may predominate in a particular layer of ore. – Geology of Alabama There are many neighborhoods that are located along the 33 miles of Red Mountain, that stretches from Sparks Gap on the southwest to Trussville in the northeast. Some of these are Raimund, Lipscomb, Ishkooda, Irondale and Trussville. Located just southeast of downtown Birmingham, on Red Mountain, is Redmont Park, developed in the 1920s by Robert Jemison, it was the home to Birmingham's early bankers and steel industrialists. It became one of Birmingham's most prominent neighborhoods, home to the majority of the multimillion-dollar residences and estates that are located within the city proper; the prestigious Altamont School, a private school well known for its arts and science programs, is located in the neighborhood, as well as Saint Rose Academy, a Catholic parochial school run by Dominican sisters. The proximity of Red Mountain's ore to nearby sources of coal and limestone was the impetus to develop and promote the Birmingham District as an industrial site.

The mining of iron ore along Red Mountain began in the early 1860s as the Civil War created a demand for iron necessary to sustain the Confederate war efforts. The Union army destroyed the Oxmoor and Tannehill furnaces in 1865 and at this point mining stopped along Red Mountain. After the Civil War the production of iron was again being renewed but this time on a commercial level. Under the leadership of such men as Debardeleben and Woodward the mining of iron ore along Red Mountain began again; the mountain developed a symbolic place as the source of wealth in the region and was portrayed as a character in pageants sponsored by the steel companies in their company towns. In the Altamont and Redmont areas the abandoned mine sites served as the locations for large estates and upper-class developments which offered cool breezes and a panoramic view of the growing industrial city from above the constant layer of thick black smoke. Alex Harvey "Rick" Woodward's home is in this area along Altamont Road.

His home is now owned and maintained by the University of Alabama at Birmingham and used as the residence of the University president. As the steel furnaces modernized, labor cost rose, geological faults in the local


Chivasso is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 20 kilometres northeast of Turin. Chivasso has a population of about 27,000, it is situated near the influx of the Orco river. The municipality of Chivasso contains the frazioni Montegiove, Torassi, Pogliani, Mosche, Mandria and Pratoregio. Chivasso borders the following municipalities: Mazzè, San Benigno Canavese, Rondissone, Volpiano, San Sebastiano da Po, Castagneto Po, San Raffaele Cimena; the name has a Roman origin. The 15th cathedral has a façade ornamented with statues in terra-cotta. Chivasso railway station, opened in 1856, forms part of the Turin–Milan railway, is a junction for three other lines, to Aosta and Casale Monferrato, respectively. Chivasso was the birthplace of the 15th Century theologian Angelo Carletti; the townspeople venerated his memory, as did those of Cuneo where he died, the cult was recognized by Pope Benedict XIII who Beatified him in 1753. While his feast is kept on 12 April, in his native Chivasso he is celebrated with an old country fair each year at the end of August.

Official website


E-NABLE is a distributed, Open Source community that creates and shares open source designs for assistive devices. It is known for creating the first 3D printable prosthetic hand and sharing the designs and code for bioelectric limbs. In 2011, Ivan Owen created a metal, functional puppet hand for a Steampunk costume. After posting a video of the hand on YouTube, he was contacted by South African carpenter Richard Van As who had lost his fingers in a woodworking accident. Owen and Van As worked on prototypes of a prosthetic hand, before Owen decided to incorporate 3D printing into the design process; this led to the creation of the first 3D printed mechanical hand. The sharing of the design of this hand on an Open License led to the creation of the community; the e-NABLE community "started with around 100 or so people who were offering to print the files that were in existence". Chapters of the organisation exist in many countries, each works in different ways. For example, one Canadian chapter recycles excess plastic waste to create the prosthetics.

A chapter in Aden, Yemen, is producing prosthetic hands for people injured in Yemen's civil war. The Open Source nature of the project is enabling diverse groups around the world to create prosthetics for people within their own communities. A Colombian engineer called Christian Silva has created superhero-themed prosthetic arms for children. In 2016, an Iron Man-themed arm created by Albert Menero was given to a child by Iron Man actor Robert Downey Jr; the E-nable website contains a tool called the “Handomatic,”, used to fit prosthetic hands according to the measurements of the individual recipient. The tool creates a custom design which can be downloaded. Body powered arms and hands Functional lower legs Myoelectric upper limbs Upper limb exoskeleton Tools Devices for people with vision impairment Teaching manipulatives

Osmia uncinata

Osmia uncinata, the pinewood mason bee, is a species of solitary bee from the family Megachilidae It is an Arctic-alpine species, found in the northern Palearctic, in the United Kingdom it is a Biodiversity Action Plan priority species. Osmia uncinata is a wasp like mason bee with a yellow and black striped thorax, quite variable in its colour and the degree of hairiness shown, they measure between 7 15 mm in length. In Great Britain Osmia uncinata is associated with relicts of the ancient Caledonian Forest, being found in woodland clearings, along paths through woodland, on adjacent roadside verges where the principal forage plant, birds-foot trefoil Lotus corniculatus, is well established. In the United Kingdom Osmia uncinata is confined to the northern Scotland. In Europe its distribution covers northern Europe and the mountains of central Europe east into Asiatic Russia. In Scotland the flight period is from late May to early July; this species has a single-brood in any season. It chooses preexisting cavities: insect burrows in dead wood or bark those of the longhorn beetle Rhagium inquisitor and has used drilled borings in wooden blocks.

The cell partitions and nest plug are made of leaf mastic. The nesting sites require full exposure to the sun; the eggs are laid in these small cells, which the female seals with a reserve of food. The larva develops to an adult while sealed in the cocoon, where it overwinters; the adults emerge in the spring to set up their own nests. On the continent Osmia uncinata is polylectic and has been recorded as utilising pollen sources from plants belonging to 10 different families. In Scotland, both males and females have been observed visiting Lotus corniculatus, broom Cytisus scoparius, bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and rowan Sorbus aucuparia, but these latter three may be nectar sources for the adults only Meadows which border pine woods are an important source of food by providing nectar to fuel the adults' flight and pollen to be provided for the larvae; the chrysidid wasp Chrysura hirsuta, a known parasitoid of the related Osmia inermis, may be a parasitoid of Osmia uncinata as the wasp has been found in woodland sites where O. uncinata occurs while O. inermis is not found in woodland.

In Scotland it is Listed as vulnerable, the main threats to Osmia uncinata are the reduction of available habitat, the loss of the open areas within the forest and increased shading of the forage plants. Dead pine wood should be retained to provide nest sites, the natural regeneration of the forest should be encouraged; as this species has a boreo-alpine distribution, the relict populations in Scotland are going to be negatively affected by anthropogenic climate change. Measures taken to conserve other species found in Caledonian forest should benefit this species. Attempts to encourage them to use artificial nests in Scotland were unsuccessful but did find other rare species of arthropod such as Clubiona subsultans. Osmia uncinata may be rare in Scotland due to a combination of the limited availability of the combination of old trees in sunny positions, beetle burrows, the availability of patches of bird’s-foot trefoil

Early Gold

Early Gold is a compilation album of Simple Minds early material, released in 2003. It contains songs from years 1979-1982. All tracks by Charlie Burchill, Derek Forbes, Jim Kerr, Brian McGee & Mick MacNeil except where noted. "Life in a Day" – 4:07 "Chelsea Girl" – 4:34 "Changeling" – 4:12 "Factory" – 4:15 "Premonition" – 5:30 "I Travel" – 4:02 "Celebrate" – 5:08 "Thirty Frames a Second" – 5:05 "The American" – 3:51 "Love Song" – 5:04 "Sweat in Bullet" – 4:30 "Promised You a Miracle" – 4:28 "Glittering Prize" – 4:34 "Someone Somewhere in Summertime" – 4:35 "New Gold Dream" – 5:39 Charlie Burchill – guitar, keyboards Derek Forbes – bass guitar Jim Kerr – lead vocals Brian McGee – drums Mick MacNeil – keyboards

KK Metalac Valjevo

Košarkaški klub Metalac referred to as KK Metalac Valjevo, is a men's professional basketball club based in Valjevo, Serbia. They are competing in the Basketball League of Serbia; the club is a founding shareholder of the Adriatic Basketball Association. Metalac was established on 24 March 1948 as KK Budućnost Valjevo. Six days the club played its first official game in Čačak against Borac and lost 69:19. In a short period of time, they managed to qualify for a higher level of competition, entering the South Group of a minor Serbian League under the new name Metalac in 1954. Due to financial problems in 1960, the club had to leave all competitions and restart from scratch again a year after. In 1973 Metalac managed to qualify for the First Yugoslav Federal League by beating Mladost Zemun in the last round of the competition, gaining a decisive advantage over Vojvodina Novi Sad. Metalac spent six consecutive seasons in the First League and managed to beat at least once all the big clubs of Yugoslav basketball in that period.

They played their last game in Yugoslav First Federal League on 31 March 1979 against Jugoplastika in Split. During the last couple of years, professional basketball in Valjevo is on the rise again. Metalac qualified for the top level of club competition in Serbia in 2007–08 and since managed to progress to the Basketball League of Serbia Superleague phase five times, they have been a serious contender for a spot in the Adriatic League over the past few seasons and became part of it in 2014–15 after Radnički Kragujevac opted out because of financial instability. The club has had several denominations through the years due to its sponsorship: Metalac Family One Big Enex Metalac Metalac Farmakom Official website