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Birmingham, Alabama

Birmingham is a city in the north central region of the U. S. state of Alabama. With an estimated 2018 population of 209,880, it is the most populous city in Alabama. Birmingham is the seat of Alabama's most populous and fifth largest county; as of 2018, the Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 1,151,801, making it the most populous in Alabama and 49th-most populous in the United States. Birmingham serves as an important regional hub and is associated with the Deep South and Appalachian regions of the nation. Birmingham was founded in 1871, during the post–Civil War Reconstruction era, through the merger of three farm towns, most notably Elyton; the new city was named for Birmingham, the United Kingdom's second largest city and a major industrial city. The Alabama city annexed its smaller neighbors as it developed into a major industrial center based on mining, the iron and steel industry, rail transport. Most of the original settlers were of English ancestry; the city was developed as a place where low paid, non-unionized immigrants, along with African-Americans from rural Alabama, who worked in the city's steel mills and blast furnaces and gave it a competitive advantage over unionized industrial cities of the Midwest and Northeast.

From its founding through the end of the 1960s, Birmingham was a primary industrial center of the southern United States. Its rapid growth from 1881 through 1920 earned it the nicknames "The Magic City" and "The Pittsburgh of the South", its major industries were steel production. Major components of the railroad industry, including rails and railroad cars, were made in Birmingham; the two primary hubs of railroading in the "Deep South" have been Atlanta. The economy began to diversify in the latter half of the twentieth century, as the steel mills began to shut down. Banking, telecommunications, electrical power transmission, medical care, college education, insurance have become its major economic activities. Birmingham now ranks as one of the largest banking centers in the U. S, it is one of the important business centers of the Southeast. In higher education, Birmingham has been the location of the University of Alabama School of Medicine and the University of Alabama School of Dentistry since 1947.

In 1969, it gained the University of Alabama at Birmingham, one of three main campuses of the University of Alabama System. It is home to three private institutions: Samford University, Birmingham-Southern College, Miles College; the Birmingham area has major colleges of medicine, optometry, occupational therapy, physical therapy, law and nursing. The city has three of the state's five law schools: Cumberland School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, Miles Law School. Birmingham is the headquarters of the Southwestern Athletic Conference and the Southeastern Conference, one of the major U. S. collegiate athletic conferences. Birmingham was founded on June 1, 1871, by the Elyton Land Company, whose investors included cotton planters and railroad entrepreneurs, it sold lots near the planned crossing of the Alabama & Chattanooga and South & North Alabama railroads, including land, part of the Benjamin P. Worthington plantation; the city was chartered by the state legislature on December 19, 1871. The first business at that crossroads was a trading post and country store operated by Marre and Allen.

The site of the railroad crossing was notable for its proximity to nearby deposits of iron ore and limestone – the three main raw materials used in making steel. Birmingham is the only place where significant amounts of all three minerals can be found in close proximity. From the start the new city was planned as a center of industry. To emphasize this point, the city's founders named it in honor of Birmingham, one of the world's premier industrial cities; the growth of the planned city was impeded by an outbreak of cholera and a Wall Street crash in 1873. Soon afterward, however, it began to develop at an explosive rate; the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company became the leading steel producer in the South by 1892. In 1907 U. S. Steel became the most important political and economic force in Birmingham, it resisted new industry, however. In 1911, the town of Elyton and several other surrounding towns were absorbed into Birmingham. From the early 20th century, the city grew so it earned the sobriquet "The Magic City".

The downtown was redeveloped from a low-rise commercial and residential district into a busy grid of neoclassical mid- and high-rise buildings crisscrossed by streetcar lines. Between 1902 and 1912, four large office buildings were constructed at the intersection of 20th Street, the central north-south spine of the city, 1st Avenue North, which connected the warehouses and industrial facilities along the east-west railroad corridor; this early group of skyscrapers was nicknamed the "Heaviest Corner on Earth". Birmingham was hit by the 1916 Irondale earthquake. A few buildings in the area were damaged; the earthquake was felt as far as Atlanta and neighboring states. While excluded from the best-paying industrial jobs, African Americans joined the migration of residents from rural areas to the city, drawn by economic opportunity; the Great Depression of the 1930s struck Birmingham hard, as the sources of capital fueling the city's growth dried up at the same time farm laborers, driven off the land, made their way to the city in search of work.

Hundreds poured into many riding in empty boxcars. "Hobo jungles" were established in Boyles

Katharine Rhoades

Katharine Nash Rhoades was an American painter and illustrator born in New York City. She was a feminist. Katharine Nash Rhoades, born November 30, 1885, was the daughter of Lyman Rhoades, a banker, Elizabeth Nash of New York City, she was the middle child, with Lyman Nash and Stephen Nash Rhoades. She attended the Veltin School for Girls in Manhattan. Rhoades was a debutante in 1904, as was Malvina Hoffman, with whom she traveled with Marion H. Beckett to Paris in 1908, she studied art there for two years. She studied with Robert Henri. Rhoades was one of the artists who exhibited at the landmark 1913 International Exhibition of Modern Art show; the show included one of Talloires. She, along with Agnes Ernst Meyer and Marion Beckett were known as "the Three Graces" of the Alfred Stieglitz art circle, they were models for photographs by Stieglitz and Edward Steichen, paintings by Steichen, caricatures by Francis Picabia, drawings by Marius de Zayas, paintings by Arthur Beecher Carles. Marsden Hartley remembered Rhoades and Beckett as being “both six feet and always together“.

She posed for photographs by Stieglitz beginning in 1914. Rhoades was a contributed poems and illustrations to Camera Work a quarterly journal published by Alfred Stieglitz, like poems that were published in 1914, she was an editor and contributor to 291, an arts and literary magazine. For the "What'291' Means to Me" issue, she wrote, "I touch four walls—I hear voices... those who have touched its world—I too went gazing, answering... I too merged with the voices. In 1914, Rhoades and Beckett exhibited the modern works of art at the National Arts Club; the following year, the two women had a joint exhibition at Stieglitz's 291 Gallery. She had her first exhibit of her avante-garde paintings at the gallery that year, her paintings were similar to the works of Matisse before World War I. She burned many of her paintings made before the 1920s, her work during that time had elements of Cubism, she contributed to the formation of the Dada movement. Rhoades, Charles Freer's secretary about 1913, was named as a lifetime trustee of the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D.

C. in his will. The other trustees were Eugene Meyer; the gallery opened in 1923. The Meyers named their daughter, the wife of Philip Graham and publisher of The Washington Post after her. In 1937, she co-founded a religious library now part of the Ball duPont Library at The University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee, she may have had a romantic relationship with Stieglitz, or it may have been one-sided interest on his part, before he met Georgia O'Keeffe. Rhoades and Stieglitz remained good friends, along with other members of his circle, she stayed at Stieglitz's summer home in Lake George. O'Keeffe said that she found Rhoades to be a "wonderful person" whom she always liked and corresponded, she had an affair with Arthur Beecher Carles. Rhoades died October 26, 1965 and was buried with her parents and other family members at the Hillside Burial Grounds in Sharon, Connecticut

List of clubs in the Bundesliga

This is a list of clubs in the Bundesliga. It records all 56 clubs who played in the 56 seasons of the Bundesliga since its introduction in 1963; the placings section is split in two periods and after the German reunification, which took place during the league's 1990–91 season, in October 1990. For the following season, clubs from former East Germany joined the league; the list of clubs of the Bundesliga from its interception to the present season, sorted by the last season a club played in the league: The placings in the Bundesliga from its interception to the last season before the German reunion: The placings in the Bundesliga from the German reunion to the present season: The two digit year is the year in which the season finishes. Official website DFB – Deutscher Fußball Bund