Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
John Michael Stipe is an American singer-songwriter and the lead singer of the alternative rock band R. E. M. from their formation in 1980 until their dissolution in 2011. Possessing a distinctive voice, Stipe has been noted for the "mumbling" style of his early career, he was in charge of R. E. M.'s visual aspect selecting album artwork and directing many of the band's music videos. Outside the music industry, he owns and runs two film production studios, C-00 and Single Cell Pictures; as a member of R. E. M. Stipe was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007; as a singer-songwriter, Stipe influenced a wide range of artists, including Kurt Cobain of Nirvana and Thom Yorke of Radiohead. Bono of U2 described his voice as "extraordinary". John Michael Stipe was born on January 1960, in Decatur, Georgia. Stipe was a military brat, his younger sister, Lynda Stipe, was born in 1962 and became the vocalist of her own band Hetch Hetchy. Stipe and his family moved to various locales during his childhood, including West Germany, Illinois, Alabama.
Stipe graduated from high school in Collinsville, Illinois, in 1978. Stipe's senior photo is pictured in the album art work of Eponymous. Stipe worked at the local Waffle House, he was raised in and came from "a place of faith", as previous generations of his family were Methodist ministers. While attending college at the University of Georgia in Athens, Stipe frequented the Wuxtry record shop, where he met store clerk Peter Buck in 1980. "He was a striking-looking guy and he bought weird records, which not everyone in the store did," Buck recalled. The two became friends and decided to form a band. Buck and Stipe started writing music together; the pair were soon joined by Bill Berry and Mike Mills and named themselves R. E. M. A name Stipe selected at random from a dictionary. All four members of R. E. M. dropped out of school in 1980 to focus on the band. Stipe was the last to do so; the band issued its debut single, "Radio Free Europe", on Hib-Tone, a college radio success. The band signed to I. R. S.
Records for the release of the Chronic Town EP one year later. R. E. M. Released its debut album Murmur in 1983, acclaimed by critics. Stipe's vocals and lyrics received particular attention from listeners. Murmur went on to win the Rolling Stone Critics Poll Album of the Year over Michael Jackson's Thriller, their second album, followed in 1984. In 1985, R. E. M. Traveled to England to record their third album Fables of the Reconstruction, a difficult process that brought the band to the verge of a break up. After the album was released, relationships in the band remained tense. Gaining weight and acting eccentrically, Stipe said of the period, "I was well on my way to losing my mind", they toured throughout Europe that year. In September 1983, a few months after the release of the R. E. M.'s debut album, Stipe participated in a low-budget, forty-five-minute Super-8 film called Just Like a Movie, shot in Athens by New York Rocker magazine photographer Laura Levine, a friend of the band. Those with acting roles in the film included Levine, Lynda Stipe, Matthew Sweet, R.
E. M.'s Bill Berry. The film remains unreleased. Stipe had planned a collaboration with friend Kurt Cobain, lead singer of Nirvana, in 1994 in an attempt to lure Cobain away from his home and his drug addiction. However, they did not manage to record anything before Cobain's death. Stipe was chosen as Courtney Love's daughter, Frances Bean Cobain. R. E. M. recorded the song "Let Me In" from the 1994 album Monster in tribute to Cobain. Stipe was once close to fellow alternative rock singer Natalie Merchant and has recorded a few songs with her, including one titled "Photograph" which appeared on a pro-choice benefit album titled Born to Choose, they appeared live with Peter Gabriel singing Gabriel's single "Red Rain" at the 1996 VH1 Honors and a few other times. Stipe and Tori Amos became friends in the mid-1990s and recorded a duet in 1994 called "It Might Hurt a Bit" for the Don Juan DeMarco motion picture soundtrack. Both Stipe and Amos decided not to release it. In 1998, Stipe published. In 2006, Stipe released an EP that comprised six different cover versions of Joseph Arthur's "In The Sun" for the Hurricane Katrina disaster relief fund.
One version, recorded in a collaboration with Coldplay's Chris Martin, reached number one on the Canadian Singles Chart. In 2006, Stipe appeared on the song "Broken Promise" on the Placebo release Meds. Continuing his non-R. E. M. Work in 2006, Stipe sang the song "L'Hôtel" on the tribute album to Serge Gainsbourg titled Monsieur Gainsbourg Revisited and appeared on the song "Dancing on the Lip of a Volcano" on the New York Dolls album One Day It Will Please Us to Remember Even This, he recorded a song with Miguel Bose on the album Papito "Lo que ves es lo que hay". Stipe collaborated with Lacoste in 2008 to release his own "holiday collector edition" brand of polo shirt; the design depicts a concert audience from the view of the performer on stage. He appeared with Chris Martin of Coldplay live at Madison Square Garden and online to perform "Losing My Religion", in the 12-12-12 concert raising money for relief from Hurricane Sandy. A new recording from Stipe was revealed in 2013; the song, "Rio Grande", is tak
The Linn LM-1 Drum Computer is a drum machine manufactured by Linn Electronics and released in 1980. It was the first drum machine to use samples of acoustic drums, one of the first programmable drum machines, it became a staple of 1980s pop music, helping to establish drum machines as credible tools, appears on records by artists including Human League, Gary Numan, Michael Jackson, Prince. The LM-1 was succeeded in 1982 by the LinnDrum; the LM-1, along with the Oberheim DMX, was one of the first drum machines to use samples. It features twelve 8-bit percussion samples, which can be individually tuned: kick, snare, hi-hat, tambourine, two toms, two congas, cowbell and hand claps; the machine introduced features such as "timing correct" and "shuffle" and the ability to chain patterns. The LM-1 was designed by American engineer Roger Linn. In 1978, Linn, a guitarist, was dissatisfied with drum machines available at the time, such as the Roland CR-78, wanted "a drum machine that did more than play preset samba patterns and didn’t sound like crickets".
He wrote software to create patterns. At the suggestion of Toto keyboardist Steve Porcaro, Linn recorded samples of real drums to a computer chip. Though Linn was not the first to use digital sampling technology, by the late 70s, it had become small and affordable enough to use in his drum machine; as the samples were digital, they would not degrade like those of earlier devices, such as the Chamberlin Rhythmate, which used tape loops. Cymbal sounds were not due to the cost of long sound samples. Linn said. Linn introduced the shuffle feature after he discovered that his code would record his playing and play it back in perfect sixteenth notes correcting his timing. To implement swing beats, he delayed the playback of alternate sixteenth notes; the LM-1 was released in 1980 as the first Linn Electronics product. It retailed for $5,500. Only 525 machines were built. Early adopters included Peter Gabriel, Fleetwood Mac, Stevie Wonder; the machine became a staple of 1980s pop music, appeared on hit records by artists including the Human League, Gary Numan, Michael Jackson, Giorgio Moroder, Prince.
According to the Guardian, the LM-1, along with the DMX, helped establish drum machines as "credible, powerful instruments" rather than toys. In 1982, it was succeeded by the cheaper and more stable LinnDrum, a commercial success. | polynominal.com LINN LM1 page with manual and schematics
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Shaking the Tree: Sixteen Golden Greats
Shaking the Tree: Sixteen Golden Greats is a compilation album by the English rock musician Peter Gabriel. It was released in 1990 as Gabriel's first career retrospective, including songs from his first solo album Peter Gabriel, through Passion: Music for The Last Temptation of Christ, it was remastered with most of Gabriel's catalogue in 2002. The tracks are creatively re-ordered; some of the tracks were different from the album versions. New parts were recorded for several tracks in Gabriel's Real World Studios. Most songs are edited as radio, single, or video edit versions. "Shaking the Tree"—a track from Youssou N'Dour's 1989 album The Lion—is a 1990 version featuring new vocals from Gabriel. "I Have the Touch" is listed as a 1983 remix, although it sounds enough like the remix from 1985 that many reviewers have declared the remixes to be the same."Here Comes the Flood" is a new recording from 1990. This version is a piano and voice arrangement, far simpler than the produced version on Peter Gabriel.
Its sparseness is closer to the version. In interviews, Gabriel has said that he preferred the 1979 version, it was that version with Fripp that he chose to overdub in German as the flipside of the single "Biko" released before Ein deutsches Album. Although this album highlights songs from Peter Gabriel's earlier albums, tracks from Peter Gabriel and the soundtrack to the film Birdy are not included. "In Your Eyes" is notably missing from the compilation. Say Anything, in which it was played in a prominent scene, had been released the year before. Although this made "In Your Eyes" the most well known Peter Gabriel song aside from "Sledgehammer", it failed to crack the top 20 and was thus omitted from the album in favour of five of the other eight tracks from So—four other hits and album track "Mercy Street". NOTE: All tracks marked with * are not on the vinyl release of the album. All tracks written by Peter Gabriel, except "Shaking the Tree", co-written with Youssou N'Dour. "Solsbury Hill"Bob Ezrin – production Larry Fast – synthesizer Robert Fripp – guitar Peter Gabriel – vocals Steve Hunter – guitar Tony Levin – bass guitar Alan Schwartzberg – drums"I Don't Remember" Larry Fast – processing Robert Fripp – guitar Peter Gabriel – piano, synthesizer and production Tony Levin – Chapman Stick Jerry Marrotta – drums David Rhodes – guitar Peter Walsh.
P. Arnold – backing vocals Peter Gabriel – Fairlight CMI, piano, production Carol Gordon – backing vocals Manu Katche – drums Wayne Jackson – trumpet Daniel Lanois – production Tony Levin – bass guitar Dee Lewis – backing vocals Don Mikkelsen – trombone David Rhodes – guitar Mark Rivera – saxophone"Family Snapshot"Larry Fast – synthesizer Phil Collins – snare drum Peter Gabriel – piano, vocals John Giblin – bass guitar Dave Gregory – guitar Steve Lillywhite – production Jerry Marrotta – drums Dick Morrissey – saxophone David Rhodes – guitar"Mercy Street" Djalma Correa – surdu and triangle Peter Gabriel – Fairlight CMI, piano, CS80, production Larry Klein – bass guitar Daniel Lanois – production Mark Rivera – processed saxophone"Shaking the Tree" George Acony – Fairlight CMI percussion and sequencing Simon Clark – organ, keyboard bass, synthesizer Habib Faye – bass guitar, guitar Peter Gabriel – vocals and re-recorded vocals Manu Katche – drums Youssou N'Dour – vocals David Rhodes – acoustic and electric guitar"Don't Give Up" Peter Gabriel – chant, CMI, piano, production Kate Bush - chant David Rhodes - guitar Tony Levin - basse Simon Clark - chorus CS 80 Richard Tee - piano Daniel Lanois – production"San Jacinto"Peter Gabriel – vocals, production David Lord – production"Here Comes the Flood" Peter Gabriel – piano and production"Red Rain"Peter Gabriel – vocals, production Daniel Lanois – production"Games Without Frontiers" Steve Lillywhite – production"Shock the Monkey" Peter Gabriel – vocals, production David Lord – production"I Have the Touch" Peter Gabriel – keyboards and production David Lord – production Simon Phillips – drums James Guthrie – remix engineer"Big TimePeter Gabriel – vocals, production Daniel Lanois – production"Zaar" Peter Gabriel – production"Biko" Steve Lillywhite – productionAdditionalAlexander Knaust – styling and photography assistance Robert Mapplethorpe – photography Mouat Nomad, London – design Shaking the Tree: Sixteen Golden Greats at MusicBrainz