The Texas annexation was the 1845 annexation of the Republic of Texas into the United States of America, admitted to the Union as the 28th state on December 29, 1845. The Republic of Texas declared independence from the Republic of Mexico on March 2, 1836. At the time the vast majority of the Texian population favored the annexation of the Republic by the United States; the leadership of both major U. S. political parties, the Democrats and the Whigs, opposed the introduction of Texas, a vast slave-holding region, into the volatile political climate of the pro- and anti-slavery sectional controversies in Congress. Moreover, they wished to avoid a war with Mexico, whose government refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of its rebellious northern province. With Texas's economic fortunes declining by the early 1840s, the President of the Texas Republic, Sam Houston, arranged talks with Mexico to explore the possibility of securing official recognition of independence, with the United Kingdom mediating.
In 1843, U. S. President John Tyler unaligned with any political party, decided independently to pursue the annexation of Texas in a bid to gain a base of popular support for another four years in office, his official motivation was to outmaneuver suspected diplomatic efforts by the British government for emancipation of slaves in Texas, which would undermine slavery in the United States. Through secret negotiations with the Houston administration, Tyler secured a treaty of annexation in April 1844; when the documents were submitted to the U. S. Senate for ratification, the details of the terms of annexation became public and the question of acquiring Texas took center stage in the presidential election of 1844. Pro-Texas-annexation southern Democratic delegates denied their anti-annexation leader Martin Van Buren the nomination at their party's convention in May 1844. In alliance with pro-expansion northern Democratic colleagues, they secured the nomination of James K. Polk, who ran on a pro-Texas Manifest Destiny platform.
In June 1844, the Senate, with its Whig majority, soundly rejected the Tyler–Texas treaty. The pro-annexation Democrat Polk narrowly defeated anti-annexation Whig Henry Clay in the 1844 presidential election. In December 1844, lame-duck President Tyler called on Congress to pass his treaty by simple majorities in each house; the Democratic-dominated House of Representatives complied with his request by passing an amended bill expanding on the pro-slavery provisions of the Tyler treaty. The Senate narrowly passed a compromise version of the House bill, designed to provide President-elect Polk the options of immediate annexation of Texas or new talks to revise the annexation terms of the House-amended bill. On March 1, 1845, President Tyler signed the annexation bill, on March 3, he forwarded the House version to Texas, offering immediate annexation; when Polk took office at noon EST the next day, he encouraged Texas to accept the Tyler offer. Texas ratified the agreement with popular approval from Texans.
The bill was signed by President Polk on December 29, 1845, accepting Texas as the 28th state of the Union. Texas formally joined the union on February 19, 1846. Following the annexation, relations between the United States and Mexico deteriorated because of an unresolved dispute over the border between Texas and Mexico, the Mexican–American War broke out only a few months later. First mapped by Spain in 1519, Texas was part of the vast Spanish empire seized by the Spanish Conquistadors from its indigenous people for over 300 years; when the Louisiana territory was acquired by the United States from France in 1803, many in the U. S. believed the new territory included all of present-day Texas. The US-Spain border along the northern frontier of Texas took shape in the 1817–1819 negotiations between Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and the Spanish ambassador to the United States, Luis de Onís y González-Vara; the boundaries of Texas were determined within the larger geostrategic struggle to demarcate the limits of the United States' extensive western lands and of Spain's vast possessions in North America.
The Florida Treaty of February 22, 1819 emerged as a compromise that excluded Spain from the lower Columbia River watershed, but established southern boundaries at the Sabine and Red Rivers, "legally extinguish" any American claims to Texas. Nonetheless, Texas remained an object of fervent interest to American expansionists, among them Thomas Jefferson, who anticipated the eventual acquisition of its fertile lands; the Missouri crisis of 1819–1821 sharpened commitments to expansionism among the country's slaveholding interests, when the so-called Thomas proviso established the 36°30' parallel, imposing free-soil and slave-soil futures in the Louisiana Purchase lands. While a majority of southern congressmen acquiesced to the exclusion of slavery from the bulk of the Louisiana Purchase, a significant minority objected. Virginian editor Thomas Ritchie of the Richmond Enquirer predicted that with the proviso restrictions, the South would require Texas: "If we are cooped up on the north, we must have elbow room to the west."
Representative John Floyd of Virginia in 1824 accused Secretary of State Adams of conceding Texas to Spain in 1819 in the interests of Northern anti-slavery advocates, so depriving the South of additional slave states. Then-Representative John Tyler of Virginia invoked the Jeffersonian precepts of territorial and commercial growth as a national goal to counter the rise of sectional differences over slavery, his "diffusion" theory declared that with Missouri open to slavery, the new state would encourage the transfer of underutilized slaves westward, emptying the eastern states of bondsme
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Red beds are sedimentary rocks, which consist of sandstone and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides. These red-colored sedimentary strata locally contain thin beds of conglomerate, limestone, or some combination of these sedimentary rocks; the ferric oxides, which are responsible for the red color of red beds occur as a coating on the grains of sediments comprising red beds. Classic examples of red beds are the Permian and Triassic strata of the western United States and the Devonian Old Red Sandstone facies of Europe. Krynine suggested that the red beds were formed by the erosion and redeposition of red soils or older red beds, but a fundamental problem with this hypothesis is the relative scarcity of red-colored source sediments of suitable age close to an area of red bed sediments in Cheshire, England. Van Houten developed the idea to include the in situ reddening of the sediment by the dehydration of brown or drab colored ferric hydroxides; these ferric hydroxides include goethite and so-called "amorphous ferric hydroxide" or limonite.
Much of this material may be the mineral ferrihydrite. This dehydration or "aging" process has been found to be intimately associated with pedogenesis in alluvial floodplains and desert environments. Berner showed that goethite is unstable relative to hematite and, in the absence of water or at elevated temperature, will dehydrate according to the reaction: 2FeOOH → Fe2O3 +H2OThe Gibbs Free Energy for the reaction goethite → hematite is −2.76kJ/mol and Langmuir showed that G becomes negative with smaller particle size. Thus detrital ferric hydroxides, including goethite and ferrihydrite, will spontaneously transform into red-colored hematite pigment with time; this process not only accounts for the progressive reddening of alluvium but the fact that older desert dune sands are more intensely reddened than their younger equivalents. The formation of red beds during burial diagenesis was described by Walker and Walker et al.. The key to this mechanism is the intrastratal alteration of ferromagnesian silicates by oxygenated groundwaters during burial.
Walker’s studies show that the hydrolysis of hornblende and other iron-bearing detritus follows Goldich dissolution series. This is controlled by the Gibbs free energy of the particular reaction. For example, the most altered material would be olivine: e.g. Fe2SiO4 + O2 → Fe2O3 + SiO2 with E = -27.53kJ/molA key feature of this process, exemplified by the reaction, is the production of a suite of by products which are precipitated as authigenic phases. These include mixed layer clays, potassium feldspar and carbonates as well as the pigmentary ferric oxides. Reddening progresses as the diagenetic alteration becomes more advanced and is thus a time dependent mechanism; the other implication is that reddening of this type is not specific to a particular depositional environment. However, the favourable conditions for diagenetic red bed formation i.e. positive Eh and neutral-alkaline pH are most found in hot, semi-arid areas, this is why red beds are traditionally associated with such climates. Secondary red beds are characterized by irregular color zonation related to sub-unconformity weathering profiles.
The color boundaries may cross-cut lithological contacts and show more intense reddening adjacent to unconformities. Johnson et al. have showed how secondary reddening phases might be superimposed on earlier formed primary red beds in the Carboniferous of the southern North Sea. The general conditions leading to post-diagenetic alteration have been described by Mücke. Important reactions include pyrite oxidation: 3O2 + 4FeS2→ Fe2O3 + 8S E = −789 kJ/moland siderite oxidation: O2 + 4FeCO3 → 2Fe2O3 + 4CO2 E = −346 kJ/molSecondary red beds formed in this way are an excellent example of telodiagenesis, they are linked to the uplift and surface weathering of deposited sediments and require conditions similar to primary and diagenetic red beds for their formation. Red Beds of Texas and Oklahoma Chugwater Formation Red Hills, Kansas Old Red Sandstone New Red Sandstone American Geological Institute, Dictionary of Geological Terms, p. 416. Berner R. A. 1969. Goethite stability and origin of red beds. Geochimica Cosmomochimica Acta, 35, pp 267-273.
Krynine, P. D. 1950, Petrology and origin of the Triassic sedimentary Bulletin of the Connecticut Geology and Natural History Survey, 73, 239p. Langmuir, D. 1971, Particle size effect on the reaction Goethite = Hematite + Water. American Journal of Science, 271, pp 147-156. Mücke, A. 1994. Part 1. Postdiagenetic ferruginization of sedimentary rocks - including a comparative study of the reddening of red beds. Wolf, K. H. and Chilingarian, G V. pp 361-395 Diagenesis, IV. Developments in Sedimentology 5 1, Amsterdam. Van Houten, F. B. 1973, Origin of red beds. A review -1961-1972. Annual Review Earth Planetary Science, 1, pp 39-61 Walker, T. R. 1967, Formation of red beds in modern and ancient deserts. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 78, pp 353-368. Pictures of Permo-Triassic red beds in Palo Duro Canyon
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. They are a common feature of river deltas; the phenomenon is known as river bifurcation. The opposite of a distributary is a tributary. Distributaries occur as a stream nears a lake or an ocean, but they can occur inland as well, such as on alluvial fans or when a tributary stream bifurcates as it nears its confluence with a larger stream. In some cases, a minor distributary can divert so much water from the main channel that it can become the main route. Common terms to name individual river distributaries in English-speaking countries are arm and channel, they may refer to a distributary that does not rejoin the channel it has branched from, or to one that does. In Australia, the term anabranch is used to refer to a distributary that diverts from the main course of the river and rejoins it later. In North America an anabranch is called a braided stream. In Louisiana, the Atchafalaya River is an important distributary of the Mississippi River.
Because the Atchafalaya takes a steeper route to the Gulf of Mexico than the main channel, over several decades it has captured more and more of the Mississippi's flow, after the Mississippi meandered into the Red River of the South. The Old River Control Structure, a dam which regulates the outflow from the Mississippi into the Atchafalaya, was completed by the Army corps of engineers in 1963, it is intended to prevent the Atchafalaya from capturing the main flow of the Mississippi and stranding the ports of Baton Rouge and New Orleans. In British Columbia, the Fraser River has numerous sloughs and side-channels which may be defined as distributaries, its final stretch has three main distributaries: the North Arm and the South Arm, a few smaller ones adjoining them. Examples of inland distributaries: Teton River—a tributary of Henrys Fork in Idaho—splits into two distributary channels, the North Fork and South Fork, which join Henrys Fork miles apart. Parting of the Waters National Landmark within Wyoming's Teton Wilderness on the Continental Divide where North Two Ocean Creek splits into two distributaries, Pacific Creek and Atlantic Creek, which flow into their respective oceans.
Kings River has deposited a large alluvial fan at the transition from its canyon in the Sierra Nevada mountains to the flat Central Valley. Distributaries flow north into the Pacific Ocean via the San Joaquin River and south into an endorheic basin surrounding Tulare Lake; the Qu'Appelle River, in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, is a distributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Its flow is controlled by the Qu'Appelle River Dam; this dam forms the southern arm of Lake Diefenbaker. The Casiquiare is an inland distributary of the upper Orinoco, which flows southward into the Rio Negro and forms a unique natural canal between the Orinoco and Amazon river systems, it is the largest river on the planet. The IJssel, the Waal and the Nederrijn are the three principal distributaries of the Rhine; these are formed by two separate bifurcations within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. The Akhtuba River is a major distributary of the Volga; the bifurcation occurs close to, but before, the Volga Delta. The Tärendö River in northern Sweden is an inland distributary, far from the mouth of the river.
It ends at the Kalix River. The Little Danube in Slovakia branches off from the Danube near Bratislava, flows into the Vah before rejoining the main river near Komárno; the area in the middle is the largest freshwater island in Europe. The Abbey River, Limerick, in Ireland is a distributary arm of the River Shannon, it rejoins the Shannon to form an island upon. The Huai River in China splits into three streams; the main stream passes through the Sanhe Sluice, goes out of the Sanhe river, enters the Yangtze River through Baoying Lake and Gaoyou Lake. On the east bank of Hongze Lake, another stream goes out of Gaoliangjian Gate and enters the Yellow Sea at the port of Bidan through Subei Guan'gai Zongqu, the main irrigation channel of Northern Jiangsu); the third stream leaves the Erhe lock on the northeast bank of Hongze Lake, passes the Huaishuhe River to the north of Lianyungang city, flows into Haizhou Bay through the Hongkou. Kollidam River is a distributary of the Kaveri River. Himalayan rivers including Ganges and Indus plus many tributaries form inland distributaries over vast alluvial fans as they transition from the mountain region to the flat Indo-Gangetic Plain.
These areas are flood-prone, for example the 2008 Bihar flood on the Kosi River. Hoogli River is a Ganges distributary that flows through India, whereas most of the Ganges-Brahmaputra complex enters the sea through Bangladesh. Nara River is a distributary of the Indus River; the Nile River has the Rosetta and the Damietta branches. According to Pliny the Elder it had in ancient times seven distributaries: The Pelusiac The Tanitic The Mendesian The Phatnitic The Sebennytic The Bolbitine The CanopicSee History of the Nile Delta; the Okavango River ends in many distributaries in a large inland delta called the Okavango Delta. It is an example of distributaries. A number of the rivers that flow inland from Australia's Great Dividing Range form distributaries, most of which flow only intermittently during times of high river levels and end in shallow lakes or peter out in the deserts. Yarriambiack Creek, which
Mexico–United States border
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east. The border traverses a variety of terrains; the Mexico–US border is the most crossed border in the world, with 350 million documented crossings annually. The total length of the continental border is 3,145 kilometers. From the Gulf of Mexico, it follows the course of the Rio Grande to the border crossing at Ciudad Juárez, El Paso, Texas. Westward from El Paso–Juárez, it crosses vast tracts of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts to the Colorado River Delta and San Diego–Tijuana, before reaching the Pacific Ocean; the Mexico–United States border extends 3,145 kilometers, in addition to the maritime boundaries of 29 kilometers in the Pacific Ocean and 19 kilometers in the Gulf of Mexico. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, the continental border follows the middle of the Rio Grande—according to the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo between the two nations, "along the deepest channel" —from its mouth on the Gulf of Mexico a distance of 2,020 kilometers to a point just upstream of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez.
It follows an alignment westward overland and it is marked by monuments for a distance of 859 kilometers to the Colorado River, when it reaches its highest elevation at the intersection with the Continental Divide. It follows the middle of that river toward the north with a distance of 39 kilometers, follows an alignment overland toward the west and marked by monuments with a distance of 227 kilometers to the Pacific Ocean. Per the La Paz Agreement, the official "border area" extends 100 kilometers "on either side of the inland and maritime boundaries" from the Gulf of Mexico west into the Pacific Ocean. There is a 100-mile border zone; the Rio Grande meanders along the Texas–Mexico border. As a result, the United States and Mexico have a treaty by which the Rio Grande is maintained as the border, with new cut-offs and islands being transferred to the other nation as necessary; the Boundary Treaty of 1970 between Mexico and the United States settled all outstanding boundary disputes and uncertainties related to the Rio Grande border.
The region is characterized by deserts, rugged hills, abundant sunshine, two major rivers—the Colorado and the Rio Grande. The U. S. states along the border, from west to east, are California, New Mexico, Texas. The Mexican states along the border are Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas. Among the U. S. states, Texas has the longest stretch of the border with Mexico, while California has the shortest. Among the states in Mexico, Chihuahua has the longest border with the United States, while Nuevo León has the shortest. Texas borders four Mexican states—Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Chihuahua—the most of any U. S. states. New Mexico and Arizona each borders two Mexican states. California borders only Baja California. Three Mexican states border two U. S. states each: Baja California borders California and Arizona. Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila each borders only one U. S. state: Texas. Along the border are 23 U. S. counties and 39 Mexican municipalities. The border separating Mexico and the United States is the most crossed international boundary in the world, with 350 million legal crossings taking place annually.
There are 48 U. S.–Mexico border crossings, with 330 ports of entry. At these points of entry, people trying to get into the U. S. are required to open their bags for inspection. Border crossings take place by roads, pedestrian walkways and ferries. From west to east, below is a list of the border city "twinnings"; the total population of the borderlands—defined as those counties and municipios lining the border on either side—stands at some 12 million people. The Mexico–United States border is the world's most transited border; the San Ysidro Port of Entry is located between San Ysidro and Tijuana, Baja California. 50,000 vehicles and 25,000 pedestrians use this entry daily. Due to business of this entry port, it has influenced the every day life-style of people that live in these border towns; the world's busiest border is having an impact on communities on both sides of the border. The average wait time to cross into the United States is an hour. Having thousands of vehicles transit through the border every day is causing air pollution in San Ysidro and Tijuana.
The emission of carbon monoxide and other vehicle related air contaminants have been linked to health complications such as cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, birth outcomes, premature death, obesity and other respiratory diseases. Due to the high levels of traffic collusion and the extended wait times, mental health is impacted by the border's business, affecting the person's stress levels and aggressive behavior; the San Ysidro border is militarized, separated by three walls, border patrol agents and ICE. Tijuana is the next target for San Diegan developers due to the fast-growing city, its lower cost of living, cheap prices and proximity to San Diego. While this would benefit the tourist aspect of the city, it is damaging to low-income residents that will no longer be able to
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Canyon is a city in, the county seat of, Randall County, United States. The population was 13,303 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Amarillo, metropolitan statistical area. Canyon is the home of West Texas A&M University and Panhandle–Plains Historical Museum, the world-famous outdoor musical drama Texas. Canyon was founded by L. G. Conner. East of Canyon is the JA Ranch, founded in 1877 by Charles Goodnight and John George Adair and still under the ownership of the Adair heirs. According to the United States Census Bureau, Canyon has a total area of all land; the city itself lies in a valley that becomes Palo Duro Canyon to the east. At the 2010 census, there were 13,303 people, 5,185 households and 2,924 families residing in the city; the population density was 2687.47 per square mile. There were 5,611 housing units at an average density of 1,133.54 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.5% White, 2.4% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.7% from other races, 2% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.7% of the population. There were 5,185 households of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.6% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.99. 21.4% of the population were under the age of 18, 18.6% from 20 to 24, 22.3% from 25 to 44, 15.3% from 45 to 64, 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.5 males. The median household income was $32,361 and the median family income was $46,250. Males had a median income of $34,338 versus $25,255 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,292. About 8.1% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.
Public education in Canyon is served by the Canyon Independent School District. The only high school is the Canyon High School, whose mascot is an Eagle; some students in Canyon, TX play soccer at the Brown Road Soccer Complex on the west side of town. Houston Bright, composer who taught for three decades at West Texas A&M University Harold Bugbee, Western artist and the former curator of Panhandle-Plains Museum Terry Funk, professional wrestler and actor Blair Garner, syndicated radio host Bryan A. Garner, editor-in-chief of Black's Law Dictionary and teacher. Margaret Pease Harper, educator and originator of Texas Grady Hazlewood, Texas state senator 1941–1971 and the father of the farm-to-market road system, was reared on a farm near Canyon Mark Lair, Hall of Fame Bridge Player, Inducted into the American Contract Bridge League Bridge Hall of Fame in 2009. Mark has lived in Canyon for the past 41 years. Georgia O'Keeffe, famous artist, first lived in Amarillo and Canyon, having been inspired by the natural beauty of the Palo Duro country.
Carmen Espinoza-Rodriquez, singer/songwriter. Brandon Schneider, women's basketball head coach at the University of Kansas. Candace Whitaker, women's basketball head coach at Texas Tech. Roy Whittenburg, newspaper publisher, U. S. Senate candidate in 1958. Palo Duro Canyon State Park is twelve miles east of Canyon. City of Canyon City-Data Handbook of Texas Online