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Red Square

Red Square is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and now the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod. Red Square is considered to be the central square of Moscow since the city's major streets, which connect to Russia's major highways, originate in the square; the main squares in Russian cities, such as those in Suzdal and Pereslavl-Zalessky, are named Krasnaya ploshchad, or Red Square. The Russian word красная, or "red", is related to the word красивая, "beautiful". In Moscow, the name Red Square described the small area between St. Basil's Cathedral, the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin, the Lobnoye Mesto herald's platform. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich extended the name to encompass the entire square, called Pozhar, or "burnt-out place", because several buildings had been burned down to make room for the square; the rich history of Red Square is reflected in paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon and others.

The square was meant to serve as Moscow's main marketplace. It was the site of various public ceremonies and proclamations, a coronation for Russia's Tsars would take place; the square has been built up since that point and has been used for official ceremonies by all Russian governments since it was established. The East side of the Kremlin triangle, lying adjacent to Red Square and situated between the rivers Moskva and the now underground Neglinnaya River was deemed the most vulnerable side of the Kremlin to attack, since it was neither protected by the rivers, nor any other natural barriers, as the other sides were. Therefore, the Kremlin wall was built to its greatest height on this side, the Italian architects involved in the building of these fortifications convinced Ivan the Great to clear the area outside of the walls to create a field for shooting; the relevant decrees were issued in 1493 and 1495. They called for the demolition of all buildings within 110 sazhens of the wall. From 1508 to 1516, the Italian architect Aloisio the New arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the Eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya.

This moat, known as the Alevizov moat having lasanja a length of 541 metres, width of 36 metres, a depth of 9.5–13 m was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low, 4‑metre thick cogged brick walls. Three square gates existed on this side of the wall, which in the 17th century, were known as: Konstantino-Eleninsky, Nikolsky; the last two are directly opposite Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil's Cathedral. In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate and stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – "raskats"; the Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto. The square was called Veliky Torg or Torg Troitskaya by the name of the small Troitskaya Church, burnt down in the great fire during the Tatar invasion in 1571.

After that, the square held the name Pozhar, which means "burnt". It was not until 1661 -- 62. Red Square was the landing trade centre for Moscow. Ivan the Great decreed that trade should only be conducted from person to person, but in time, these rules were relaxed and permanent market buildings began appearing on the square. After a fire in 1547, Ivan the Terrible reorganised the lines of wooden shops on the Eastern side into market lines; the streets Ilyinka and Varvarka were divided into the Upper lines, Middle lines and Bottom lines, although Bottom Lines were in Zaryadye). After a few years, the Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, was built on the moat under the rule of Ivan IV; this was the first building. In 1595, the wooden market lines were replaced with stone. By that time, a brick platform for the proclamation of the tsar's edicts, known as Lobnoye Mesto, had been constructed. Red Square was considered a sacred place. Various festive processions were held there, during Palm Sunday, the famous "procession on a donkey" was arranged, in which the patriarch, sitting on a donkey, accompanied by the tsar and the people went out of Saint Basil's Cathedral in the Kremlin.

During the expulsion of the Polish army from Moscow in 1612, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky entered the Kremlin through the square. In memory of this event, he built the Kazan Cathedral – in honour of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, followed his army in a campaign. At the same time, Spasskaya tower received contemporary tent roofs; this was done on the proposal and the draught of Christopher Galloway from Scotland, summoned to design the new tower's clock and suggested the arrangement of the tent roof over the clock. In the mid-century a gilded double-headed eagle was set on top of the tower. After this, the square became known as Krasivaya. In the late 17th century the square was cleared of all wooden structures

Trabzonspor (women's football)

Trabzonspor Club Women's Football Team is the women's football team of Trabzonspor in Trabzon, Turkey. It was established on October 16, 2007. Right after its foundation, the team was invited to join the Turkish Women's Football Premier League. However, the league was re-established for the 2007 -- 08 season. Trabzonspor were the champions in the 2008–09 season, the second year of the league; the first women's football team in Trabzon was of the Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi formed in 2001. Following this initiative, another football club in Trabzon, İdmanocağı founded its women's team basing it on the squad of Trabzon High School. However, due to inadequate interest, women's football in Trabzon did not improve. In 2007, former KTÜ player Zeliha Şimşek and Trabzonspor's coordinator Özkan Sümer formed the team. Using their previous experiences where they had played a leading role in the foundation of a women's team within Trabzonspor, they formed the team in six weeks before the beginning of the league season.

The Trabzonspor women's team competed in the first year of the women's league along with the other women's team in Trabzon, İdmanocağı. The team played its first league match against İdmanocağı on November 18, 2007 at its home stadium Mehmet Ali Yılmaz Stadium and won by 2–0. However, Trabzonspor was not so successful in matches to get out of Group C. Gazi Üniversitesispor from Ankara, which played in the same group, became champion in the 2007–08 season. With the 2008–09 season, the structure of the women's league was modified and it gained national status. Trabzonspor competed in the restructured league of ten teams and gained the champion's title with 45 points in 18 games defeating Cengiz Topelspor of Mersin by 2–0 in the last match played away. With this achievement, Trabzonspor became the only Turkish club, champion of both the men's and women's premier leagues; as of 23 May 2010 Trabzonspor was entitled to participate in the qualifying round of the 2009–10 UEFA Women's Champions League.

This was the first time a Turkish women's football team had participated in the qualifying round of the UEFA league since it was established in 2001. The team won its first match in the Group D against ŽNK Krka from Slovenia by 2–0, however lost the following matches to Italy's Torres Calcio Femminile by 0–9 and to Slovan Duslo Šaľa from Slovakia by 1–2. Trabzonspor women's team failed to participate in the 2009–2010 UEFA Champions League. Turkish Women's Football Premier League: Winners: 2008–09 As of 7 September 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality

Ruhrstahl X-4

The Ruhrstahl Ru 344 X-4 or Ruhrstahl-Kramer RK 344 was a wire guided air-to-air missile designed by Germany during World War II. The X-4 did not see operational service and thus was not proven in combat but inspired considerable post-war work around the world and was the basis for the development of several ground-launched anti-tank missiles, including the Malkara. Work on the X-4 began by Dr Max Kramer at Ruhrstahl; the idea was to build a missile with enough range to allow it to be fired from outside the range of the bombers' guns, while being guided with enough accuracy to guarantee a "kill". The X-4 met more; the rocket burned a hypergolic mixture of S-Stoff and R-Stoff as propellant, delivering 140 kg thrust declining to 30 kg over the 17-second burn. As there was no room for a fuel pump, the fuels were forced into the motor by pistons inside long tubes, the tubes being coiled to fit inside the airframe. S-Stoff was so corrosive, it dissolved all base metals and was difficult and dangerous to handle.

The Germans planned to replace the motor with a solid fuel design as soon as possible. The missile was spin-stabilized at about 60 rpm, or one rotation a second, so any asymmetrical thrust from the engine or inaccuracies in the control surfaces would be evened out. Signals to operate control surfaces on the tail were sent via two wires, which unwound from bobbins housed within long, bullet-shaped fairings, themselves mounted either on the roots of an opposing pair of the larger mid-body fins, or on one pair of those same fins' opposing tips; the wires were controlled by a joystick in the cockpit. A gyroscope kept track of "up" so control inputs from the pilot's joystick in the launch aircraft could be translated into yaw and pitch as the missile spun. Flares attached to two of the midsection wings were used to keep the missile visible through the smoke of its motor; the warhead consisted of a 20 kg fragmentation device. It was thought that the guidance system would allow the pilot to get the missile into this range in terms of pitch and yaw, but at the ranges the missile could operate at it would be impossible to judge range to anywhere near this accuracy.

For this reason the missile mounted a proximity fuze known as Kranich, an acoustical system tuned to the 200 Hz sound of the B-17's engines in cruise, activated by the Doppler shift as the missile approached. The trigger range was 7 m; the first flight test occurred on August 1939 using a Focke-Wulf Fw 190 for the launch platform. Subsequent tests used the Junkers Ju 88 and Messerschmitt Me 262, although they were not launched from the latter; the X-4 had been intended for use by single-seat fighters, but the problems in guiding both the missile and the aircraft at the same time proved unworkable. Instead, the X-4 was re-directed to multi-seat aircraft like the Ju 88, while the unguided R4M rocket was to be used in single-seaters; the X-4 was designed to be assembled by unskilled labour and airframe production began in 1939 incorporating low-cost materials, such as wood for fins. Production was hampered by Allied bombing of the BMW rocket engine factory at Stargard, though as many as 1,000 X-4s may have been completed, the missile was never delivered to the Luftwaffe.

The fighter-interceptor designed to use this missile as its primary weapon was the Focke-Wulf Ta 183 Huckebein, which never got out of the project stage. After the war, French engineers tried to develop a domestic version of the X-7, the Nord SS.10. 200 units were manufactured between 1947 and 1950. However, the program was disbanded due to the dangerous pre-flight refuelling involved. Primary function: short-range air-to-air missile Propulsion: BMW 109-448 liquid rocket motor giving 30–140 kg thrust for 17 seconds Length: 201 cm Diameter: 22 cm Wingspan: 72.6 cm Launch weight: 60 kg Speed: 325 m/s Warhead: 20 kg fragmentation Range: 1.5–3.5 km Fuzes: Kranich acoustic proximity fuze Guidance system: FuG 510/238 "Düsseldorf/Detmold" MCLOS visual guidance with wire control Unit cost: Date deployed: never Primary function: anti-tank guided missile Powerplant: solid rocket motor Length: 950 mm Diameter: 150 mm Wingspan: 600 mm Launch weight: 9 kg Speed: 245 m/s Warhead: 2.5 kg hollow charge Penetration: over 200 mm at 30° Range: 1,000 m Fuzes: impact Guidance system: MCLOS visual guidance with wire control Unit cost: Date deployed: never List of missiles List of World War II guided missiles of Germany