Red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. The Rhodophyta comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing; the majority of species are found in the Florideophyceae, consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in warmer areas. Except for two coastal cave dwelling species in the asexual class Cyanidiophyceae, that diverged from other red algae about 1.3 billion years ago, there are no terrestrial species, which may be due to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity. The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked thylakoids, use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments, which give them their red color.
Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, a type of starch that consists of branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. Most red algae are multicellular, macroscopic and reproduce sexually; the red algal life history is an alternation of generations that may have three generations rather than two. The coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. Red algae such as dulse and laver are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisines and are used to make other products such as agar and other food additives. Chloroplasts evolved following an endosymbiotic event between an ancestral, photosynthetic cyanobacterium and an early eukaryotic phagotroph; this event resulted in the origin of the red and green algae, the glaucophytes, which make up the oldest evolutionary lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes. A secondary endosymbiosis event involving an ancestral red alga and a heterotrophic eukaryote resulted in the evolution and diversification of several other photosynthetic lineages such as Cryptophyta, Haptophyta and Alveolata.
In addition to multicellular brown algae, it is estimated that more than half of all known species of microbial eukaryotes harbor red-algal-derived plastids. Red algae are divided into the Cyanidiophyceae, a class of unicellular and thermoacidophilic extremophiles found in sulphuric hot springs and other acidic environments, an adaptation made possible by horizontal gene transfers from prokaryotes, with about 1% of their genome having this origin, two sister clades called SCRP and BF, which are found in both marine and freshwater environments; the SCRP clade are microalgae, consisting of both unicellular forms and multicellular microscopic filaments and blades. The BF are macroalgae, seaweed that do not grow to more than about 50 cm in length, but a few species can reach lengths of 2 m. Most rhodophytes are marine with a worldwide distribution, are found at greater depths compared to other seaweeds. While this was attributed to the presence of pigments that would permit red algae to inhabit greater depths than other macroalgae by chromatic adaption, recent evidence calls this into question.
Some marine species are found on sandy shores, while most others can be found attached to rocky substrata. Freshwater species account for 5% of red algal diversity, but they have a worldwide distribution in various habitats. A few freshwater species are found in black waters with sandy bottoms and fewer are found in more lentic waters. Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae and animals. In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on or more distantly related red algal hosts. In the system of Adl et al. 2005, the red algae are classified in the Archaeplastida, along with the glaucophytes and green algae plus land plants. The authors use a hierarchical arrangement. No subdivisions are given. However, other studies have suggested; as of January 2011, the situation appears unresolved. Below are other published taxonomies of the red algae using molecular and traditional alpha taxonomic data.
If one defines the kingdom Plantae to mean the Archaeplastida, the red algae will be part of that kingdom. If Plantae are defined more narrowly, to be the Viridiplantae the red algae might be considered their own kingdom, or part of the kingdom Protista. A major research initiative to reconstruct the Red Algal Tree
Twywell Gullet is a 17.1 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Kettering in Northamptonshire. It is part of the 54.6 hectare Twywell Hills and Dales nature reserve, managed by a partnership of the Woodland Trust and the Rockingham Forest Trust. The site is in turn a small part of the former royal hunting Rockingham Forest. Twywell Gullet is a former ironstone quarry, it has species-rich limestone grassland on scrub in the bottoms. There are a number of uncommon ground nesting bees and wasps, beetles include the nationally rare ruddy darter. There is a large pond which has many great crested newts. Footpaths go through the site but there is no access to some steeply sloping areas
Florida Coastal School of Law is a for-profit law school in Jacksonville, Florida. Established in 1996, the school was founded upon three mission pillars: serving the underserved, providing an education, student-outcome centered, graduating students who are practice ready; the school is part of the InfiLaw System of law schools owned by Sterling Partners. Florida Coastal has filed an application with the American Bar Association Section of Legal Education and Accreditation to convert to non-profit status; the school was accredited by the American Bar Association in 2002. In October 2017, the school received a letter from the ABA stating that Florida Coastal was not in compliance with several ABA academic standards, requiring the school to submit a report by November 1, 2017, regarding the school's efforts to return to compliance, in advance of an appearance before the ABA Accreditation Committee in March 2018; the school's dean sent a letter to the student body, responding to the ABA letter, in order to dispel what he deemed to be "misconceptions" about the ABA's letter.
At its May 2019 meeting, the ABA found Florida Coastal in compliance with the ABA standards. Florida Coastal remains a ABA accredited law school. In addition to its curriculum for a juris doctor, Coastal Law offers several certification programs in specialized areas of the law. Coastal Law offers an environmental law certificate, sports law certificate, international comparative law certificate, family law certificate, an advanced legal research and writing certificate. Additionally, Coastal Law, offers accelerated dual degree programs, with Jacksonville University, that allow students to complete a juris doctor and a M. B. A. or a M. P. P. in four years. In 2010, Coastal Law was the recipient of the American Bar Association E. Smythe Gambrell Professionalism Award. In 2011, the Jacksonville Area Legal Aid awarded Coastal Law the Robert J. Beckham Equal Justice Award for its partnership with JALA and its commitment to pro bono legal aid to the Jacksonville community. In 2013, the National Jurist ranked Coastal Law among the top innovative law schools.
In 2014, Coastal Law made the American Bar Association's "Top Ten List" of law schools teaching the technology of legal practice. In 2015, the National Jurist gave Coastal Law an "A+ or A" for being one of the twenty best law schools for practical training. Coastal Law offers the only LL. M. degree in Logistics and Transportation Law in the United States. The program concentrates in four key areas: maritime law and rail law, aviation law, military logistics. In each of those areas, students obtain expertise in litigation and contracting skills relating to international and domestic transportation; the program is on-line and can be completed in one year. Law school graduates are required to complete twenty-four credits in order to obtain a Master of Law. Non-lawyers and law students may enroll in the program and obtain a Certificate in Transportation Regulation after completing twelve credits; the Florida Bar passage rate of Coastal Law graduates compared to the average passing rate from other Florida law schools.
US News and World Report ranks the bottom quartile of law schools. According to U. S. News & World Report, the average indebtedness of 2016 graduates who incurred law school debt was $158,878, 70% of 2016 graduates took on debt. Coastal Law's Law School Transparency score is 48.4%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2018 who obtained full-time long-term jobs practicing law within nine months of graduation, excluding solo practitioners. The total cost of attendance at Coastal Law for the 2019-2020 academic year is $63,022; the Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $217,870. Each year, the University of Houston Law Center's Blakely Advocacy Institute ranks the top moot court programs in the United states by assessing the quality of the competition a school participated in, the size of the competitions, the school's performance in those competitions. Florida Coastal has ranked in the top 10 in those rankings: Coastal Law's Mock Trial team competes with law students across the state of Florida and the United States.
The team members present their case before a jury. Acceptance into the team is based upon a competitive meritocratic process that judges the student's ability and talent. Students are only eligible to try out for the Mock Trial team during their 1L year in law school; the Florida Coastal Law Review is a legal journal edited by second and third year law students under the guidance of law professors. The journals are retrievable through Westlaw; the journal is published three times a year. Students can join by being in the top 5% of their class or by submitting a high quality writing piece to law review. Official website