Red blood cells referred to as red cells, red blood corpuscles, erythroid cells or erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system. RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs, or gills of fish, release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's capillaries; the cytoplasm of erythrocytes is rich in hemoglobin, an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the red color of the cells and the blood. The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and the capillary network. In humans, mature red blood cells are oval biconcave disks, they lack most organelles, in order to accommodate maximum space for hemoglobin. 2.4 million new erythrocytes are produced per second in human adults. The cells develop in the bone marrow and circulate for about 100–120 days in the body before their components are recycled by macrophages.
Each circulation takes about 60 seconds. 84% of the cells in the human body are red blood cells. Nearly half of the blood's volume is red blood cells. Packed red blood cells are red blood cells that have been donated and stored in a blood bank for blood transfusion. All vertebrates, including all mammals and humans, have red blood cells. Red blood cells are cells present in blood; the only known vertebrates without red blood cells are the crocodile icefish. While they no longer use hemoglobin, remnants of hemoglobin genes can be found in their genome. Vertebrate red blood cells consist of hemoglobin, a complex metalloprotein containing heme groups whose iron atoms temporarily bind to oxygen molecules in the lungs or gills and release them throughout the body. Oxygen can diffuse through the red blood cell's cell membrane. Hemoglobin in the red blood cells carries some of the waste product carbon dioxide back from the tissues. Myoglobin, a compound related to hemoglobin, acts to store oxygen in muscle cells.
The color of red blood cells is due to the heme group of hemoglobin. The blood plasma alone is straw-colored, but the red blood cells change color depending on the state of the hemoglobin: when combined with oxygen the resulting oxyhemoglobin is scarlet, when oxygen has been released the resulting deoxyhemoglobin is of a dark red burgundy color. However, blood can appear bluish when seen through skin. Pulse oximetry takes advantage of the hemoglobin color change to directly measure the arterial blood oxygen saturation using colorimetric techniques. Hemoglobin has a high affinity for carbon monoxide, forming carboxyhemoglobin, a bright red in color. Flushed, confused patients with a saturation reading of 100% on pulse oximetry are sometimes found to be suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning. Having oxygen-carrying proteins inside specialized cells was an important step in the evolution of vertebrates as it allows for less viscous blood, higher concentrations of oxygen, better diffusion of oxygen from the blood to the tissues.
The size of red blood cells varies among vertebrate species. The red blood cells of mammals are shaped as biconcave disks: flattened and depressed in the center, with a dumbbell-shaped cross section, a torus-shaped rim on the edge of the disk; this shape allows for a high surface-area-to-volume ratio to facilitate diffusion of gases. However, there are some exceptions concerning shape in the artiodactyl order, which displays a wide variety of bizarre red blood cell morphologies: small and ovaloid cells in llamas and camels, tiny spherical cells in mouse deer, cells which assume fusiform, lanceolate and irregularly polygonal and other angular forms in red deer and wapiti. Members of this order have evolved a mode of red blood cell development different from the mammalian norm. Overall, mammalian red blood cells are remarkably flexible and deformable so as to squeeze through tiny capillaries, as well as to maximize their apposing surface by assuming a cigar shape, where they efficiently release their oxygen load.
Red blood cells in mammals are unique amongst vertebrates. They do have nuclei during early phases of erythropoiesis, but extrude them during development as they mature; the red blood cells without nuclei, called reticulocytes, subsequently lose all other cellular organelles such as their mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. The spleen acts as a reservoir of red blood cells. In some other mammals such as dogs and horses, the spleen sequesters large num
The Black Godfather is a 1974 American blaxploitation film written and directed by John Evans and starring Rod Perry, Don Chastain, Diane Sommerfield and Jimmy Witherspoon. The plot is about J. J. A rising star in the black crime scene, in the process of consolidating his power over the neighborhood. One of the only remaining obstacles is the white heroin cartel, understandably reluctant to abandon such a lucrative market. Tensions rise, an explosive confrontation is the result; the film is in the public domain. The movie begins with an overview of a city skyline. J. J. and his friend are seen walking down a street. They proceed to walk up the stairs; as Tommy opens the door he pulls out a gun that jams on him. The person inside the house shoots him and proceeds outside to shoot the other man. Tommy dies in the arms of J. J. in an alley. Williams takes out the bullet in J. J. tends to the wound. The next morning J. J. and Williams talk. J. J. is curious as to why Williams decided to take care of him after he was shot.
Williams was impressed by J. J.'s courage in trying to break into a known gangster's house. J. J.'s motive was only to survive and "get some bread". Williams offers J. J. gives him some money. This is the beginning of J. J.'s rise to power in the street. After the opening credits are shown, J. J. has grown in position on the street. He longs for more as he tries to gain better status on the streets, he believes that it does not matter where it comes from. J. J. wants to get rid of another drug dealer named Tony Burton. J. J. has a problem with Tony, a white gangster, trafficking heroin into a predominantly black community. The drugs have been negatively affecting the adults because many of them become addicted, he talks to a man called Diablo about taking care of securing the neighborhood from Tony's men and any other drug dealer pushing in the territory. Lieutenant Joe is a crooked cop, he enters J. J. goes up to talk to him in his office. J. J. explains to him that he is willing to go to war with Tony and any other drug dealer that exploits the black community.
He tells Joe to relay the information back to Tony, knowing that Joe takes bribes from any and all drug dealers so long as he gains money. Lieutenant Joe leaves the bar and in the next scene is walking poolside at Tony's home, he tells Tony that J. J. is prepared to fight if Tony does not comply. Tony is not backing down. Williams and J. J. talk together in the office. Williams has brought his daughter, along. Williams warns J. J. about trying to push Tony out of the territory. He orders J. J. not to take action. J. J. disagrees, explains his position and is set on pushing Tony out of the community because of the drugs he brings in and the negative effects on the community. Yvonne comes into the office while the two become heated in argument so J. J. and Nate stop talking. The next morning Tony goes to speak with him. Tony tells Nate that he wants business running as usual and that J. J. should stop harassing his people. He welcomes the idea of bloodshed. Williams is not intimidated and tells Tony to be careful otherwise the bloodshed will spill over to his side.
He tells Tony to leave his office if, all he had to say. J. J. Williams and his bodyguard talk at the gym; the idea of change and how times are different are discussed. The bodyguard and J. J. are still friendly with one another after. This is a way J. J. establishes his masculinity. The next scene, two African American gangsters are seen patting down two white gangsters for drugs, they tell them to leave and never come back otherwise they will kill them. J. J. and Yvonne are seen coming back to his place. In the morning, she is seen admiring it, she makes coffee and sits on the couch. J. J. and the woman talk and she begin to talk about the expectations men have of women. J. J. tells her he just can not commit for the time being. Diablo and his crew of men chase a car down with a white driver, his car flips over, they proceed to take a bag from his car. They go upstairs to question a white man. An entire group of African American gangsters surround him, they ask him. Being threatened, he tells them about a shipment of drugs coming in but does not know know when or how.
J. J. and his men keep questioning him but it is clear that he does not know anything else. They allow him to run away; the next scene, they break into another gangster's home and kill him. They do not care about taking any of the drugs. At this point, J. J. and the men are taking more and more action to stomp out the men who are invading and have stake on their territory. Lieutenant Joe and Tony are seen speaking back at the pool. Joe tells Tony that J. J. has been doing work on another drug dealer. Tony does not back down, he calls J. J. A continues to go about his business. A member of the community goes to J. J. tells him about what she overheard at Tony's. She tells
The following persons are notable alumni and deceased, of Washington University in St. Louis. Ericka Beckman: filmmaker Gustave Haenschen: pianist, recording director, orchestral conductor and radio executive. Deanne Bell: host of Discovery Channel's Smash Lab and PBS's Design Squad Morris Carnovsky: stage and film actor Douglass Crockwell: commercial artist and experimental filmmaker Larry Cuba: animator Robert Culp: television actor Patricia Degener: artist Kyle DeWoody: gallery owner Anita Diamant: novelist Doug Dillard: bluegrass musician, banjo player for the Dillards Sean Douglas: multi-platinum songwriter and producer Richard Eastham: actor George Pearse Ennis: painter and watercolorist Lillie Rose Ernst: the leader of The Potters, an artistic group in early 20th Century St. Louis Jon Feltheimer: CEO of Lionsgate Films Tom Friedman: conceptual sculptor Bernard Fuchs: painter and illustrator John Gardner: novelist Dave Garroway: Today Show host Cheryl Goldsleger: artist Elizabeth Graver: novelist Robert Guillaume: stage and television actor Garth Risk Hallberg: novelist Henry Hampton: filmmaker.
Hugh Ferriss: architect Alan Goldberg: architect Gyo Obata: architect. S. Chamber of Commerce Mike O'Brien: Great Lakes project director of Bluewater Wind Dave Peacock: CEO of Anheuser-Busch Andrew Puzder: CEO of CKE Restaurants Aaron Selber, Jr.: studied in the School of Retailing. Karen Sheriff: president and CEO of Q9 Networks Inc. George Fox Steedman and businessman. Louis B. Susman: vice chairman of Citigroup Global Markets Jack C. Taylor: founder of Enterprise Rent-A-Car.