Lichtenstein's hartebeest is a subspecies of the hartebeest antelope that dwells in savannahs and floodplains of Southeastern-Central Africa. It is sometimes classified as a unique species Sigmoceros lichtensteinii, it stands about 1.25 m at the shoulder and have a mass of around 150 kg. It has a red brown colour, lighter on the underbelly; the horns found on both sexes appear from the side to be shaped like the letter'S', appear from the front to be shaped like the letter'O' with its upper portions missing. The horns are ridged and reach over 0.5 m in length. They live on areas, they are diurnal. They gather in calves with a single male, which leads them; the male stands sentry duty on the like. Males hold large territories, which they mark by digging up soil with their horns around the borders. Lichtenstein's hartebeest have good eyesight but a poor sense of smell, their main sounds are a sneeze-snort sound. It derives its name from zoologist Martin Lichtenstein
Persistence hunting is a hunting technique in which hunters, who may be slower than their prey over short distances, use a combination of running and tracking to pursue prey until it is exhausted. A persistence hunter must be able to run a long distance over an extended period of time; the strategy is used by a variety of canids such as African wild dogs, by human hunter-gatherers. Humans are the only surviving primate species. In addition to a capacity for endurance running, human hunters have comparatively little hair, which makes sweating an effective means of cooling the body. Meanwhile and other mammals may need to pant to cool down enough, which means that they must slow down if not remain still. Persistence hunting is believed to have been one of the earliest hunting strategies used by humans, it is still used by the San people in the Kalahari Desert, by the Rarámuri people of Northwestern Mexico. Persistence hunting is found in canids such as domestic hounds; the African wild dog is an extreme persistence predator, tiring out individual prey by following them for many miles at low speed, compared for example to the cheetah's brief high-speed pursuit.
Persistence hunting was one of a number of tactics used by early hominins, could have been practised with or without projectile weapons such as darts, spears, or slings. As hominins adapted to bipedalism they would have lost some speed, becoming less able to catch prey with short, fast charges, they would, have gained endurance and become better adapted to persistence hunting. Although many mammals sweat, few have evolved to use sweating for effective thermoregulation and horses being notable exceptions; this coupled with relative hairlessness would have given human hunters an additional advantage by keeping their bodies cool in the midday heat. The persistence hunt is still practiced by hunter-gatherers in the central Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa; the procedure is to run down an antelope, such as a kudu, in the midday heat, for up to five hours and a distance of up to 35 km in temperatures of as much as 42 °C. The hunter chases the kudu. By tracking it down at a fast running pace the hunter catches up with it before it has had time to rest and cool down in the shade.
The animal is chased and tracked down until it is too exhausted to run. The hunter kills it with a spear; the Tarahumara of northwestern Mexico in the Copper Canyon area may have practiced persistence hunting. Persistence hunting has been used against the fastest land animal, the cheetah. In November 2013, four Somali-Kenyan herdsmen from northeast Kenya used persistence hunting in the heat of the day to capture cheetahs, killing their goats. Western peoples, in the absence of hunting tools, have reverted to persistence hunting, as with the Lykov family in Siberia. Bernd Heinrich's book Why We Run, Harper Collins, 2002, p. 128. Tarahumara Tracking Scott Carrier's book Running After Antelope describes the author's attempt at a persistence hunt in Middle America Bramble, Dennis M.. "Endurance running and the evolution of Homo". Nature. 432: 345–52. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..345B. Doi:10.1038/nature03052. PMID 15549097. Chen, Ingfei. "Born to Run". Discover. Liebenberg, Louis. "Persistence Hunting by Modern Hunter‐Gatherers".
Current Anthropology. 47: 1017–26. Doi:10.1086/508695. JSTOR 508695. Attenborough, David. "Program 10: Food For Thought". Documentary The Life of Mammals. BBC; this documentary shows a bushman hunting a kudu antelope. "The Barefoot Professor". Nature Publishing Group. Daniel Lieberman talks about persistence hunting and barefoot running "Russian Family Cut Off for 40 Years from Human Contact". Smithsonian. Mentions that the family "lacking guns and bows, they could hunt only by digging traps or pursuing prey across the mountains until the animals collapsed from exhaustion."
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, including several countries. The term southern Africa or Southern Africa includes Angola, Eswatini, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, though Angola may be included in Central Africa and Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe in East Africa. From a political perspective the region is said to be unipolar with South Africa as a first regional power. Another geographic delineation for the region is the portion of Africa south of the Cunene and Zambezi Rivers – that is: South Africa, Eswatini, Botswana and the part of Mozambique which lies south of the Zambezi River; this definition is most used in South Africa for natural sciences and in guide books such as Roberts' Birds of Southern Africa, the Southern African Bird Atlas Project and Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. It is not used in political, economic or human geography contexts because this definition cuts Mozambique in two.
In the United Nations scheme of geographic regions, five states constitute Southern Africa: Botswana Eswatini Lesotho Namibia South AfricaThe Southern African Customs Union, created in 1969 comprises the five states in the UN subregion of Southern Africa. The Southern African Development Community was established in 1980 to facilitate co-operation in the region, it includes: Angola Botswana Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Eswatini Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe The region is sometimes reckoned to include other territories: Angola – part of Central Africa in the UN scheme. Comoros, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Zambia, Zimbabwe – part of Eastern Africa in the UN scheme; the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, though more reckoned in Central and Eastern Africa are included in Southern Africa as they are SADC members. The terrain of Southern Africa is varied; the region has both low-lying coastal areas, mountains.
In terms of natural resources, the region has the world's largest resources of platinum and the platinum group elements, chromium and cobalt, as well as uranium, copper, titanium and diamonds. The region is distinct from the rest of Africa, with some of its main exports including platinum, gold, copper and uranium, but it is similar in that it shares some of the problems of the rest of the continent. While colonialism has left its mark on the development over the course of history, today poverty, HIV/AIDS are some of the biggest factors impeding economic growth; the pursuit of economic and political stability is an important part of the region's goals, as demonstrated by the SADC. In terms of economic strength, South Africa is by far the dominant power of the region. South Africa's GDP alone is many times greater than the GDP's of all other countries in the region. Mining and tourism sectors dominate the economies of Southern African countries, apart from South Africa which has a mature and flourishing financial sector, retail sector, construction sector.
Most global banks have their regional offices for Southern Africa based in Johannesburg, South Africa. Over the years, some the other Southern African nations have invested in economic diversification, invested public funds into rail and air transportation as part of a concerted effort through SADC to boost regional trade and improve communication and transportation; the countries in this region belong to the Southern Africa Power Pool, which facilitates the development of a competitive electricity market within the SADC region and ensures sustainable energy developments through sound economic and social practices. The main objective of the power pool is to develop a world class and safe interconnected electrical system across the Southern African Region. According to a report by Southern Africa Power Pool, the three largest producers of electricity in Southern Africa as at 2017, include Eskom in South Africa with an estimated 46,963MW, Zesco in Zambia with 2,877MW and SNL of Angola with 2,442MW.
Southern Africa has a wide diversity of ecoregions including grassland, karoo and riparian zones. Though considerable disturbance has occurred in some regions from habitat loss due to human overpopulation or export-focused development, there remain significant numbers of various wildlife species, including white rhino, African leopard, kudu, blue wildebeest, vervet monkey and elephant, it has complex Plateaus. There are numerous environmental issues in Southern Africa, including air pollution and desertification. Southern Africa is home to many people, it was populated by indigenous or native Africans San and Pygmies in dispersed concentrations. Due to the Bantu expansion which edged the previous native African peoples to the more remote areas of the region, the majority of African ethnic groups in this region, including the Xhosa, Tsonga, Northern Ndebele, Southern Ndebele, Tswana and Shona people, BaLunda, Ovimbundu, Shona and Sukuma, speak Bantu languages; the process of colonization and settling resulted in a significant population of native European and Asian descent in many southern African co
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is a large wildlife preserve and conservation area in southern Africa. The park straddles the border between South Africa and Botswana and comprises two adjoining national parks: Kalahari Gemsbok National Park in South Africa Gemsbok National Park in BotswanaThe total area of the park is 38,000 square kilometres. Three-quarters of the park lies in Botswana and one-quarter in South Africa. Kgalagadi means "place of thirst."In September 2014, more than half of the Botswana portion of the park was sold for gas-fracking. The park is located within the southern Kalahari Desert; the terrain consists of red sand dunes, sparse vegetation, occasional trees, the dry riverbeds of the Nossob and Auob Rivers. The rivers are said to flow only about once per century. However, water flows underground and provides life for grass and camelthorn trees growing in the river beds; the rivers may flow after large thunderstorms. The park has abundant, varied wildlife, it is home to large mammalian predators such as lions, African leopards, hyenas.
Migratory herds of large herbivores such as blue wildebeest, springbok and red hartebeest live and move seasonally within the park, providing sustenance for the predators. More than 200 species of bird can be found in the park, including vultures and raptors such as eagles and secretary birds. Since 2005, the protected area is considered a Lion Conservation Unit and a lion stronghold in Southern Africa; the weather in the Kalahari can reach extremes. January is midsummer in southern Africa and the daytime temperatures are in excess of 40 °C. Winter nights can be quite cold with temperatures below freezing. Extreme temperatures of −11 °C and up to 45 °C have been recorded. Precipitation is sparse in this desert area. Within the park there are three traditional tourist lodges, called "rest camps"; these are serviced lodges and include amenities such as air conditioning and swimming pools. There are six wilderness camps in the park; the wilderness camps provide little more than wash water. During the year 1 April 2017 to 31 March 2018, the park received a total of 52,463 visitors up from 48,221 in the previous year.
The Kalahari Gemsbok National Park in South Africa was established on 31 July 1931 to protect the migrating game the gemsbok, from poaching. In 1948 an informal verbal agreement was made between the Bechuanaland Protectorate and the Union of South Africa to set up a conservation area in the contiguous areas of the two lands. In June 1992 representatives from the South African National Parks Board Board and the Department of Wildlife and National Parks of Botswana set up a joint management committee to manage the area as a single ecological unit. A management plan was drafted and approved in 1997; the parties agreed to cooperate in tourism and share in park entrance fees. On 7 April 1999, Botswana and South Africa signed a historic bilateral agreement whereby both countries undertook to manage their adjacent national parks, the Gemsbok National Park in Botswana and the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park in South Africa as a single ecological unit; the boundary between the two parks had no physical barriers, although it is the international border between the two countries.
This allowed for the free movement of animals. On 12 May 2000, President Festus Mogae of Botswana and President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa formally launched Southern Africa's first peace park, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. In October 2002, the governments set aside 580 km² for the use of the native peoples, the Khomani San and Mier communities; this was divided between 301.34 km ² of Mier Heritage Land. The South African National Parks manages the land under contract; the settlement agreement provided for the communities to receive funds for the specific purpose of constructing a tourism facility. The lodge was named! Xaus Lodge and is managed commercially on behalf of the ‡Khomani San and Mier communities by Transfrontier Parks Destinations. In September 2014, the government of Botswana sold the rights to frack for shale gas in Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, it granted prospecting licences for 29,291 square kilometres, 34,435 square kilometres and 23,980 square kilometres – more than half of the Botswanan part of the park – to a United Kingdom-listed company called "Nodding Donkey".
The sale was not reported at the time. In November 2015, the company changed its name to "Karoo Energy". Gemsbok Kalahari Desert South African National Parks website Map of the park Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism website Photography and Safari guide to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park! Xaus Lodge - owned and run by the Khomani San and Mier communities
The topi is a social and fast antelope subspecies of the common tsessebe, a species which belongs to the genus Damaliscus. They are found in the savannas, semi-deserts, floodplains of sub-Saharan Africa. Topi resemble hartebeest but have a darker coloration and lack angled horns, they have elongated heads, a distinct hump at the base of the neck, reddish brown bodies with dark purple patchings on their upper legs. They have a mask-like dark coloration on the face, their horns are ringed and lyrate shaped. Their coats are made of shiny hairs, they range in mass from 68 to 160 kg. Head-and-body length can range from 150 to 210 cm and the tail measures 40–60 cm, they are a tall species. Males tend to be darker than females. Topi have preorbital glands that secrete clear oil and the front legs have hoof glands; the topi has a long but patchy distribution, as it prefers certain grasslands in arid and savanna biomes. Human hunting and habitat destruction have further isolated their population; the following countries have been found to contain topi: Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda.
The species is regionally extinct in Burundi,Topi live in grassland habitats ranging from treeless plains to savannas. In ecotone habitats between woodlands and open grasslands, they stay along the edge using the shade in hot weather, they prefer pastures with green grass, medium in height with leaf-like swards. Topis are more densely populated in areas where green plants last into the dry season near water; the topi is a selective feeder and uses its elongated muzzle and flexible lips to forage for the freshest plants. When foraging for food, topi tend to take small bites at a fast rate. Topi frequent flat lowlands and at elevations below 1500 m; when they have access to enough green vegetation, topi do not have to drink. They drink more. Topi use vantage points, such as termite mounds, to get a good look at their surroundings. Topi are either numerous or absent in an area. Scattered populations do not either increase or die off; the health of topis in a population depends on access to green vegetation.
Herds of topi migrate between pastures. The largest migration is in the Serengeti, where they join the wildebeests and gazelles. Predators of topi include spotted hyenas, with jackals being predators of newborns, they are targeted by hyenas. Topi tend to have a low predation rate when other species are present; the topi has what is the most diverse social organization of the antelopes. Topi herds can take the form of "perennially sedentary-dispersion", "perennially mobile-aggregated" or something in between; this depends on the ecology of the areas they are in. In addition, the reproductive organization ranges between the traditional territorial system or resource defense polygyny herds to gatherings that contain short-lasting territories to lek systems. In patches of grassland surrounded by woodlands, topi live in the sedentary-dispersion mode. Males establish territories. Depending on the size of the patches, territories can be as large as 4 km2 and sometimes border each other; the fidelity of a female to a territory can last three years in the Serengeti.
The females in these territories function as part of the resident male's harem. These herds tend to be closed and both the male and his females defend the territory; when the resident male is absent, the dominant female may assume his behaviors, defending against outside topis of either sex using the rocking canter and performing the high-stepping display. In more densely populated areas, like those of Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, topis move across the plain and set up territories during resting periods. In areas such as the Akagera National Park in Rwanda and Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya, topi males establish leks which are territories that are clustered together; these territories have little value outside of the males in them. The most dominant males occupy the center of the lek cluster and the less dominant occupy the periphery. Males mark their territories with dung piles and stand on them in an erect posture ready to fight any other male that tries to invade. Estrous females enter the leks both alone and in groups and mate with the males in the center of the lek cluster.
Males further from the center may increase their reproductive success. Females will compete with each other for the dominant males as females come into estrous for only one day of the year. Females prefer to mate with dominant males that they have mated with before, however males try to mate with as many new females as possible; as such favored males prefer to balance mating investment between females. Females, will aggressively disrupt copulations that their favored males have with other females. Subordinate females have their copulations interrupted more than dominant females. Males will counter-attack these females, refusing to mate with them any more; the vast majority of births occur between October and December with half of them occurring in October. The parenting of the topi has characteristics of both the "follower" system. Calves can follow their mothers after birth and "may not'lie out'". On the other hand, females separate themselves from the herd to calve and calves seek hiding places during the night.
A young topi stays with its
The spotted hyena known as the laughing hyena, is a hyena species classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as being of least concern by the IUCN on account of its widespread range and large numbers estimated between 27,000 and 47,000 individuals; the species is, experiencing declines outside of protected areas due to habitat loss and poaching. The species may have originated in Asia, once ranged throughout Europe for at least one million years until the end of the Late Pleistocene; the spotted hyena is the largest known member of the Hyaenidae, is further physically distinguished from other species by its vaguely bear-like build, its rounded ears, its less prominent mane, its spotted pelt, its more dual purposed dentition, its fewer nipples and the presence of a pseudo-penis in the female. It is the only mammalian species to lack an external vaginal opening; the spotted hyena is the most social of the Carnivora in that it has the largest group sizes and most complex social behaviours.
Its social organisation is unlike that of any other carnivore, bearing closer resemblance to that of cercopithecine primates with respect to group-size, hierarchical structure, frequency of social interaction among both kin and unrelated group-mates. However, the social system of the spotted hyena is competitive rather than cooperative, with access to kills, mating opportunities and the time of dispersal for males depending on the ability to dominate other clan-members. Females provide only for their own cubs rather than assist each other, males display no paternal care. Spotted hyena society is matriarchal; the spotted hyena is a successful animal, being the most common large carnivore in Africa. Its success is due in part to its opportunism. In functional terms, the spotted hyena makes the most efficient use of animal matter of all African carnivores; the spotted hyena displays greater plasticity in its hunting and foraging behaviour than other African carnivores. During a hunt, spotted hyenas run through ungulate herds in order to select an individual to attack.
Once selected, their prey is chased over a long distance several kilometres, at speeds of up to 60 km/h. The spotted hyena has a long history of interaction with humanity; the species has a negative reputation in both Western culture and African folklore. In the former, the species is regarded as ugly and cowardly, while in the latter, it is viewed as greedy, gluttonous and foolish, yet powerful and dangerous; the majority of Western perceptions on the species can be found in the writings of Aristotle and Pliny the Elder, though in unjudgemental form. Explicit, negative judgements occur in the Physiologus, where the animal is depicted as a hermaphrodite and grave-robber; the IUCN's hyena specialist group identifies the spotted hyena's negative reputation as detrimental to the species' continued survival, both in captivity and the wild. The spotted hyena's scientific name Crocuta, was once thought to be derived from the Latin loanword crocutus, which translates as "saffron-coloured one", in reference to the animal's fur colour.
This was proven to be incorrect, as the correct spelling of the loanword would have been Crocāta, the word was never used in that sense by Graeco-Roman sources. Crocuta comes from the Ancient Greek word Κροκόττας, derived from the Sanskrit koṭṭhâraka, which in turn originates from kroshṭuka; the earliest recorded mention of Κροκόττας is from Strabo's Geographica, where the animal is described as a mix of wolf and dog native to Ethiopia. From Classical antiquity until the Renaissance, the spotted and striped hyena were either assumed to be the same species, or distinguished purely on geographical, rather than physical grounds. Hiob Ludolf, in his Historia aethiopica, was the first to distinguish the Crocuta from Hyaena on account of physical, as well as geographical grounds, though he never had any first hand experience of the species, having gotten his accounts from an Ethiopian intermediary. Confusion still persisted over the exact taxonomic nature of the hyena family in general, with most European travelers in Ethiopia referring to hyenas as "wolves".
This stems from the Amharic word for hyena, ጅብ, linked to the Arabic word ذئب "wolf". The first detailed first-hand descriptions of the spotted hyena by Europeans come from Willem Bosman and Peter Kolbe. Bosman, a Dutch tradesman who worked for the Dutch West India Company at the Gold Coast from 1688–1701, wrote of "Jakhals, of Boshond" whose physical descriptions match the spotted hyena. Kolben, a German mathematician and astronomer who worked for the Dutch East India Company in the Cape of Good Hope from 1705–1713, described the spotted hyena in great detail, but referred to it as a "tigerwolf", because the settlers in southern Africa did not know of hyenas, thus labelled them as "wolves". Bosman and Kolben's descriptions went unnoticed until 1771, when the Welsh naturalist Thomas Pennant, in his Synopsis of Quadrupeds, used the descriptions, as well as his personal experience with a captive specimen, as a basis for differentiating the spotted hyena from the striped; the descrip
Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire was a French naturalist who established the principle of "unity of composition". He was a colleague of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and expanded and defended Lamarck's evolutionary theories. Geoffroy's scientific views had a transcendental flavor and were similar to those of German morphologists like Lorenz Oken, he believed in the underlying unity of organismal design, the possibility of the transmutation of species in time, amassing evidence for his claims through research in comparative anatomy and embryology. Geoffroy was born at Étampes, studied at the Collège de Navarre, in Paris, where he studied natural philosophy under M. J. Brisson, he attended the lectures of Daubenton at the College de France and Fourcroy at the Jardin des Plantes. In March 1793 Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, through the interest of Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, procured him the office of sub-keeper and assistant demonstrator of the cabinet of natural history, made vacant by the resignation of Bernard Germain Étienne de la Ville, Comte de Lacépède.
By a law passed in June 1793, Geoffroy was appointed one of the twelve professors of the newly constituted Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, being assigned the chair of zoology. In the same year he busied himself with the formation of a menagerie at that institution. In 1794, Geoffroy entered into correspondence with Georges Cuvier. Shortly after the appointment of Cuvier as assistant at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geoffroy received him into his house; the two friends wrote together five memoirs on natural history, one of which, on the classification of mammals, puts forward the idea of the subordination of characters upon which Cuvier based his zoological system. It was in a paper entitled Histoire des Makis, ou singes de Madagascar, written in 1795, that Geoffroy first gave expression to his views on the unity of organic composition, the influence of, perceptible in all his subsequent writings. In 1798, Geoffroy was chosen a member of Napoleon's great scientific expedition to Egypt as part of the natural history and physics section of the Institut d'Égypte.
On the capitulation of Alexandria in August 1801, he took part in resisting the claim made by the British general to the collections of the expedition, declaring that, were that demand persisted in, history would have to record that he had burnt a library in Alexandria. Early in January 1802 Geoffroy returned to Paris, he was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences in September 1807. In March of the following year Napoleon, who had recognized his national services by the award of the cross of the legion of honor, selected him to visit the museums of Portugal, for the purpose of procuring collections from them, in the face of considerable opposition from the British he was successful in retaining them as a permanent possession for his country. In 1809, the year after his return to France, Geoffroy was made professor of zoology at the faculty of sciences at Paris, from that period he devoted himself more than before to anatomical study. In 1818 he published the first part of his celebrated Philosophie anatomique, the second volume of which, published in 1822, subsequent memoirs account for the formation of monstrosities on the principle of arrest of development, of the attraction of similar parts.
Geoffroy's friend Robert Edmund Grant shared his views on unity of plan and corresponded with him while working on marine invertebrates in the late 1820s in Edinburgh when Grant identified the pancreas in molluscs. When, in 1830, Geoffroy proceeded to apply to the invertebrata his views as to the unity of animal composition, he found a vigorous opponent in Cuvier, his former friend. Geoffroy, a synthesiser, contended, in accordance with his theory of unity of plan in organic composition, that all animals are formed of the same elements, in the same number. With Johann Wolfgang von Goethe he held that there is in nature a law of compensation or balancing of growth, so that if one organ take on an excess of development, it is at the expense of some other part, it was his conviction that, owing to the conditions of life, the same forms had not been perpetuated since the origin of all things, although it was not his belief that existing species are becoming modified. Cuvier, an analytical observer of facts, admitted only the prevalence of laws of co-existence or harmony in animal organs, maintained the absolute invariability of species, which he declared had been created with a regard to the circumstances in which they were placed, each organ contrived with a view to the function it had to fulfil, thus putting, in Geoffroy's considerations, the effect for the cause.
In 1836 he coined the term phocomelia. In July 1840, Geoffroy became blind, some months he had a paralytic attack. From that time his strength failed him, he resigned his chair at the museum in 1841, was succeeded by his son, Isidore Geoffroy Saint