The red kangaroo or red giant kangaroo is the largest of all kangaroos, the largest terrestrial mammal native to Australia, the largest extant marsupial. It is found across mainland Australia, except for the more fertile areas, such as southern Western Australia, the east and southeast coasts, the rainforests along the northern coast; the initial description of the species by A. G. Desmarest was published in 1822; the type location was given as an unknown location west of the Blue Mountains. The author assigned the new species to the genus Kangurus. In 1842, Gould reassigned the species to the genus Osphranter, a taxon submerged as a subgenus of Macropus. A taxonomic restructuring in 2019, based on genetic analysis, promoted Osphranter back to genus level, redefining the red kangaroo, among others, as species within the genus Osphranter; this species is a large kangaroo with long, pointed ears and a square shaped muzzle. They are sexually dimorphic as the males have short, red-brown fur, fading to pale buff below and on the limbs.
Females are smaller than males and are blue-grey with a brown tinge, pale grey below, although arid zone females are coloured more like males. It has two forelimbs with small claws, two muscular hind-limbs, which are used for jumping, a strong tail, used to create a tripod when standing upright; the red kangaroo's legs work much like a rubber band, with the Achilles tendon stretching as the animal comes down releasing its energy to propel the animal up and forward, enabling the characteristic bouncing locomotion. The males can cover 8–9 m in one leap while reaching heights of 1.8–3 m, though the average is 1.2–1.9 m. Males grow up to a head-and-body length of 1.3–1.6 m with a tail that adds a further 1.2 m to the total length. Females are smaller, with a head-and-body length of 85–105 cm and tail length of 65–85 cm. Females can weigh from 18 to 40 kg, while males weigh about twice as much at 55 to 90 kg; the average red kangaroo stands 1.5 m tall to the top of the head in upright posture. Large mature males can stand more than 1.8 m tall, with the largest confirmed one having been around 2.1 m tall and weighed 91 kg.
The red kangaroo maintains its internal temperature at a point of homeostasis about 36 °C using a variety of physical and behavioural adaptations. These include having an insulating layer of fur, being less active and staying in the shade when temperatures are high, panting and licking its forelimbs; the red kangaroo's range of vision is 300°, due to the position of its eyes. The red kangaroo ranges throughout central Australia, its range encompasses scrubland and desert habitats. It inhabits open habitats with some trees for shade. Red kangaroos are capable of conserving enough water and selecting enough fresh vegetation to survive in an arid environment; the kangaroo's kidneys efficiently concentrate urine during summer. Red kangaroo eat green vegetation fresh grasses and forbs, can get enough when most plants look brown and dry. One study of kangaroos in Central Australia found that green grass makes up 75–95% of the diet, with Eragrostis setifolia dominating at 54%; this grass continues to be green into the dry season.
Kangaroos primarily consumed this species, along with Enneapogon avanaceus, in western New South Wales where they comprised much as 21–69% of its diet according to a study. During dry times, kangaroos search for green plants by staying on open grassland and near watercourses. While grasses and forbs are preferred, red kangaroos will eat certain species of chenopods, like Bassia diacantha and Maireana pyramidata, will browse shrubs when its favoured foods are scarce. However, some perennial chenopods, such as round-leaf chenopod Kochia are avoided when abundant. At times, red kangaroos congregate in large numbers. Red kangaroos are crepuscular and nocturnal, resting in the shade during the day. However, they sometimes move about during the day. Red kangaroos rely on small saltbushes or mulga bushes for shelter in extreme heat rather than rocky outcrops or caves. Grazing takes up most of their daily activities. Like most kangaroo species, they are sedentary, staying within a well-defined home range.
However, great environmental changes can cause them to travel great distances. Kangaroos in New South Wales have weekly home ranges of 258–560 ha, with the larger areas belonging to adult males; when forage is poor and rainfall patchy, kangaroos will travel 25–30 km to more favourable feeding grounds. Another study of kangaroos in central Australia found that most of them stay close to remaining vegetation but disperse to find fresh plants after it rains; the red kangaroo is too big to be subject to significant non-human predation. They can use their robust legs and clawed feet to defend themselves from attackers with kicks and blows; however and eagles will kill and eat joeys. Joeys are thus protected in their mother's pouch; the red kangaroo did have major predators that are now extinct. Extinct predators included the marsupial lion and the wonambi. Kangaroos are adept swimmers, flee into waterways if threatened by a predator. If pursued into the water, a kangaroo may use its forepaws to hold the predator underwater so as to drown it.
Red kangaroos live in groups of 2–4 members. The most common groups are their young. Larger groups can be found
The Democratic Republic of the Congo national basketball team is controlled by the Basketball Federation of Democratic Republic of Congo. The team has appeared in the FIBA Africa Championship, but has yet to appear in the FIBA World Championship, its biggest success to date was the Final Four placement at the 1975 FIBA Africa Championship when it competed as Zaire. At the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup qualification: Scroll down to see more. Basketball Federation of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Dikembe Mutombo Christian Eyenga Bismack Biyombo DR Congo women's national basketball team DR Congo national under-19 basketball team DR Congo national under-17 basketball team DR Congo national 3x3 team Official website FIBA profile Africabasket – DR Congo Men National Team DR Congo Basketball Records at FIBA Archive
The Royal College of Radiologists is the professional body responsible for the specialty of clinical oncology and clinical radiology throughout the United Kingdom. Its role is to advance the science and practice of radiology and oncology, further public education and set appropriate professional standards of practice; the College sets and monitors the educational curriculum for those training to enter the profession. It is a registered charity in the United Kingdom; the College publishes two journals, Clinical Oncology and the Clinical Radiology Journal, as well as awarding various prizes and scholarships. A series of bodies has represented practitioners of radiological medicine in the UK, starting in 1897 with the foundation of the Roentgen Society. Subsequently-founded societies included the British Association of Radiologists, the Society of Radiotherapists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Faculty of Radiologists. In 1950 the first issue of the Clinical Radiology Journal was published by the Faculty of Radiologists, who were granted a Royal Charter of incorporation in 1953.
Professor Sir Brian Windeyer helped found and became President of the Faculty of Radiologists from 1949-52. A supplemental charter was given in 1975 to rename the Faculty as The Royal College of Radiologists; the College published the first issue of Clinical Oncology in September 1989. Candidates are examined against the Specialty Training Curriculum for Clinical Radiology; the specialty trainees are expected to complete their First FRCR examination before progressing to ST2. During their ST3 training year they are expected to pass the Final FRCR Part A examination, must complete this before progressing to ST4. During ST4, trainees are expected to pass the Final FRCR Part B examination; the fellowship examinations start at the beginning of the Specialty Training Year 1. The First FRCR examination expects candidates to have gained a knowledge of the physical principles that underpin diagnostic medical imaging and of the anatomy needed to perform and interpret radiological studies; the First FRCR examination comprises two modules: Anatomy.
The anatomy modules is a 90-minute exam comprising 100 images, where each image has several annotations, each of which in turn has a single related question. The physics module is a 120-minute multiple choice question paper comprising 40 questions, each with five true or false answers; the Final FRCR Part A examination comprises single best answers, split into two separate papers for the purposes of delivery. Each paper contains 120 questions and examining candidates on all aspects of clinical radiology and the basic sciences of physics and techniques; the main areas examined are: 1. Cardiothoracic and Vascular 2. Musculoskeletal and Trauma 3. Gastro-intestinal 4. Genito-urinary, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Breast 5. Paediatric 6. Central Nervous and Head & Neck During the ST4 training, the specialty trainees are expected to complete the Final FRCR Part B; the Final FRCR examination consists of a reporting session, a rapid reporting session and an oral examination. The extensive examination provided by the RCR ensures a high quality and standard of radiology consultants.
It has been deemed as one of the hardest examinations in the medical profession, along with the FRCA and FRCPath. Moya Cole Dr. K. A. Dinshaw Adrian Dixon Frank Ellis Janet Husband M. Krishnan Nair James Ralston Kennedy Paterson Kakarla Subba Rao Robert Twycross Joanna Wardlaw Syed Junaid Brian Hayes Pankaj Nagori Society and College of Radiographers Royal College of Radiologists official website RCR Past prizes and Fellowships