Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world. They range from 1.6 to 60 cm. Most geckos cannot blink, but they lick their eyes to keep them clean and moist, they have a fixed lens within each iris. Geckos are unique among lizards in their vocalizations, they use chirping or clicking sounds in their social interactions, sometimes when alarmed. They are the most species-rich group of lizards, with about 1,500 different species worldwide; the New Latin gekko and English "gecko" stem from the Indonesian-Malay gēkoq, imitative of sounds that some species make. All geckos except species in the family Eublepharidae lack eyelids. Species without eyelids lick their own corneas when they need to clear them of dust and dirt. Nocturnal species have excellent night vision; the nocturnal geckos evolved from diurnal species. The gecko eye therefore modified its cones that increased in size into different types both single and double. Three different photopigments have been retained and are sensitive to UV, green.
They use a multifocal optical system that allows them to generate a sharp image for at least two different depths. Most gecko species can lose their tails in defense, a process called autotomy. Many species are well known for their specialised toe pads that enable them to climb smooth and vertical surfaces, cross indoor ceilings with ease. Geckos are well known to people who live in warm regions of the world, where several species of geckos make their home inside human habitations; these become part of the indoor menagerie and are welcomed, as they feed on insects, including moths and mosquitoes. Unlike most lizards, geckos are nocturnal; the largest species, the kawekaweau, is only known from a single, stuffed specimen found in the basement of a museum in Marseille, France. This gecko was 60 cm long and it was endemic to New Zealand, where it lived in native forests, it was wiped out along with much of the native fauna of these islands in the late 19th century, when new invasive species such as rats and stoats were introduced to the country during European colonization.
The smallest gecko, the Jaragua sphaero, is a mere 1.6 cm long and was discovered in 2001 on a small island off the coast of the Dominican Republic. Like other reptiles, geckos are ectothermic, producing little metabolic heat. A gecko's body temperature is dependent on its environment. In order to accomplish their main functions—such as locomotion, reproduction, etc.—geckos must have a elevated temperature. All geckos shed their skin at regular intervals, with species differing in timing and method. Leopard geckos will shed at about two- to four-week intervals; the presence of moisture aids in the shedding. When shedding begins, the gecko will speed the process by detaching the loose skin from its body and eating it. For young geckos, shedding will occur more at once every week, but when they grow, they shed once every one or two months. About 60% of gecko species have adhesive toe pads that allow them to adhere to most surfaces without the use of liquids or surface tension; such pads have been gained and lost over the course of gecko evolution.
Adhesive toepads evolved independently in about 11 different gecko lineages and were lost in at least 9 lineages. The spatula-shaped setae arranged in lamellae on gecko footpads enable attractive van der Waals' forces between the β-keratin lamellae/setae/spatulae structures and the surface; these van der Waals interactions involve no fluids. A recent study has however shown that gecko adhesion is in fact determined by electrostatic interaction, not van der Waals or capillary forces; the setae on the feet of geckos are self-cleaning and will remove any clogging dirt within a few steps. Teflon, which has low surface energy, is more difficult for geckos to adhere to than many other surfaces. Gecko adhesion is improved by higher humidity on hydrophobic surfaces, yet is reduced under conditions of complete immersion in water; the role of water in that system is under discussion, yet recent experiments agree that the presence of molecular water layers on the setae as well as on the surface increase the surface energy of both, therefore the energy gain in getting these surfaces in contact is enlarged, which results in an increased gecko adhesion force.
Moreover, the elastic properties of the b-keratin change with water uptake. Gecko toes seem to be "double jointed", but this is a misnomer and is properly called digital hyperextension. Gecko toes can hyperextend in the opposite direction from human toes; this allows them to overcome the van der Waals force by peeling their toes off surfaces from the tips inward. In essence, by this peeling action, the gecko separates spatula by spatula from the surface, so for each spatula separation, only some nN are necessary. Geckos' toes operate well below their full attractive capabilities most of the time, because the margin for error is great depending upon the surface roughness, the
Strepsirrhini or Strepsirhini is a suborder of primates that includes the lemuriform primates, which consist of the lemurs of Madagascar and pottos from Africa, the lorises from India and southeast Asia. Collectively they are referred to as strepsirrhines. Belonging to the suborder are the extinct adapiform primates that thrived during the Eocene in Europe, North America, Asia, but disappeared from most of the Northern Hemisphere as the climate cooled. Adapiforms are sometimes referred to as being "lemur-like", although the diversity of both lemurs and adapiforms does not support this comparison. Strepsirrhines are defined by their "wet" rhinarium - hence the colloquial but inaccurate term "wet-nosed" - similar to the rhineria of dogs and cats, they have a smaller brain than comparably sized simians, large olfactory lobes for smell, a vomeronasal organ to detect pheromones, a bicornuate uterus with an epitheliochorial placenta. Their eyes contain a reflective layer to improve their night vision, their eye sockets include a ring of bone around the eye, but they lack a wall of thin bone behind it.
Strepsirrhine primates produce their own vitamin C, whereas haplorhine primates must obtain it from their diets. Lemuriform primates are characterized by a toothcomb, a specialized set of teeth in the front, lower part of the mouth used for combing fur during grooming. Many of today's living strepsirrhines are endangered due to habitat destruction, hunting for bushmeat, live capture for the exotic pet trade. Both living and extinct strepsirrhines are behaviorally diverse, although all are arboreal. Most living lemuriforms are nocturnal. Both living and extinct groups fed on fruit and insects; the taxonomic name Strepsirrhini derives from the Greek στρεψίς" and ῥινός, which refers to the appearance of the sinuous nostrils on the rhinarium or wet nose. The name was first used by French naturalist Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1812 as a subordinal rank comparable to Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. In his description, he mentioned "Les narines terminales et sinueuses"; when British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock revived Strepsirrhini and defined Haplorhini in 1918, he omitted the second "r" from both, although he did not remove the second "r" from Platyrrhini or Catarrhini, both of which were named by É.
Geoffroy in 1812. Following Pocock, many researchers continued to spell Strepsirrhini with a single "r" until primatologists Paulina Jenkins and Prue Napier pointed out the error in 1987. Strepsirrhines include the extinct adapiforms and the lemuriform primates, which include lemurs and lorisoids. Strepsirrhines diverged from the haplorhine primates near the beginning of the primate radiation between 55 and 90 mya. Older divergence dates are based on genetic analysis estimates, while younger dates are based on the scarce fossil record. Lemuriform primates may have evolved from either cercamoniines or sivaladapids, both of which were adapiforms that may have originated in Asia, they were once thought to have evolved from adapids, a more specialized and younger branch of adapiform from Europe. Lemurs rafted from Africa to Madagascar between 47 and 54 mya, whereas the lorises split from the African galagos around 40 mya and colonized Asia; the lemuriforms, the lemurs of Madagascar, are portrayed inappropriately as "living fossils" or as examples of "basal", or "inferior" primates.
These views have hindered the understanding of mammalian evolution and the evolution of strepsirrhine traits, such as their reliance on smell, characteristics of their skeletal anatomy, their brain size, small. In the case of lemurs, natural selection has driven this isolated population of primates to diversify and fill a rich variety of ecological niches, despite their smaller and less complex brains compared to simians; the divergence between strepsirrhines and tarsiers followed immediately after primates first evolved. Although few fossils of living primate groups – lemuriforms and simians – are known from the Early to Middle Eocene, evidence from genetics and recent fossil finds both suggest they may have been present during the early adaptive radiation; the origin of the earliest primates that the simians and tarsiers both evolved from is a mystery. Both their place of origin and the group from which they emerged are uncertain. Although the fossil record demonstrating their initial radiation across the Northern Hemisphere is detailed, the fossil record from the tropics is sparse around the time that primates and other major clades of eutherian mammals first appeared.
Lacking detailed tropical fossils and primatologists have used genetic analyses to determine the relatedness between primate lineages and the amount of time since they diverged. Using this molecular clock, divergence dates for the major primate lineages have suggested that primates evolved more than 80–90 mya, nearly 40 million years before the first examples appear in the fossil record; the early primates include both nocturnal and diurnal small-bodied species, all were arboreal, with hands and feet specially adapted for maneuvering on small branches. Plesiadapiforms from the early Paleocene are sometimes considered "archaic primates", because their teeth rese
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
The Oregonian is a daily newspaper based in Portland, United States, owned by Advance Publications. It is the oldest continuously published newspaper on the U. S. west coast, founded as a weekly by Thomas J. Dryer on December 4, 1850, published daily since 1861, it is the largest newspaper in Oregon and the second largest in the Pacific Northwest by circulation. It is one of the few newspapers with a statewide focus in the United States; the Sunday edition is published under the title The Sunday Oregonian. The regular edition was published under the title The Morning Oregonian from 1861 until 1937; the Oregonian received the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, the only gold medal annually awarded by the organization. The paper's staff or individual writers have received seven other Pulitzer Prizes, most the award for Editorial Writing in 2014; the Oregonian is home-delivered throughout Multnomah, Washington and Yamhill counties in Oregon and Clark County, Washington four days a week. Although some independent dealers do deliver the newspaper outside that area, in 2006 it ceased to be available in far eastern Oregon and the southern Oregon Coast and, starting in December 2008, "increasing newsprint and distribution costs" caused the paper to stop delivery to all areas south of Albany.
One year prior to the incorporation of the tiny town of Portland, Oregon, in 1851, prospective leaders of the new community determined to establish a local newspaper—an institution, seen as a prerequisite for urban growth. Chief among these pioneer community organizers seeking establishment of a Portland press were Col. W. W. Chapman and prominent local businessman Henry W. Corbett. In the fall of 1850 Chapman and Corbett traveled to San Francisco, at the time far and away the largest city on the West Coast of the United States, in search of an editor interested in and capable of producing a weekly newspaper in Portland. There the pair met Thomas J. Dryer, a transplanted New Yorker, an energetic writer with both printing equipment and previous experience in the production of a small circulation community newspaper in his native Ulster County, New York. Dryer's press was transported to Portland and it was there on December 4, 1850 that the first issue of The Weekly Oregonian found its readers.
Each weekly issue consisted of four pages, printed six columns wide. Little attention was paid to current news events, with the bulk of the paper's content devoted to political themes and biographical commentary; the paper took a staunch political line supportive of the Whig Party—an orientation which soon brought it into conflict with The Statesman, a Democratic paper launched at Oregon City not long after The Weekly Oregonian's debut. A loud and bitter rivalry between the competing news organs ensued. Henry Pittock became the owner in 1861 as compensation for unpaid wages, he began publishing the paper daily, except Sundays. Pittock's goal was to focus more on news than the bully pulpit established by Dryer, he ordered a new press in December 1860 and arranged for the news to be sent by telegraph to Redding, California by stagecoach to Jacksonville, by pony express to Portland. From 1866 to 1872 Harvey W. Scott was the editor. Henry W. Corbett bought the paper from a cash-poor Pittock in October 1872 and placed William Lair Hill as editor.
Scott, fired by Corbett for supporting Ben Holladay's candidates, became editor of Holladay's rival Bulletin newspaper. The paper went bankrupt around 1874. Corbett sold The Oregonian back to Pittock in 1877, marking a return of Scott to the paper's editorial helm. A part-owner of the paper, Scott would remain as editor-in-chief until shortly before his death in 1910. One of the journalists who began his career on The Oregonian during this time period was James J. Montague who took over and wrote the column "Slings & Arrows" until he was hired away by William Randolph Hearst in 1902. In 1881, the first Sunday Oregonian was published; the paper became known as the voice of business-oriented Republicans, as evidenced by consistent endorsement of Republican candidates for president in every federal election before 1992. The paper's offices and presses were housed in a two-story building at the intersection of First Street and Morrison Street, but in 1892 the paper moved into a new nine-story building at 6th and Alder streets.
The new building was, the same as its predecessor, called the Oregonian Building. It included a clock tower at one corner, the building's overall height of 194 to 196 feet made it the tallest structure in Portland, a distinction it retained until the completion of the Yeon Building in 1911, it contained about 100,000 square feet of floor space, including the basement but not the tower. The newspaper did not move again until 1948; the 1892 building was demolished in 1950. Following the death of Harvey Scott in 1910, the paper's editor-in-chief was Edgar B. Piper, managing editor. Piper remained editor until his death in 1928. In 1922, The Morning Oregonian launched Oregon's first commercial radio station. Five years KGW affiliated with NBC; the newspaper purchased a second station, KEX, in 1933, from NBC subsidiary Northwest Broadcasting Co. In 1944, KEX was sold to Inc.. The Oregonian launched KGW-FM, the Northwest's first FM station, in 1946, known today as KKRZ. KGW and KGW-FM were sold to King Broadcasting Co in 1953.
In 1937, The Morning Oregonian shortened its name to The Oregonian. Two years associate editor Ronald G. Callvert rec
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column, derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include arthropods, mollusks and cnidarians; the majority of animal species are invertebrates. Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata; some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates. This makes the invertebrates paraphyletic, so the term has little meaning in taxonomy; the word "invertebrate" comes from the Latin word vertebra, which means a joint in general, sometimes a joint from the spinal column of a vertebrate. The jointed aspect of vertebra is derived from the concept of turning, expressed in the root verto or vorto, to turn; the prefix in- means "not" or "without". The term invertebrates is not always precise among non-biologists since it does not describe a taxon in the same way that Arthropoda, Vertebrata or Manidae do.
Each of these terms describes a valid taxon, subphylum or family. "Invertebrata" is a term of convenience, not a taxon. The Vertebrata as a subphylum comprises such a small proportion of the Metazoa that to speak of the kingdom Animalia in terms of "Vertebrata" and "Invertebrata" has limited practicality. In the more formal taxonomy of Animalia other attributes that logically should precede the presence or absence of the vertebral column in constructing a cladogram, for example, the presence of a notochord; that would at least circumscribe the Chordata. However the notochord would be a less fundamental criterion than aspects of embryological development and symmetry or bauplan. Despite this, the concept of invertebrates as a taxon of animals has persisted for over a century among the laity, within the zoological community and in its literature it remains in use as a term of convenience for animals that are not members of the Vertebrata; the following text reflects earlier scientific understanding of the term and of those animals which have constituted it.
According to this understanding, invertebrates do not possess a skeleton of bone, either internal or external. They include hugely varied body plans. Many have like jellyfish or worms. Others have outer shells like those of insects and crustaceans; the most familiar invertebrates include the Protozoa, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Arthropoda. Arthropoda include insects and arachnids. By far the largest number of described invertebrate species are insects; the following table lists the number of described extant species for major invertebrate groups as estimated in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2014.3. The IUCN estimates that 66,178 extant vertebrate species have been described, which means that over 95% of the described animal species in the world are invertebrates; the trait, common to all invertebrates is the absence of a vertebral column: this creates a distinction between invertebrates and vertebrates. The distinction is one of convenience only. Being animals, invertebrates are heterotrophs, require sustenance in the form of the consumption of other organisms.
With a few exceptions, such as the Porifera, invertebrates have bodies composed of differentiated tissues. There is typically a digestive chamber with one or two openings to the exterior; the body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit some form of symmetry, whether radial, bilateral, or spherical. A minority, exhibit no symmetry. One example of asymmetric invertebrates includes all gastropod species; this is seen in snails and sea snails, which have helical shells. Slugs appear externally symmetrical. Other gastropods develop external asymmetry, such as Glaucus atlanticus that develops asymmetrical cerata as they mature; the origin of gastropod asymmetry is a subject of scientific debate. Other examples of asymmetry are found in hermit crabs, they have one claw much larger than the other. If a male fiddler loses its large claw, it will grow another on the opposite side after moulting. Sessile animals such as sponges are asymmetrical alongside coral colonies. Neurons differ in invertebrates from mammalian cells.
Invertebrates cells fire in response to similar stimuli as mammals, such as tissue trauma, high temperature, or changes in pH. The first invertebrate in which a neuron cell was identified was the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis. Learning and memory using nociceptors in the sea hare, Aplysia has been described. Mollusk neurons are able to detect tissue trauma. Neurons have been identified in a wide range of invertebrate species, including annelids, molluscs and arthropods. One type of invertebrate respi
A berry is a small and edible fruit. Berries are juicy, brightly colored, sweet or sour, do not have a stone or pit, although many pips or seeds may be present. Common examples are strawberries, blueberries, red currants, white currants and blackcurrants. In Britain, soft fruit is a horticultural term for such fruits; the scientific usage of the term "berry" differs from common usage. In scientific terminology, a berry is a fruit produced from the ovary of a single flower in which the outer layer of the ovary wall develops into an edible fleshy portion; the definition includes many fruits that are not known as berries, such as grapes, cucumbers, eggplants and chili peppers. Fruits excluded by the botanical definition include strawberries and blackberries, which are aggregate fruits. A plant bearing berries is said to be baccate. While many berries are edible, some pokeweed. Others, such as the white mulberry, red mulberry, elderberry, are poisonous when unripe, but are edible when ripe. Berries are eaten worldwide and used in jams, cakes, or pies.
Some berries are commercially important. The berry industry varies from country to country as do types of berries cultivated or growing in the wild; some berries such as raspberries and strawberries have been bred for hundreds of years and are distinct from their wild counterparts, while other berries, such as lingonberries and cloudberries, grow exclusively in the wild. Berries have been valuable as a food source for humans since before the start of agriculture, remain among the primary food sources of other primates, they were a seasonal staple for early hunter-gatherers for thousands of years, wild berry gathering remains a popular activity in Europe and North America today. In time, humans learned to store berries, they may be made into fruit preserves, among Native Americans, mixed with meat and fats as pemmican. Berries began to be cultivated in Europe and other countries; some species of blackberries and raspberries of the genus Rubus have been cultivated since the 17th century, while smooth-skinned blueberries and cranberries of the genus Vaccinium have been cultivated in the United States for over a century.
In Japan, between the 10th and 18th centuries, the term ichibigo ichigo referred to many berry crops. The most cultivated berry of modern times, however, is the strawberry, produced globally at twice the amount of all other berry crops combined; the strawberry was mentioned by ancient Romans, who thought it had medicinal properties, but it was not a staple of agriculture. Woodland strawberries began to be grown in French gardens in the 14th century; the musky-flavored strawberry began to be grown in European gardens in the late 16th century. The Virginia strawberry was grown in Europe and the United States; the most consumed strawberry, the garden strawberry, is an accidental hybrid of the Virginia strawberry and a Chilean variety Fragaria chiloensis. It was first noted by a French gardener around the mid 18th century that, when F. moschata and F. virginiana were planted in between rows of F. chiloensis, the Chilean strawberry would bear abundant and unusually large fruits. Soon after, Antoine Nicolas Duchesne began to study the breeding of strawberries and made several discoveries crucial to the science of plant breeding, such as the sexual reproduction of strawberry.
In the early 1800s, English breeders of strawberry made varieties of F. ananassa which were important in strawberry breeding in Europe, hundreds of cultivars have since been produced through the breeding of strawberries. A form of the word "berry" is found in all the Germanic languages; these forms point to the Proto Germanic *bazją. In Old English, the word was applied to grapes, but has since grown to its current definition. In botanical terminology, a berry is a simple fruit with seeds and pulp produced from the ovary of a single flower, it is fleshy throughout, except for the seeds. It does not have a special "line of weakness" along. A berry may develop from an ovary with one or more carpels; the seeds are embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary, but there are some non-fleshy examples such as peppers, with air rather than pulp around their seeds. The differences between the everyday and botanical uses of "berry" results in three categories: those fruits that are berries under both definitions.
Berries under both definitions include blueberries, cranberries and the fruits of many other members of the heather family, as well as gooseberries, goji berries and elderberries. The fruits of some "currants", such as blackcurrants, red currants and white currants, are botanical berries, are treated as horticultural berries though their most used names do not include the word "berry". Botanical berries not known as berries include bananas, grapes, persimmons and pumpkins. There are several different kinds of fruits which are called berries, but are not botanical berries. Blackberries and strawberries are kinds o
William Charles Osman Hill
Dr William Charles Osman Hill FRSE FZS FLS FRAI was a British anatomist, a leading authority on primate anatomy during the 20th century. He is best known for his nearly completed eight-volume series, Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy, which covered all living and extinct primates known at the time in full detail and contained illustrations created by his wife, Yvonne. Schooled at King Edward VI Camp Hill School for Boys in Birmingham and University of Birmingham, he went on to publish 248 works and accumulated a vast collection of primate specimens that are now stored at the Royal College of Surgeons of England. William Charles Osman Hill was born on 13 July 1901 the son of James Osman Hill and his wife Fanny Martin, he was educated first at King Edward VI Camp Hill School for Boys in Birmingham, obtained his degrees from the University of Birmingham. During medical school at the University of Birmingham, he won three junior student prizes and the Ingleby Scholarship in Midwifery, he obtained his primary medical degrees in 1924, the same year took on the role of lecturer in zoology.
Osman Hill earned his MD with honours in 1925. He earned his Ch. B while in medical school. Upon graduation, Osman Hill continued his role as a lecturer at the University of Birmingham under an apprenticeship until 1930, but teaching anatomy instead of zoology. In 1930, his career took shape when he moved to Sri Lanka known as Ceylon, to become both Chair of Anatomy and Professor of Anatomy at the Ceylon Medical College, his position allowed him to pursue anthropological studies of the indigenous Veddah people and comparative anatomy of primates. During this time, he began developing a private menagerie of native species. Consisting of a variety of primates and parrots, the collection reported included several types of cockatoo, red-fan parrots, eclectus parrots, star tortoises, leopard tortoises, Galápagos tortoises, ruddy mongooses. Osman Hill held this position in Ceylon for 14 years, returning to the UK after being appointed as Reader in Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh in 1945.
Upon his departure from Ceylon, his menagerie was divided between the London Zoo and the National Zoological Gardens of Sri Lanka. Five years in 1950, he became prosector for the Zoological Society of London and remained there for twelve years; when he left the London Zoo in 1962, the old prosectorium, his office was closed, many preserved biological specimens were discarded, the era of anatomists working at the London Zoo—starting from the time of Richard Owen—came to a close. Between 1957 and 1958, Osman Hill acted as a visiting scholar at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1958, primatologist Jane Goodall studied primate behaviour under him in preparation for her studies of wild chimpanzees. In 1962, he was hired as the assistant director of the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Atlanta after being turned down for the position of director; the Royal Society of Edinburgh honoured him as a fellow in 1955 and for his contributions to science awarded him both its Gold Medal and the Macdougal-Brisbane Prize.
Upon his retiring from YNPRC in 1969, the Royal College of Surgeons of England made him a Hunterian Trustee. Following retirement, Osman Hill divided his time between his home at Folkestone and his continued work at the University of Turin, his relentless work in anatomy ended only during the final stages of his terminal illness, after he had suffered three years of increased illness as well as diabetes. During his career, Osman Hill wrote 248 publications, all academic journal articles or chapters in books based upon his own observations, his first paper, which discussed the comparative anatomy of the pancreas, was published in 1926. In all, his works, which continued being published until the year of his death, focused on the anatomy and behaviour of humans and other mammals. Osman Hill is best known for writing Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy, an eight-volume series that aimed to include all living and extinct primates. Published by Edinburgh University between 1953 and 1974, the series was the culmination of 50 years of his scientific research and thought.
Each volume, starting with the strepsirrhines, covered its subjects exhaustively, including native and scientific nomenclature, anatomical structure, genetics and palaeontology. The books were illustrated with both photographs and drawings, most of which were made by his wife, Yvonne; the series was known for its breadth and depth, however it was never completed. Projected as a nine-volume set, Osman Hill died in 1975. With five sections of the final volume written, including material on the taxonomy and most of the anatomy of langurs, it was hoped that his widow would be able to follow through with plans to prepare and publish them. However, she died one year later; this monographic series received praise for its encyclopaedic content, but was criticised for occasional omissions and lack of specificity. The eight volumes for which Osman Hill is best remembered were Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy Osman Hill, W. C.. Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy I—Strepsirhini. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3.
Edinburgh University Press. OCLC 500576914. Osman Hill, W. C.. Primates Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy II—Haplorhini: Tarsioidea. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3b. Edinburgh University Press