Red wolf

The red wolf is a canine native to the southeastern United States which has a reddish-tawny color to its fur. Morphologically it is intermediate between the coyote and gray wolf, is closely related to the eastern wolf of eastern Canada; the red wolf's proper taxonomic classification — in essence, whether it is an admixture of wolf and coyote or a third, distinct species — has been contentious for well over a century and is still under debate. Because of this, it is sometimes excluded from endangered species lists despite its critically low numbers. Under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, the U. S. Fisheries and Wildlife service recognizes the red wolf as an endangered and grants protected status. Canis rufus is not listed in the CITES Appendices of endangered species. Since 1996 the IUCN has listed it as a critically endangered species. Red wolves were distributed throughout the southeastern and south-central United States from the Atlantic Ocean to central Texas, southeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Illinois in the west, in the north from the Ohio River Valley, northern Pennsylvania and southern New York south to the Gulf of Mexico.

The red wolf was nearly driven to extinction by the mid-1900s due to aggressive predator-control programs, habitat destruction, extensive hybridization with coyotes. By the late 1960s, it occurred in small numbers in the Gulf Coast of western Louisiana and eastern Texas. Fourteen of these survivors were selected to be the founders of a captive-bred population, established in the Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium between 1974 and 1980. After a successful experimental relocation to Bulls Island off the coast of South Carolina in 1978, the red wolf was declared extinct in the wild in 1980 to proceed with restoration efforts. In 1987, the captive animals were released into the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge on the Albemarle Peninsula in North Carolina, with a second release, since reversed, taking place two years in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Of 63 red wolves released from 1987–1994, the population rose to as many as 100–120 individuals in 2012, but due to the lack of regulation enforcement by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the population has declined to 40 individuals in 2018 and about 14 as of 2019.

The taxonomic status of the red wolf is debated. It has been described as either a species with a distinct lineage, a recent hybrid of the gray wolf and the coyote, an ancient hybrid of the gray wolf and the coyote which warrants species status, or a distinct species that has undergone recent hybridization with the coyote; the naturalists John James Audubon and John Bachman were the first to suggest that the wolves of the southern United States were different from wolves in its other regions. In 1851 they recorded the "Black American Wolf" as C. l. var. arer that existed in Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, southern Indiana, southern Missouri and northern Texas. They recorded the "Red Texan Wolf" as C. l. var. rufus that existed from northern Arkansas, through Texas, into Mexico. In 1912 the zoologist Gerrit Smith Miller Jr. noted that the designation arer was unavailable and recorded these wolves as C. l. floridanus. In 1937, the zoologist Edward Alphonso Goldman proposed a new species of wolf Canis rufus.

Three subspecies of red wolf were recognized by Goldman, with two of these subspecies now being extinct. The Florida black wolf has been extinct since 1908 and the Mississippi Valley red wolf was declared extinct by 1980. By the 1970s, the Texas red wolf existed only in the coastal prairies and marshes of extreme southeastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana; these were removed from the wild to form a captive breeding program and reintroduced into eastern North Carolina in 1987. In 1967, the zoologists Barbara Lawrence and William H. Bossert believed that the case for classifying C. rufus as a species was based too on the small red wolves of central Texas, from where it was known that there existed hybridization with the coyote. They said that if an adequate number of specimens had have been included from Florida the separation of C. rufus from C. lupus would have been unlikely. The taxonomic reference Catalogue of Life classifies the red wolf as a subspecies of Canis lupus; the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft, writing in Mammal Species of the World, regards the red wolf as a hybrid of the gray wolf and the coyote, but due to its uncertain status compromised by recognizing it as a subspecies of the gray wolf Canis lupus rufus.

When European settlers first arrived to North America, the coyote's range was limited to the western half of the continent. They existed in the arid areas and across the open plains, including the prairie regions of the midwestern states. Early explorers found some in Wisconsin. From the mid-1800s onward, coyotes began expanding beyond their original range; the taxonomic debate regarding North American wolves can be summarised as follows: There are two prevailing evolutionary models for North American Canis: a two-species model that identifies grey wolves and coyotes as distinct species that gave rise to various hybrids, including the Great Lakes-boreal wolf, the eastern coyote, the red wolf, the eastern wolf.


Glomerulosclerosis is hardening of the glomeruli in the kidney. It is a general term to describe scarring of the kidneys' tiny blood vessels, the glomeruli, the functional units in the kidney that filter urea from the blood. Proteinuria is one of the signs of glomerulosclerosis. Scarring disturbs the filtering process of the kidneys and allows protein to leak from the blood into urine. However, glomerulosclerosis is one of many causes of proteinuria. A kidney biopsy may be necessary to determine whether a patient has glomerulosclerosis or another kidney problem. About 15 percent of people with proteinuria turn out to have glomerulosclerosis. Both children and adults can develop glomerulosclerosis and it can result from different types of kidney conditions. One encountered type of glomerulosclerosis is caused by diabetes. Drug use or infections may cause focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a chronic kidney condition. FSGS may occur in patients with AIDS but most are of unknown cause. More glomerulosclerosis can refer to: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis Nodular glomerulosclerosis Early stages of glomerulosclerosis may not produce any symptoms but the most important warning sign is proteinuria discovered in routine medical exams.

Losing large amounts of protein may cause swelling in the ankles and accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. Scarred glomeruli cannot be repaired and many patients with glomerulosclerosis get worse over time until their kidneys fail; this condition is called end-stage renal disease and the patients must begin dialysis treatment or receive a kidney transplant. ESRD may be reached within a year or up to ten or more of diagnosis of glomerulosclerosis but time will vary. Treatments for glomerulosclerosis depend on; this is determined by renal biopsy. Immunosuppressive drugs stop proteinuria in some patients, but once the treatments have ended proteinuria will continue; the drugs may sometimes damage the patient's kidneys more. Controlling the patient's blood pressure may control the progression of kidney failure. ACE inhibitors, a type of blood pressure medicine, preserve kidney function in patients with diabetes. ACE inhibitors may slow down kidney failure for patients without diabetes. Low protein diets may lighten the work done by kidneys to process waste.

Some patients will need to control their cholesterol through both diet and medicine. BK virus Epstein–Barr virus infection Glomerulosclerosis--WebMD

Poseidon Linux

Poseidon Linux is Linux distribution, a complete operating system based on Kurumin, now based on Ubuntu. It is developed and maintained by a team of young scientists from the Rio Grande Federal University in Rio Grande do Sul and the MARUM institute in Germany; the name Poseidon was chosen after the God of the seas in Greek mythology, since a large number of oceanologists have been involved in the development of the system. The 3.x family was pre-presented in 2008 at the 9th Free Software International Forum, received compliments from numerous users, free software enthusiasts, the GNU/Linux community in general, including from Jon "maddog" Hall of Linux International. Poseidon 3.2 was released in the IV Brazilian Oceanography Congress, that took place in May 2010 in Rio Grande, Brazil. For version 4.0, the project changed the base distribution from Knoppix/Kurumin to Ubuntu. This was due to the wide acceptance of Poseidon outside the Portuguese-speaking scientific community, because of the shut-down of the Kurumin project.

The Ubuntu-based releases allow the installation in Portuguese, English, French and other languages. The development team stated, that after Poseidon 5.0, the distribution would focus on bathymetry, seafloor mapping, GIS software. Many of the bundled CAD and scientific programs were removed, but may be separately available for download from compatible repositories; the current running Poseidon version is 8.0, is based on 32-bit and 64-bit Ubuntu 16.04 LTS, as the goal of the project is to offer a stable distribution, which will be updated when the special packages and the base system so require. Throughout its release history, the distro has contained many free software programs used in science and engineering, such as the Fortran programming language and Lyx for scientific writing, numerical modeling, 2D/3D/4D visualization, statistics, CAD, bio-informatics, several tools that support GIS and mapping. Common day-by-day programs are included, such as LibreOffice, web browsers, multimedia packages, some games.

The core of Poseidon is always the Debian family due to the higher stability and greater amount of software available in repository sites. That way, users of Debian, Ubuntu, or derivative distributions would find Poseidon accessible. Much of the support material and tutorials would apply just the same. Official/Original site Official site, updated Poseidon Linux at DistroWatch Article in Pan American Journal of Aquatic Science New article in Pan American Journal of Aquatic Science