Hambleton is a local government district of North Yorkshire, England. The main town and administrative centre is Northallerton, the district includes the market towns and major villages of Bedale, Great Ayton and Easingwold; the district was formed by the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974, as a merger of the urban district of Northallerton with Bedale Rural District, Easingwold Rural District, Northallerton Rural District, part of Thirsk Rural District, Stokesley Rural District and Croft Rural District, all in the North Riding of Yorkshire. The district is named after the Hambleton Hills, part of the North York Moors National Park, on the eastern edge of the district; this area is the subject of a national habitat protection scheme as articulated in the United Kingdom's Biodiversity Action Plan. Hambleton covers an area of 1,311.17 km ². The district is named after the Hambleton Hills, part of the North York Moors National Park, on the eastern edge of the district; this area is the subject of a national habitat protection scheme as articulated in the United Kingdom's Biodiversity Action Plan.
About 75 % of the district lies of York. These two vales consist of low lying and intensively worked arable land, used for farming. 16% lies within the North York Moors National Park and just over 1% is in the York green belt zone. Towns in the district are listed below. Northallerton houses the headquarters of Hambleton District Council; the district is the location of 17 wards and 177 parishes. Bedale Easingwold Northallerton Stokesley Thirsk In 2007 Hambleton had an estimated population of 86,900 an increase of 3.2% on the population of 84,200 recorded in the 2001 UK census. In the 2001 census 83% of respondents identified their religion as Christians above the national average for England, 71.74%. No other religion accounted for more than 0.2% of the population. In May 2006, a report commissioned by British Gas showed that housing in Hambleton produced the 8th highest average carbon emissions in the country at 7,242 kg of carbon dioxide per dwelling. Whilst this has come under some scrutiny, it is important to remember that due to the remote nature of the councils parishes carbon emissions are to be high.
Energy efficiency in British housing Golisti K. O. M. Hambleton and its History. Ashdown Products. ISBN 0952195054 Hambleton District Council
County Borough of Teesside
Teesside was, from 1968 to 1974, a local government district in northern England. It comprised a conurbation; the district had the status of a county borough and so was independent of the county council of the North Riding of Yorkshire, in which it was geographically located. The River Tees formed the historic county boundary between Durham. A continuous conurbation had built up around the mouth of the river, increasing in population from the nineteenth century as the industrial potential of the area was developed. LGD = Local Government District MB = Municipal Borough, CB = County Borough, UD = Urban District Under the Local Government Act 1958 a Local Government Commission for England was established to review administrative structures throughout the country; the commission published draft proposals for the North Eastern General Review Area in April 1962 and a final report in October 1963. The report recommended the creation of a single county borough for the Teesside area as it:...seemed to us necessary to ensure that the pattern of local government was such as to make the planning of development and the organisation of services effective, to make certain that new development, such as houses, main roads and shops would match the growth and location of industry instead of perpetuating the patterns of the past.
We were impressed by the need on Tees-side for more housing to relieve overcrowding, to replace outworn properties, to meet the increase in population due to industrial expansion. Yet unless Teesside could be planned as a whole, it seemed to us impossible to ensure that new houses would be built in places most convenient for the people who would live in them, as it was difficult for the present ten separate housing authorities, each with their own housing list, to do other than build within or near their own boundaries... With the southern moorland, the coast and the river, Tees-side has a splendid setting and it ought to be made worthy of its 400,000 inhabitants; this task requires a comprehensive plan for the whole area designed to secure the benefit of its port, its industries and its commerce, the reclamation of its marshlands, the building of new roads and bridges, the renewal of obsolete parts of the old riverside development, the designing of new centres and the provision of new amenities.
This formidable task gives scope not for ten authorities to develop or redevelop ten towns but for a single authority to work out the details of the probable future growth and needs of Tees-side, prepare and carry out a single plan for the whole area. Reaction to the proposals was divided; the councils of Middlesbrough, Thornaby and Saltburn & Marske warmly welcomed the report. The two other towns due to be amalgamated and Eston, were opposed; the two county councils of Durham and Yorkshire, North Riding rejected the commission's report. The chairman of Durham County Council, whose county was to lose areas to the county boroughs of Hartlepool and Sunderland, described it as "the biggest menace to the north-east since the war". Sir Timothy Kitson, Member of Parliament for the Yorkshire constituency of Richmond, set out the losses to the North Riding: the administrative county was to lose about 25% of its population, about 40% of its rateable value; the chairman of North Riding County Council believed the proposals to be detrimental to the majority of the inhabitants of the administrative county.
The recommendations were accepted, with boundary adjustments, by the Government in October 1965. The main changes were to exclude most of Saltburn & Marske, the extension of the boundary of the county borough southwards. Part of Preston-on-Tees was added to include Preston Hall, an art gallery and museum owned by Stockton Corporation within the county borough. In January 1967, Anthony Greenwood, Minister of Housing and Local Government, made the Teesside Order 1967 to carry the recommendations into effect; the new borough of Teesside was to combine the areas of: Following its passing by both Houses of Parliament, the order came into effect, with the first election to the new borough council taking place in May 1967, serving as a shadow authority until it came into its full powers on 1 April 1968. In a ceremony held at Middlesbrough Town Hall, the charter of the new borough was presented by Lord Normanby, the Lord Lieutenant of the North Riding of Yorkshire. Sir William Crosthwaite, who had served as Middlesbrough's mayor on five occasions, presented a new gold ceremonial mace to the corporation.
The maces of the former boroughs of Middlesbrough, Stockton and Thornaby along with the orders of constitution of the urban district councils of Eston and Billingham were handed over to the new authority for safekeeping. The county borough was divided into twenty-six wards, each represented by three councillors and one alderman, so that the council had a total membership of 104: 78 councillors and 26 aldermen; the wards were: The first election was held in May 1967 with the council forming a "shadow authority" until April 1968. Annual elections were held, with one third of the councillors retiring each year. Aldermen had a six-year term of office, with half being elected by the council every three years; the county borough corporation was granted armorial bearings by the College of Arms on 26 March 1968. The arms were blazoned as follows: Argent an ancient ship sails furled pennons flying Sable, on a chief Azure on a pale Sable fimbriated and between two crucibles Argent a basilisk Or. Crest: On a wreath Argent and Azure on a grassy mount Proper an anchor Or between two cogwheels Sable.
Supporters: On the dexter side a lion Or resting the interior
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of an extra hour of sleep in the fall. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895; the German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used at various times since particularly since the 1970s energy crisis. DST is not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it; some countries observe it only in some regions. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa do not observe it. DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, sleep patterns.
Computer software adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing. Industrialized societies follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year; the time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, the coordination of mass transit, for example remain constant year-round. In contrast, an agrarian society's daily routines for work and personal conduct are more governed by the length of daylight hours and by solar time, which change seasonally because of the Earth's axial tilt. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics. By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of standard time, individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise. However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical "nine to five" workday. Supporters have argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is disputed; the manipulation of time at higher latitudes has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more throughout the seasons, thus sunrise and sunset times are out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock. DST is of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year; the effect varies according to how far east or west the location is within its time zone, with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.
Ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than DST does dividing daylight into 12 hours regardless of daytime, so that each daylight hour became progressively longer during spring and shorter during autumn. For example, the Romans kept time with water clocks that had different scales for different months of the year. From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. Benjamin Franklin published the proverb "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy and wise", he published a letter in the Journal de Paris during his time as an American envoy to France suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight; this 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.
Despite common misconception, Franklin did not propose DST. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. In 1810, the Spanish National Assembly Cortes of Cádiz issued a regulation that moved certain meeting times forward by one hour from May 1 to September 30 in recognition of seasonal changes, but it did not change the clocks, it acknowledged that private businesses were in the practice of changing their opening hours to suit daylight conditions, but they did so of their own volition. New Zealand entomologist George Hudson first proposed modern DST, his shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects and led him to value after-hours daylight. In 1895, he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift, considerable interest was expressed in
Ceremonial counties of England
The ceremonial counties referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed. The areas in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies in Great Britain, in contrast to the areas used for local government, they are informally known as geographic counties, as representing more permanent features of English geography, to distinguish them from counties of England which have a present-day administrative function. The distinction between a county for purposes of the Lieutenancy and a county for administrative purposes is not a new one: in some cases a county corporate, part of a county was appointed its own Lieutenant, the three Ridings of Yorkshire had been treated as three counties for Lieutenancy purposes since the 17th century; the Local Government Act 1888 established county councils to assume the administrative functions of Quarter Sessions in the counties.
It created new entities called "administrative counties". An administrative county comprised all of the county apart from the county boroughs: some traditional subdivisions of counties were constituted administrative counties, for instance the Soke of Peterborough in Northamptonshire and the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire; the Act further stipulated that areas that were part of an administrative county would be part of the county for all purposes. The greatest change was the creation of the County of London, made both an administrative county and a "county". Other differences were small and resulted from the constraint that urban sanitary districts were not permitted to straddle county boundaries. Apart from Yorkshire, counties that were subdivided continued to exist as ceremonial counties. For example, the administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk, along with the county borough of Ipswich, were considered to make up a single ceremonial county of Suffolk, the administrative county of the Isle of Wight was part of the ceremonial county of Hampshire.
The term "ceremonial county" is an anachronism—at the time they were shown on Ordnance Survey maps as "counties" or "geographical counties", were referred to in the Local Government Act 1888 as "counties". Apart from minor boundary revisions, these areas changed little until the 1965 creation of Greater London and of Huntingdon and Peterborough, which resulted in the abolition of the offices of Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex, Lord Lieutenant of the County of London, Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire and the creation of the Lord Lieutenant of Greater London and of the Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdon and Peterborough. In 1974, administrative counties and county boroughs were abolished, a major reform was instituted. At this time, Lieutenancy was redefined to use the new metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties directly. Following a further rearrangement in 1996, Cleveland and Worcester, Humberside were abolished; this led to a resurrection of a distinction between the local government counties and the ceremonial or geographical counties used for Lieutenancy, to the adoption of the term "ceremonial counties", which although not used in statute was used in the House of Commons before the arrangements coming into effect.
The County of Avon, formed in 1974 was split between Gloucestershire and Somerset, but its city of Bristol regained the status of a county in itself, which it had lost upon the formation of Avon. Cleveland was partitioned between North Durham. Hereford and Worcester was divided into the restored counties of Worcestershire. Humberside was split between a new ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire. Rutland was restored as a ceremonial county. Many county boroughs were re-established as "unitary authorities". Most ceremonial counties are therefore entities comprising local authority areas, as they were from 1889 to 1974; the Association of British Counties, a traditional counties lobbying organisation, has suggested that ceremonial counties be restored to their ancient boundaries. In present-day England, the ceremonial counties correspond to the shrieval counties, each with a high sheriff appointed; the Lieutenancies Act 1997 defines counties for the purposes of lieutenancies in terms of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties as well as Greater London and the Isles of Scilly.
Although the term is not used in the Act, these counties are sometimes known as "ceremonial counties". The counties are defined in Schedule 1, paragraphs 2–5 as amended — these amendments have not altered the actual areas covered by the counties as set out in 1997, only their composition in terms of local government areas, as a result of structural changes in local government; the following are the 48 ceremonial counties of England, as presently defined: Bedfordshire, consisting of Bedford, Central Bedfordshire and Luton Berkshire Bristol Buckinghamshire, including Milton Keynes Cambridgeshire, including Peterborough Cheshire, consisting of Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester and Warrington City of London Cornwall
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon. English speakers use GMT as a synonym for Coordinated Universal Time. For navigation, it is considered equivalent to UT1; the term GMT should not thus be used for technical purposes. Because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptical orbit and its axial tilt, noon GMT is the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian and reaches its highest point in the sky there; this event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, a discrepancy calculated by the equation of time. Noon GMT is the annual average moment of this event, which accounts for the word "mean" in "Greenwich Mean Time". Astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon, while for everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date.
Today Universal Time refers to UTC or UT1. The term "GMT" is used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others in Arab countries, such as the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and OSN, it is a term used in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Malaysia. As the United Kingdom grew into an advanced maritime nation, British mariners kept at least one chronometer on GMT to calculate their longitude from the Greenwich meridian, by convention considered to have longitude zero degrees, adopted in the International Meridian Conference of 1884. Synchronisation of the chronometer on GMT did not affect shipboard time, still solar time, but this practice, combined with mariners from other nations drawing from Nevil Maskelyne's method of lunar distances based on observations at Greenwich, led to GMT being used worldwide as a standard time independent of location.
Most time zones were based upon GMT, as an offset of a number of hours "ahead of GMT" or "behind GMT". Greenwich Mean Time was adopted across the island of Great Britain by the Railway Clearing House in 1847 and by all railway companies by the following year, from which the term "railway time" is derived, it was adopted for other purposes, but a legal case in 1858 held "local mean time" to be the official time. On 14 May 1880, a letter signed by "Clerk to Justices" appeared in The Times, stating that "Greenwich time is now kept throughout England, but it appears that Greenwich time is not legal time. For example, our polling booths were opened, say, at 8 13 and closed at 4 13 p.m." This was changed in 1880, when Greenwich Mean Time was adopted throughout the island of Great Britain. GMT was adopted on the Isle of Man in 1883, Jersey in 1898 and Guernsey in 1913. Ireland adopted GMT in 1916. Hourly time signals from Greenwich Observatory were first broadcast on 5 February 1924, rendering the time ball at the observatory redundant.
The daily rotation of the Earth is irregular and slows. On 1 January 1972, GMT was superseded as the international civil time standard by Coordinated Universal Time, maintained by an ensemble of atomic clocks around the world. Universal Time, a term introduced in 1928 represented mean time at Greenwich determined in the traditional way to accord with the defined universal day. Indeed the Greenwich meridian itself is not quite what it used to be—defined by "the centre of the transit instrument at the Observatory at Greenwich". Although that instrument still survives in working order, it is no longer in use and now the meridian of origin of the world's longitude and time is not defined in material form but from a statistical solution resulting from observations of all time-determination stations which the BIPM takes into account when co-ordinating the world's time signals; the line in the old observatory's courtyard today differs no more than a few metres from that imaginary line, now the prime meridian of the world.
GMT has been used with two different conventions for numbering hours. The long-standing astronomical convention dating from the work of Ptolemy, was to refer to noon as zero hours; this contrasted with the civil convention of referring to midnight as zero hours dating from the Roman Empire. The latter convention was adopted on and after 1 January 1925 for astronomical purposes, resulting in a discontinuity of 12 hours, or half a day; the instant, designated "December 31.5 GMT" in 1924 almanacs became "January 1.0 GMT" in 1925 almanacs. The term Greenwich Mean Astronomical Time was introduced to unambiguously refer to the previous noon-based astronomical convention for GMT. The