SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Reddit

Reddit is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, discussion website. Registered members submit content to the site such as links, text posts, images, which are voted up or down by other members. Posts are organized by subject into user-created boards called "subreddits", which cover a variety of topics like news, movies, video games, books, fitness and image-sharing. Submissions with more up-votes appear towards the top of their subreddit and, if they receive enough up-votes on the site's front page. Despite strict rules prohibiting harassment, Reddit's administrators spend considerable resources on moderating the site; as of July 2019, Reddit ranks as the No. 5 most visited website in the U. S. and No. 13 in the world, according to Alexa Internet, with 55% of its user base coming from the United States, followed by the United Kingdom at 7.4% and Canada at 5.8%. Reddit was founded by University of Virginia roommates Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian in 2005. Condé Nast Publications acquired the site in October 2006.

In 2011, Reddit became an independent subsidiary of Condé Nast's parent company, Advance Publications. In October 2014, Reddit raised $50 million in a funding round led by Sam Altman and including investors Marc Andreessen, Peter Thiel, Ron Conway, Snoop Dogg, Jared Leto, their investment valued the company at $500 million then. In July 2017, Reddit raised $200 million for a $1.8 billion valuation, with Advance Publications remaining the majority stakeholder. In February 2019, a $300 million funding round led by Tencent brought the company's valuation to $3 billion. Reddit is a website comprising user-generated content—including photos, videos and text-based posts—and discussions of this content in what is a bulletin board system; the name "Reddit" is a play-on-words with i.e.. "I read it on Reddit." As of 2018, there are 330 million Reddit users, called "redditors". The site's content is divided into categories or communities known on-site as "subreddits", of which there are more than 138,000 active communities.

As a network of communities, Reddit's core content consists of posts from its users. Users can comment on others' posts to continue the conversation. A key feature to Reddit is that users can cast positive or negative votes, called upvotes and downvotes for each post and comment on the site; the number of upvotes or downvotes determines the posts' visibility on the site, so the most popular content is displayed to the most people. Users can earn "karma" for their posts and comments, which reflects the user's standing within the community and their contributions to Reddit; the most popular posts from the site's numerous subreddits are visible on the front page to those who browse the site without an account. By default for those users, the front page will display the subreddit r/popular, featuring top-ranked posts across all of Reddit, excluding not-safe-for-work communities and others that are most filtered out by users; the subreddit r/all does not filter topics. Registered users who subscribe to subreddits see the top content from the subreddits to which they subscribe on their personal front pages.

Front-page rank—for both the general front page and for individual subreddits—is determined by a combination of factors, including the age of the submission, positive to negative feedback ratio, the total vote-count. As of 2019, there were about 430 million Reddit users, called "redditors". Registering an account with Reddit is free and does not require an email address. In addition to commenting and voting, registered users can create their own subreddit on a topic of their choosing. In Reddit style, usernames begin with "u/". For example, noteworthy redditors include u/Poem_for_your_sprog, who responds to messages across Reddit in verse, u/Shitty_Watercolour, who posts paintings in response to posts. Subreddits are overseen by moderators, Reddit users who earn the title by creating a subreddit or being promoted by a current moderator; these moderators are volunteers who manage their communities and enforce community-specific rules, remove posts and comments that violate these rules, work to keep discussions in their subreddit on topic.

Admins, by contrast, are paid to work for Reddit. Discussions on Reddit are organized into user-created areas of interest called "subreddits". There are about 138,000 active subreddits among a total of 1.2 million, as of July 2018. Subreddit names begin with "r/". For instance, r/science is a community devoted to discussing scientific topics and r/television is a community devoted to discussing TV shows. Meanwhile, r/popular features top-ranked posts across all of Reddit, excluding NSFW communities and others that are most filtered out by users; the subreddit r/all does not filter topics. In a 2014 interview with Memeburn, Erik Martin general manager of Reddit, remarked that their "approach is to give the community moderators or curators as much control as possible so that they can shape and cultivate the type of communities they want". Subreddits use themed variants of Reddit's alien mascot, Snoo, in the visual styling of their communities; as of December 16, 2019, the 10 most subscribed-to subreddits are Reddit Premium is a premium membership that allows users to view the site ad-free.

Users may be gifted coins if another user valued the comment or post due to humorous or high-quality content. Reddit Premium unlocks several features not accessible to regular users, such as comment highlighting, exclusive subreddits, a personalized Snoo

Douglas Dedge

Douglas Dedge was an American mixed martial artist, the first known American competitor to be fatally injured in an MMA fight and the first death in the modern era of professional MMA. The fatal bout occurred at the International Super Challenge in Kiev, Ukraine on March 16, 1998 against Yevgeni Zolotarev. Dedge attempted a takedown but took 14 punches to the head before tapping out, he stood up after the fight but immediately collapsed and died two days from severe brain injuries at the Kiev Institute of Neurosurgery. Friends said they witnessed Dedge black out during training for the fight; the limited-rules event was billed as a "Ukraine Against the World" contest and drew about 4,000 spectators. To field the opposition, labeled the "World Team," promoters circulated invitations on the Internet that guaranteed potential competitors travel and stay expenses, as well as $2,000 for fighting and an additional $3,000 to win. Dedge was one of three American fighters on the show. In the immediate aftermath of Dedge's death, Ultimate Fighting Championship co-founder Art Davie, fired by the organization at the end of 1997, wrote a letter to UFC owner Bob Meyrowitz asking him to "reconsider" the promotion of MMA in light of the Dedge incident.

Davie had just become affiliated with kickboxing promotion K-1 and became vice-president of K-1 USA. Dave Meltzer in the Wrestling Observer Newsletter commented that Davie's motives for writing the letter "can and will be questioned greatly." Meyrowitz, speaking for the UFC, said the death was "an example of why we have been asking for regulation of this sport by athletic commissions in the U. S. as well as internationally."The German industrial project KiEw used samples from a report about Dedge's death in their song Feierabend in Kiev. Dedge was from Chipley and had founded an MMA school in Enterprise, Alabama, he had five children. Fatalities in mixed martial arts contests Sherdog Fight Finder Douglas Dedge at Find a Grave

U2 (Berlin U-Bahn)

U2 is a line of the Berlin U-Bahn. The U2 line starts at Pankow S-Bahn station, runs through the eastern city centre to Potsdamer Platz, the western city centre and to the Ruhleben terminal station; the U2 has a length of 20.7 kilometers. Together with the U1, U3, U4 lines, it was part of the early Berlin U-Bahn network built before 1914; the line between Potsdamer Platz and Zoologischer Garten was the western section of the "stem line", Berlin's first U-Bahn line opened in 1902. The line starts to the west of central Berlin at Ruhleben and runs on an embankment between Rominter Allee and the railway to Spandau. On the bend approaching Olympischen Straße, the line descends into tunnel to run beneath that road. Subsequently, the U2 swings onto Reichsstrasse to Theodor-Heuss-Platz, where it runs in a curve to Kaiserdamm. Under Kaiserdamm, which becomes Bismarckstraße at Sophie Charlotte-Platz, the tunnel runs straight to Ernst-Reuter-Platz. Here again, it swings to the southeast, following the course of Hardenberger Straße towards Zoologischer Garten station.

In the tunnel, it passes the foundations of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church on a tight arc and follows Tauentzienstraße to Wittenbergplatz where the line emerges to an elevated section via a ramp east of the Kleiststraße/Courbierestraße intersection. The elevated railway reaches its full height at Nollendorfplatz station where all four lines of the small-profile network meet; the underground part of the station has four tracks. The U2 continues above ground to the east of Bülowstraße. After that the U2 makes a curve over a long viaduct at the southernmost point of the line, passes through Gleisdreieck station and runs straight across the Landwehr Canal and returns underground between Mendelssohn Bartholdy-Park and Potsdamer Platz stations. While the elevated railway company intended to continue the line along Leipziger Straße, it was not permitted to build this route and instead it continues instead along Mohrenstraße, Markgrafenstraße and Niederwallstraße to the River Spree in Berlin Mitte.

After passing Märkisches Museum station, it goes under the River Spree in a tunnel, runs through Klosterstraße to Alexanderplatz station. After leaving Alexanderplatz, the line turns under Rosa-Luxemburg-Straße and through Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz station; the line runs north underneath Schönhauser Allee and through Senefelderplatz station. Before reaching Eberswalder Straße station, the line emerges from tunnel and on to an elevated viaduct through to Schönhauser Allee station, an interchange with the S-Bahn. From there the line runs beyond the former city limits and the elevated railway descends again into a tunnel to Vinetastraße before reaching the terminus at Pankow. Since the introduction of the schematic line network plans at the Berlin subway, at least parts of today's line U2 always had the colour red; when letters were introduced as a line name after the First World War, the small profile network received the letters "A" and "B". The inner city route, more important than the older route through Kreuzberg, became line A, as did the two western branches to Charlottenburg and Dahlem.

The routes from Kurfürstendamm and Schöneberg through Kreuzberg to Warschauer Straße were given the letter "B" and the colour code green. To distinguish the branches in the western part of the line, the letters were supplemented by Roman numbers, the Charlottenburg route was thus the line AI. From 1966, the designation of the lines operated by the Berlin public transport companies in West Berlin was converted to Arabic numbers; each line was now operated independently and without branching. The line 1 now ran from Ruhleben through Charlottenburg to Kreuzberg, while the previous AII became the line 2; the severed eastern line section, used since 1949 by the BVG East / BVB, retained the "A" line designation unchanged, as well as the red colour code. On 9 January 1984, the BVG took over the S-Bahn lines in West Berlin managed by Deutsche Reichsbahn; the marking of the U-Bahn lines operated by the BVG changed again because the U-Bahn and S-Bahn lines were now operated in parallel. To better distinguish the two networks, the respective Arabic numbers, used since 1966, were prefixed with the letter "U" to provide a line number.

According to the model of public transport networks, which were used in various cities they were designated as U1 to U9 and the acquired S-Bahn routes were preceded by "S". With the merging of Berlin in the context of German reunification and the reconstruction of the disused Wittenbergplatz–Mohrenstraße section in 1993, the BVG decided to swap the western branches of lines U1 and U2, which meet at Wittenbergplatz; the reunited former AI line has since been operated under the new name "U2", but using the traditional red line colour as used in the separate parts of the city. The increasing traffic problems in Berlin at the end of the 19th century led to a search for new efficient means of transport. Inspired by Werner von Siemens, numerous suggestions were made for overhead conveyors, such as a suspension railway, as was built in Wuppertal, or a tube railway as was built in London. Siemens and some prominent Berliners submitted a plan for an elevated railway on the model of New York; these people opposed Siemens' suggestion of building an overhead railway in the major street of Friedrichstraße, but the city of Berlin opposed underground railways, since it feared damage to one of its new sewers.

A