Waterloo, New South Wales
Waterloo is an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Waterloo is located 3 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney. Waterloo is surrounded by the suburbs of Redfern and Darlington to the north and Alexandria to the west, Rosebery to the south, Moore Park and Kensington to the east. Waterloo took its name from the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, when Allied and Prussian forces under the Duke of Wellington and Blücher defeated the French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte. In the 1820s Waterloo began supporting industrial operations including the Fisher and Duncan Paper Mill and the Waterloo Flour Mills owned by William Hutchinson and Daniel Cooper. William Hutchinson, superintendent of convicts and public works, had been granted 1,400 acres of land in 1823, he sold Waterloo Farm to Solomon Levey. Cooper bought out Levey's share and on his death the Waterloo Estate passed onto his nephew named Daniel Cooper, the first speaker of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly.
Waterloo is a working class region. Since early 2000s, the region has undergone some degree of gentrification with a rising business district focusing on technology-oriented firms and the development of more green space such as parks. By 2006, median individual income in Waterloo was higher than the Australian average; the suburb maintains numerous public housing apartments. Waterloo is a popular suburb to live for Sydney's large Gay and Lesbian population due to its closeness to nearby suburbs of Surry Hills and Darlinghurst; the Waterloo Urban Conservation Area is a residential area of predominantly 19th century terrace and cottage housing. New development and redevelopment in this area is encouraged to be sympathetic to the existing heritage style. Green Square is a district in the south and east of the suburb including the suburbs of Waterloo and Zetland, being redeveloped, it involves an urban renewal program which has seen many industrial buildings redeveloped or replaced by new residential and commercial developments.
The area adjacent to South Dowling Street contains many high rise apartment buildings with retail space at ground level. Waterloo is serviced by State Transit routes to the Sydney CBD. Green Square station, on the Airport line of the Sydney Trains network, is located in the south-west corner of the suburb. Redfern railway station is located close to the north-west corner of the suburb; the very-fast Sydney Metro line is under construction and will include a station and major interchange at the west side of Waterloo, due to open in 2024. There will be large commercial and residential redevelopment to service the new metro. Waterloo hosts the city campus of Hillsong Church. Other churches include Grace City Anglican Church and Parish of Our Lady of Mount Carmel Catholic Church, Waterloo Congregational Church, South Sydney Uniting Church and Waterloo Salvation Army. At the 2016 census, Waterloo had a population of 14,616. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.0% of the population.
35.3% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were China 13.7%, England 4.2%, New Zealand 2.6%, South Korea 2.0% and United States of America 1.6%. 47.5% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 12.7%, Russian 3.3%, Cantonese 3.2%, Spanish 2.0% and Korean 2.0%. The largest religions were Catholicism and Buddhism. Furthermore, 41.6% of the population marked no religion, well above the national average. 89.7% of residences were units, well above the rest of Australia. Furthermore, 70.8% of dwellings were rented, compared to 30.9% in Australia as a whole. The Waterloo Skate Park, is a modern skate park and the first of its kind to copy the urban streetscape layout of popular skate spots like Martin Place and Cathedral Square in Sydney; the park is located next to Waterloo Oval and the South Sydney Youth Services building on Elizabeth Street. Elaine Nile, politician Local Residents Group Local Community Centre Waterloo Guide - Sydney.com
American sweetgum known as American storax, hazel pine, redgum, satin-walnut, star-leaved gum, alligatorwood, or sweetgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar native to warm temperate areas of eastern North America and tropical montane regions of Mexico and Central America. Sweet gum is one of the main valuable forest trees in the southeastern United States, is a popular ornamental tree in temperate climates, it is recognizable by the combination of its five-pointed star-shaped leaves and its hard, spiked fruits. It is classified in the plant family Altingiaceae, but was considered a member of the Hamamelidaceae; this plant's genus name Liquidambar was first given by Linnaeus in 1753 from liquidus and the Arabic ambar, amber, in allusion to the fragrant terebinthine juice or gum which exudes from the tree. Its specific epithet styraciflua is an old generic name meaning "flowing with storax"; the name "storax" has long been confusingly applied to the aromatic gum or resin of this species, that of L. orientalis of Turkey, to the resin better known as benzoin from various tropical trees in the genus Styrax.
The sweetgum has a Nahuatl name, which translates to tree that gives pine resin from ocotl, cuahuitl, which refers to the use of the tree's resin. The common name "sweet gum" refers to the species' "sweetish gum", contrasting with the black gum, only distantly related, with which the sweet gum overlaps broadly in range; the species is known as the "red gum", for its reddish bark. The earliest known published record of Liquidambar styraciflua is in a work by Spanish naturalist Francisco Hernández published posthumously in 1615, in which he describes the species as a large tree producing a fragrant gum resembling liquid amber, whence the genus name Liquidambar. In John Ray's Historia Plantarum it is called Styrax liquida. However, the first mention of any use of the amber is described by Juan de Grijalva, the nephew of the governor of Cuba, in the year 1517. Juan de Grijalva tells of gift exchanges with the Mayas "who presented them with, among other things, hollow reeds of about a span long filled with dried herbs and sweet-smelling liquid amber which, when lighted in the way shown by the natives, diffused an agreeable odour."
The species was introduced into Europe in 1681 by John Banister, the missionary collector sent out by Bishop Compton, who planted it in the palace gardens at Fulham in London, England. An ancestor of Liquidambar styraciflua is known from Tertiary-aged fossils in Alaska and the mid-continental plateau of North America, much further north than Liquidambar now grows. A similar plant is found in Miocene deposits of the Tertiary of Europe. Sweetgum is one of the most common hardwoods in the southeastern United States, where it occurs in lowlands from southwestern Connecticut south to central Florida, west to Illinois, southern Missouri, eastern Texas, but not colder highland areas of Appalachia or the Midwestern states; the species occurs in Mexico from southern Nuevo León south to Chiapas, as well as in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. In Mexico and Central America, it is a characteristic plant of cloud forests, growing at middle elevations in various mountainous areas where the climate is humid and more temperate.
The US government distribution maps for this species are incorrect concerning the southern limit of distribution in Florida. This species occurs abundantly at Highlands Hammock State Park, Highlands County, FL, southwest of Lake Okeechobee. Grown as an ornamental tree in Australia, Liquidambar styraciflua has a distribution on mainland Australia from Victoria all the way up to the Atherton tablelands in far North Queensland in'tropical' climates. One of the dominant deciduous trees planted throughout subtropical Brisbane. Liquidambar styraciflua is a medium-sized to large tree, growing anywhere from 50–70 feet in cultivation and up to 150 feet in the wild, with a trunk up 2–3 feet in diameter, on average. Trees may live to 400 years; the tree is a symmetrical shape and crowns into an egg shape when the branches get too heavy after its first two years of cultivation. Another distinctive feature of the tree is the peculiar appearance of its small twigs; the bark attaches itself to these in plates edgewise instead of laterally, a piece of the leafless branch with the aid of a little imagination takes on a reptilian form.
The bark is a light brown tinged with red and sometimes gray with dark streaks and weighs 37 lbs. per cubic foot. It is fissured with scaly ridges; the branches carry layers of cork. The branchlets are pithy, many-angled, at first covered with rusty hairs becoming red brown, gray or dark brown; as an ornamental tree, the species has a drawback—the branches may have ridges or "wings" that cause more surface area, increasing weight of snow and ice accumulation on the tree. However, the wood is difficult to season; the leaves have five pointed palmate lobes. They have three distinct bundle scars, they are long and broad, with a 6–10 cm petiole. The rich dark green, shiny, star-shaped leaves turn brilliant orange and purple colors in the autumn; this autumnal coloring has been characterized as not a flame, but a conflagration. Its reds and yellows compare to that of the maples, in addition it has the dark p
Strawberry Hills, New South Wales
Strawberry Hills is an unofficial urban locality in Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Strawberry Hills is located east of Central railway station, within the suburbs of Surry Hills and Redfern which are part of the local government area of the City of Sydney, its name reflects the area's early use as farmland. The neighbourhood features mixed commercial/residential & business developments with medium to high density residential developments, including terrace housing and newer apartment blocks. Strawberry Hills is the home of a number of significant cultural organisations including Opera Australia, The Australia Council for the Arts, numerous notable entertainment venues including the Belvoir Street Theatre and the Strawberry Hills Hotel, a renowned traditional Australian jazz venue located on Elizabeth Street; the area known as Strawberry Hill, was named after the hill centred under'Northcott Place' at Surry Hills. Strawberry Hill was part of a 70-acre land grant to John Palmer in 1794.
Facing substantial debts, his holdings were subdivided into large blocks for the Provost Marshal's Sale of 1814. John Connell farmed the largest of these blocks south of Devonshire Street, he sold the property to Thomas Horton James, who subdivided the block as the Strawberry Hill Estate in 1832. Strawberry Hill was a huge mound of sand, made mobile in the 1820s by the destruction of undergrowth by woodcutters, turfcutters and quarriers. During the 1830s the sand began to advance on the new Strawberry Hill Estate. Unregulated and unrestrained low-cost housing developed in the area. By the 1870s the area was well known for its poor sanitary conditions. After the construction of the Central Railway Station and associated resumptions and demolition, industry became established in Surry Hills, with warehouses springing up in streets like Marshall Street. Inner-city housing stock became depleted. A cycling velodrome and associated sporting facility was built on Strawberry Hill in the early 20th century.
After World War II, regeneration of Surry Hills as a residential area began with an influx of migrants and change of policy. The New South Wales Housing Commission demolished the original housing stock and built three storey medium-density housing on Devonshire and Clisdell Streets. By 1961 the fifteen-storey tower "Northcott Place" was completed on Strawberry Hill
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities; the university is colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington; the university comprises 9 faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. In 2018-19, the QS World University Rankings ranked Sydney as one of the world's top 25 most reputable universities, its graduates as the top 5 most employable in the world and first in Australia. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty; the university has educated seven Australian prime ministers, two Governors-General of Australia, nine state governors and territory administrators, 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices.
Sydney has produced 110 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars. The University of Sydney is a member of the Group of Eight, CEMS, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. In 1848, in the New South Wales Legislative Council, William Wentworth, a graduate of the University of Cambridge and Charles Nicholson, a medical graduate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, proposed a plan to expand the existing Sydney College into a larger university. Wentworth argued that a state secular university was imperative for the growth of a society aspiring towards self-government, that it would provide the opportunity for "the child of every class, to become great and useful in the destinies of his country", it would take two attempts on Wentworth's behalf, before the plan was adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, on 24 September 1850 and was assented on 1 October 1850 by Sir Charles Fitzroy. Two years the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry and experimental physics was John Smith. On 27 February 1858 the university received its Royal Charter from Queen Victoria, giving degrees conferred by the university rank and recognition equal to those given by universities in the United Kingdom. By 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. In 1858, the passage of the electoral act provided for the university to become a constituency for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as soon as there were 100 graduates of the university holding higher degrees eligible for candidacy; this seat in the Parliament of New South Wales was first filled in 1876, but was abolished in 1880 one year after its second member, Edmund Barton, who became the first Prime Minister of Australia, was elected to the Legislative Assembly. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university, which received a sum of £200,000 in 1889.
This was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created: anatomy. A significant figure from 1927 to 1958, termed'Sydney's best known academic', was the Professor of Philosophy at the University John Anderson. A native of Scotland, Anderson's controversial views as a self-proclaimed Atheist and advocate of free thought in all subjects raised the ire of many to the point of being censured by the state parliament in 1943; the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities. At one stage, newspaper reporters descended on the university to cover brawls, secret memos and a walk-out by David Armstrong, a respected philosopher who held the Challis Chair of Philosophy from 1959 to 1991, after students at one of his lectures demanded a course on feminism.
The philosophy department split over the issue to become the Traditional and Modern Philosophy Department, headed by Armstrong and following a more traditional approach to philosophy, the General Philosophy Department, which follows the French continental approach. Under the terms of the Higher Education Act 1989 the following bodies were incorporated into the university in 1990: Sydney Branch of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music Cumberland College of Health Sciences Sydney College of the Arts of the Institute of the Arts Sydney Institute of Education of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Institute of Nursing Studies of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Guild Centre of the Sydney College of Advanced Education. Prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College; the Orange Agricultural College was transferred to the University of New England under the Act, but transferred to the University of Sydney in 1994, as part of the reforms to the University of New England undertaken by the University of New England Act 1993 and the Southern Cross University Act 1993.
In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University. In February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St John's College to develop the Sydney
Gentrification is a process of renovating deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents. This is a common and controversial topic in urban planning. Gentrification can improve the material quality of a neighborhood, while potentially forcing relocation of current, established residents and businesses, causing them to move from a gentrified area, seeking lower cost housing and stores. Gentrification shifts a neighborhood's racial/ethnic composition and average household income by developing new, more expensive housing and improved resources. Conversations about gentrification have evolved, as many in the social-scientific community have questioned the negative connotations associated with the word gentrification. One example is that gentrification can lead to community displacement for lower-income families in gentrifying neighborhoods, as property values and rental costs rise; the gentrification process is the result of increasing attraction to an area by people with higher incomes spilling over from neighboring cities, towns, or neighborhoods.
Further steps are increased investments in a community and the related infrastructure by real estate development businesses, local government, or community activists and resulting economic development, increased attraction of business, lower crime rates. In addition to these potential benefits, gentrification can lead to population migration and displacement. However, some view the fear of displacement, dominating the debate about gentrification, as hindering discussion about genuine progressive approaches to distribute the benefits of urban redevelopment strategies; the term gentrification has come to refer to a multi-faceted phenomenon that can be defined in different ways. Gentrification is "a complex process involving physical improvement of the housing stock, housing tenure change from renting to owning, price rises and the displacement or replacement of the working-class population by the new middle class. Historians say that gentrification took place in ancient Rome and in Roman Britain, where large villas were replacing small shops by the 3rd century, AD.
The word gentrification derives from gentry—which comes from the Old French word genterise, "of gentle birth" and "people of gentle birth". In England, Landed gentry denoted the social class. Although the term was used in English in the 1950s - for instance by Sidney Perutz and by William Xenophon Weed and Oscar Le Roy Warren, British sociologist Ruth Glass coined the term "gentrification" in 1964 to describe the influx of middle-class people displacing lower-class worker residents in urban neighborhoods. Shabby, modest mews and cottages—two rooms up and two down—have been taken over, when their leases have expired, have become elegant, expensive residences... Once this process of'gentrification' starts in a district it goes on until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed. In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report Health Effects of Gentrification defines the real estate concept of gentrification as "the transformation of neighborhoods from low value to high value.
This change has the potential to cause displacement of long-time residents and businesses... when long-time or original neighborhood residents move from a gentrified area because of higher rents and property taxes. Gentrification is a housing and health issue that affects a community's history and culture and reduces social capital, it shifts a neighborhood's characteristics, e.g. racial-ethnic composition and household income, by adding new stores and resources in run-down neighborhoods."Scholars and pundits have applied a variety of definitions to gentrification since 1964, some oriented around gentrifiers, others oriented around the displaced, some a combination of both. The first category include Hackworth's definition "the production of space for progressively more affluent users"; the second category include Kasman's definition "the reduction of residential and retail space affordable to low-income residents". The final category includes Rose, who describes gentrification as a process "in which members of the'new middle class' move into and physically and culturally reshape working-class inner city neighbourhoods".
In the Brookings Institution report Dealing with Neighborhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices, Maureen Kennedy and Paul Leonard say that "the term'gentrification' is both imprecise and quite politically charged", suggesting its redefinition as "the process by which higher income households displace lower income residents of a neighborhood, changing the essential character and flavour of that neighborhood", so distinguishing it from the different socio-economic process of "neighborhood revitalization", although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. German geographers have a more distanced view on gentrification. Actual gentrification is seen as a mere symbolic issue happening in a low number of places and blocks, the symbolic value and visibility in public discourse being higher than actual migration trends. E.g. Gerhard Hard assumes that urban flight is still more im
Eveleigh Railway Workshops
The Eveleigh Railway Workshops is a heritage-listed former New South Wales Government Railways yards and railway workshops and now venue hire, public housing and technology park located at Great Southern and Western railway, City of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1882 to 1897 by George Fishburn, it is known as Eveleigh Railway Yards, Eveleigh Precinct and Australian Technology Park. The property is owned by an agency of the Government of New South Wales, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The workshops are considered to have world heritage significance by curators of the Smithsonian Institution; the workshops were conceived by Engineer-in-Charge John Whitton to build and maintain the infrastructure for the railway system, including the safe working systems and some of the perway systems. However, their main tasks were the maintenance and repair of locomotives and railway stock and the manufacture of rolling stock such as wagons and passenger carriages.
At the time there were no other facilities in NSW for the construction of locomotives and the workshops became the largest railway workshops in the southern hemisphere and operated for over 100 years. The workshops were set up on both the north and the south sides of the main western and southern railway lines, which led to a duplication of some workshop functions, but the heavy work such as forging and casting of ferrous and non-ferrous metal, was to be carried out on the locomotive side; when the workshops were established most of the rolling stock had a wooden chassis, so the separation of services was not a major impediment to production. The site for the Eveleigh railway yards was chosen in 1875, resumed in 1878 and the compensation price settled in 1880. A₤100,000 was paid for 26 hectares of land. Clearance began two years later. Much work went into the design and construction of the buildings because of the sandy nature of the soil. In the meantime, Eveleigh Station had been opened in 1878.
In 1906 it was renamed Redfern Station. The former Redfern railway station was renamed as Sydney Terminal; the Engine Running Shed, now demolished, was the first building completed. Cowdery was criticised for the extravagance of this building, it comprised each covering seven "roads" without intervening columns. George Fishburn was awarded the contract for bays 1-4 of the Locomotive Workshops in 1884 and work was commenced soon after, they were opened in 1887. Workshops 5-15 were opened in the year; this initial building phase included the construction of bays 16-25 of the Carriage Sheds, the Paint Shop, a General Store and various smaller buildings and the associated turntables and rail lines. Development continued into the 1890s; the workshops were open every day of the week until 1892 when union negotiations led to the workshops being closed on Saturdays. The residential development of the area proceeded in the 1870s and 1880s around the railway workshop and was stimulated by the need for housing generated by the workshops.
The names of many early settlers are continued in the street names in the area, including Eveleigh, many of the property boundaries and former watercourses are reflected in street patterns. At the time of the development of the railway workshops, Darlington School was built, as were other municipal buildings since demolished for the university. For some time Eveleigh had its own gas works. However, in 1901 with the establishment of Ultimo Power Station which belonged to the Rail and Tramway Department, electric power was made available to the workshops. Shortly after work commenced on the conversion of the rope-driven cranes to electric motor drives. Work commenced on the replacement of the steam engines at the south end of the workshops by powerful electric motors. This, was not completed until 1914. In 1907 the Commissioners for Railways decided to begin the manufacture of new locomotives at Eveleigh and the New Locomotive Shop was designed and constructed for this purpose. A Public Works Annual Report in 1915 concluded that the Eveleigh Works were too congested and recommended the establishment of a new locomotive and repairing works.
Adding to this situation, strained conditions led to eight strikes at Eveleigh between July 1915 and July 1917. In 1916 James Fraser, Acting Chief Commissioner, addressed workers at Eveleigh on the introduction of the Taylor card system; the introduction of this system on 2 August 1917 led to an 82-day general strike. It began when 1100 men struck at 3000 at Eveleigh. Volunteers kept trains running including boys from Newington and SHORE independent schools at Eveleigh; this all took place during the World War I which brought declining wages. The rail yards continued to develop. Additional land was resumed to the south-west and 230 houses were demolished to allow for the construction of the Alexandria Goods Yard sometime around 1917. During 1925 the manufacture of new locomotives ceased; as a result of World War II, bays 5-6 were cleared of machinery in 1940 and plans drawn up for the installation of equipment supplied by the Department of Defence for the manufacture of 25lb field gun-shells. A mezzanine floor was added to Bay 5 in 1941 and the machinery for shell manufacture installed by February.
Bay 8 was altered for an ammunitions annex. By 1943 Bay 8 had been abandoned by the Department of Defence. Production of the shells ceased in 1945 and the construction of new locomotives was reintroduced; this post-war locomo
Central railway station, Sydney
The Central railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located at the southern end of the Sydney central business district in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The station is the largest and busiest railway station in New South Wales and serves as a major transport interchange for NSW TrainLink inter-city rail services, Sydney Trains commuter rail services, Sydney light rail services, State Transit bus services, private coach transport services. Abbreviated as Central or Central station, the station is known as Sydney Terminal and Central Railway Stations Group and Central Railway; the property is owned by an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999, it recorded 11.35 million passenger movements in 2013. Central station occupies a large city block separating Haymarket, Surry Hills, the central business district, bounded by Railway Square and Pitt Street in the west, Eddy Avenue in the north, Elizabeth Street in the east and the Devonshire Street Tunnel in the south.
Parts of the station and marshalling yards extend as far south as Cleveland Street are located on the site of the former Devonshire Street Cemetery. There have been three terminal stations in Sydney. Although the Sydney Railway Company first applied to the government for four blocks of land between Hay and Cleveland Streets in 1849, the Surveyor General favoured Grose Farm, now the grounds of The University of Sydney, it was less costly to develop. The Company exchanged land in the first and third blocks, between Hay and Devonshire Streets, for an increased area of eight hectares in the fourth block, the Government Paddocks, between Devonshire and Cleveland Streets. Hence the site of the first Sydney railway terminus was located here from 1855; the original Sydney station was opened on 26 September 1855 in an area known as Cleveland Fields. This station, called Sydney Terminal, had Devonshire Street as its northern boundary, it was but unofficially called Redfern station, while at that time the present Redfern station was called Eveleigh.
The first and second Sydney Terminals were never located in Redfern, being to the north of Cleveland Street, Redfern's northern boundary. When this station became inadequate for the traffic it carried, a new station was built in 1874 on the same site and called Sydney Terminal; this was a brick building with two platforms. It grew to 14 platforms before it was replaced by the present-day station to the north of Devonshire Street; the new station was built on a site occupied by the Devonshire Street Cemetery, a convent, a female refuge, a police barracks, a parsonage, a Benevolent Society. The remains exhumed from the cemetery were re-interred at several other Sydney cemeteries including Rookwood and Waverley cemeteries. Bodies were moved to Botany by flat cars. In major metropolitan areas the rail terminus tended to be located within the inner core of the city; the site of the first and second station termini was inconveniently located for the city. A horse-bus service operated from the station to the city, both Engineer-in-Chief, John Whitton, Chief Commissioner for Railways, B. H. Martindale, recognised the urgency of a city rail extension.
In 1877 John Young, a prominent Sydney builder and local politician proposed a scheme to provide a circular city extension to the railway. The route included stations at Oxford Street, William Street and Woolloomooloo in the east, Circular Quay Dawes Point and a line parallel to Darling Harbour in the west. John Whitton designed a grand city terminus at the corner of Hunter and Castlereagh Streets two years later. Neither of these schemes eventuated. In 1897 Norman Selfe drew up a scheme for the gradual enlargement and extension of the railway to the northern end of the city and in the same year Railway Commissioner, E. M. G. Eddy, proposed a terminal city station at the corner of Elizabeth Street and St James' Road; the route of the latter was the same as that for 1879, the new site for the terminus included half of the northern end of Hyde Park. Although 6 hectares of the burial ground in Devonshire Street was offered as compensation, public sentiment still opposed the loss of Hyde Park; the Royal Commission in 1897 again considered the city railway extension because of dangerous congestion at Redfern and recommended using Hyde Park.
After an investigative trip overseas, Henry Deane, Engineer-in-Chief, prepared alternative proposals for a new railway terminal for the government in 1900. The second scheme proposal called for the resumption of the Devonshire Street cemeteries, but this was cheaper and less contentious than the acquisition of Hyde Park, it was the second scheme, adopted. When the third station was built in 1906, it moved closer to the city, it fronted Garden Road, realigned to from Eddy Avenue. If Belmore Park is included, all the land now occupied by the railway at Central and Redfern coincides with the Company's original selection of four blocks between Hay and Cleveland Streets; the present station was opened on 4 August 1906 and opening for passengers on 5 August 1906. The new station included the previous Mortuary railway station used to transport funeral parties to Rookwood Cemetery; the last train departed platform 5 of the 1874 station at midnight. During the remainder of that night, the passenger concourse was demolished and the line extended through the old station into the new station.
The Western Mail arrived at 05:50 on 5 August 1906 at