The Bishops' Wars of 1639 and 1640 are viewed as the starting point of the 1639–1652 Wars of the Three Kingdoms that involved the whole of the British Isles. They originated in long-standing disputes over control and governance of the Church of Scotland or kirk that went back to the 1580s; these came to a head in 1637 when Charles I attempted to impose uniform practices between the kirk and the Church of England. Charles favoured an episcopal system, or rule by bishops, while the majority of Scots advocated a presbyterian system, without bishops; the 1638 National Covenant pledged to oppose these'innovations' and the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland voted to expel bishops from the kirk. When Charles resorted to force, the Covenanters defeated Royalist forces in Aberdeenshire in 1639 an English army in 1640, leaving them in control of Scotland. James VI claimed his authority as monarch and head of the Church came directly from God, the so-called theory of Divine Right, not subject to'interference' by either Parliament or church leaders.
He reintroduced episcopacy to the Church of Scotland in 1584 and when he became King of England in 1603, a unified Church of Scotland and England governed by bishops became the first step in his vision of a centralised, Unionist state. However, while both were nominally Episcopalian, the two were different in governance and doctrine. Calvinists believed a'well-ordered' monarchy was part of God's plan; the Covenanter view was best summarised by Andrew Melville, who told James in 1598. Chryst Jesus the King and this Kingdome the Kirk, whose subject King James the Saxt is.' Royalists tended to be'traditionalists' in religion and politics but there were many other factors, including nationalist allegiance to the kirk, individual motives were complex. Many Covenanters would end up fighting on both sides, such as Montrose. In 1618, the General Assembly reluctantly approved the Five Articles of Perth; when Charles I succeeded his father in 1625, unfamiliarity with Scotland made him more reliant on the bishops the Archbishop of St Andrews, prone to sudden decisions.
The 1625 Act of Revocation cancelled all grants of land made by the Crown since 1540 without consultation, alienating much of the Scottish nobility and clergy. While Catholicism itself was now confined to parts of the aristocracy and Gaelic-speaking areas in the Highlands and Islands, fear of'Popery' remained widespread. Many Scots studied such as Montauban. Scots fought in or were affected by the Thirty Years' War, a religious conflict that caused an estimated 8 million deaths and remains one of the most destructive conflicts in human history. Concerns were reinforced by Charles marrying a French Catholic, Henrietta Maria, employing senior Catholic advisors like the Earl of Portland and accepting the first Papal envoy since the Reformation. Against this background, a new Book of Canons in 1636 replaced John Knox's Book of Discipline and excommunicated anyone who denied the King's supremacy in church matters; when this was followed in 1637 by a new Book of Common Prayer, the result was anger and widespread rioting, said to have been set off with the throwing of a stool by Jenny Geddes during a service in St Giles Cathedral.
The kirk itself seemed under threat and in February 1638, representatives from all sections of Scottish society agreed a National Covenant, pledging resistance to liturgical'innovations.' Support for the Covenant was widespread except in Aberdeen and Banff, heartland of Royalist and Episcopalian resistance for the next 60 years. The Marquess of Argyll and six members of Charles' Scottish Privy Council backed the Covenant and in December the General Assembly expelled bishops from the kirk, putting it on a full Presbyterian basis. Charles resorted to military force to assert his authority but refused to obtain funding by recalling Parliament, instead relying on his own resources; the plan consisted of three parts. Lastly, an Irish army under Randal MacDonnell, Earl of Antrim would invade western Scotland and join forces with the MacDonalds and other Royalist clans. Preparations were hampered by lack of funds and enthusiasm for the war in England, where many were sympathetic to the Covenanter cause.
The Irish element never materialised and Huntly's men withdrew when confronted outside Turriff by a Covenanter force under Montrose, who occupied Aberdeen in March, leaving Hamilton nowhere to land. In April, George Ogilvy, Lord Banff assumed command of Royalist forces in Aberdeenshire and temporarily re-occupied Aberdeen after two minor engagements, one at Towie Barclay Castle, where David Prat became the first casualty of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Trot of Turriff.'The English army mustered at the border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed totalled some 15,000 men but the vast majority were untrained conscripts from the Northern tr
Frank Vincent Zappa was an American musician, composer and filmmaker. His work is characterized by nonconformity, free-form improvisation, sound experiments, musical virtuosity, satire of American culture. In a career spanning more than 30 years, Zappa composed rock, jazz, jazz fusion and musique concrète works, produced all of the 60-plus albums that he released with his band the Mothers of Invention and as a solo artist. Zappa directed feature-length films and music videos, designed album covers, he is considered one of the stylistically diverse rock musicians of his era. As a self-taught composer and performer, Zappa's diverse musical influences led him to create music, sometimes difficult to categorize. While in his teens, he acquired a taste for 20th-century classical composers such as Edgard Varèse, Igor Stravinsky, Anton Webern, Halim El-Dabh, along with 1950s rhythm and blues and doo-wop music, he began writing classical music in high school, while at the same time playing drums in rhythm and blues bands switching to electric guitar.
His 1966 debut album with the Mothers of Invention, Freak Out!, combined songs in conventional rock and roll format with collective improvisations and studio-generated sound collages. He continued this eclectic and experimental approach, irrespective of whether the fundamental format was rock, jazz or classical. Zappa's output is unified by a conceptual continuity he termed "Project/Object", with numerous musical phrases and characters reappearing across his albums, his lyrics reflected his iconoclastic views of established social and political processes and movements humorously so, he has been described as the "godfather" of comedy rock. He was a strident critic of mainstream education and organized religion, a forthright and passionate advocate for freedom of speech, self-education, political participation and the abolition of censorship. Unlike many other rock musicians of his generation, he disapproved of drugs, but supported their decriminalization and regulation. During Zappa's lifetime, he was a productive and prolific artist with a controversial critical standing.
He had some commercial success in Europe, worked as an independent artist for most of his career. He remains a major influence on composers, his honors include his 1995 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the 1997 Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2000, he was ranked number 36 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked him at number 71 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", in 2011 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". Zappa was born on December 1940 in Baltimore, Maryland, his mother, Rosemarie was of French ancestry. Frank, the eldest of four children, was raised in an Italian-American household where Italian was spoken by his grandparents; the family moved because his father, a chemist and mathematician, worked in the defense industry. After a time in Florida in the 1940s, the family returned to Maryland, where Zappa's father worked at the Edgewood Arsenal chemical warfare facility of the Aberdeen Proving Ground run by the U.
S. Army. Due to their home's proximity to the arsenal, which stored mustard gas, gas masks were kept in the home in case of an accident; this living arrangement had a profound effect on Zappa, references to germs, germ warfare and the defense industry occur throughout his work. Zappa was sick as a child, suffering from asthma and sinus problems. A doctor treated his sinusitis by inserting a pellet of radium into each of Zappa's nostrils. At the time, little was known about the potential dangers of small amounts of therapeutic radiation, although it has since been claimed that nasal radium treatment has causal connections to cancer, no studies have provided significant enough evidence to confirm this. Nasal imagery and references appear in his music and lyrics, as well as in the collage album covers created by his long-time collaborator Cal Schenkel. Zappa believed his childhood diseases might have been due to exposure to mustard gas, released by the nearby chemical warfare facility, his health worsened when he lived in Baltimore.
In 1952, his family relocated for reasons of health to Monterey, where his father taught metallurgy at the Naval Postgraduate School. They soon moved to Claremont, to El Cajon, before settling in San Diego. Zappa joined his first band at Mission Bay High School in San Diego as the drummer. At about the same time, his parents bought a phonograph, which allowed him to develop his interest in music, to begin building his record collection. R&B singles were early purchases, he was interested in sounds for their own sake the sounds of drums and other percussion instruments. By age 12, he began learning the basics of orchestral percussion. Zappa's deep interest in modern classical music began when he read a LOOK magazine article about the Sam Goody record store chain that lauded its ability to sell an LP as obscure as The Complete Works of Edgard Varèse, Volume One; the article described Varèse's percussion composition Ionisation, produced by EMS Record
In the United States, Poor White is the historical classification for an American sociocultural group, of Western and/or Northern European descent, with origins in the Southern United States and in Appalachia. They first were classified as a social caste in the Antebellum South, consisting of white, economically disadvantaged laborers or squatters, who owned neither land nor slaves. In certain contemporary contexts the term is still used to pertain to their descendants. While similar to other White Americans in ancestry, the Poor Whites differ notably in regard to their history and culture. Throughout American history the Poor Whites have been referred to by various terms, they have been known as "rednecks", "hillbillies" in Appalachia, "crackers" in Georgia and Florida, "poor white trash". In the past the use of the term "Poor White" by the white Southern elite, who considered it an oxymoron, was to distance themselves from elements of society they viewed as "undesirable", "lesser" or "antisocial."
It denoted a separation, reflective of a social hierarchy, with "poor" used to demonstrate a low position, while "white" was used to subjugate rather than to classify. Author Wayne Flynt in his book, Dixie's Forgotten People: The South's Poor Whites, argues that "one difficulty in defining poor whites stems from the diverse ways in which the phrase has been used, it has been applied to economic and social classes as well to cultural and ethical values." While other regions of the United States have white people who are poor, this does not have the same meaning as the Poor White in the South. In context, the Poor White refers to a distinct sociocultural group, with members who belong to families with a history of multi-generational poverty and cultural divergence. Much of the character and condition of Poor Whites is rooted in the institution of slavery. Rather than provide wealth as it had for the Southern elite, in stark contrast, slavery hindered progress of whites who did not own slaves by exerting a crowding-out effect, eliminating free labor in the region.
This effect, compounded by the area's widespread lack of public education and its general practice of endogamy, prevented low-income and low-wealth free laborers from moving to the middle class. Many fictional depictions in literature used poor whites as foils in reflecting the positive traits of the protagonist against their perceived "savage" traits. In her novel Dred, Harriet Beecher Stowe illustrates a held stereotype that marriage to them results in generic degradation and barbarism of the better class. During the American Civil War, the Poor White comprised a majority of the combatants in the Confederate Army. During the nadir of American race relations at the turn of the 20th century, intense violence, defense of honor and white supremacy flourished in a region suffering from a lack of public education and competition for resources. Southern politicians of the day built on conflict between Poor Whites and African Americans in a form of Political Opportunism; as John T. Campbell summarizes in The Broad Ax in 1906: In the past, white men have hated white men quite as much as some of them hate the Negro, have vented their hatred with as much savagery as they have against the Negro.
The best educated people have the least race prejudice. In the United States the poor white were encouraged to hate the Negroes because they could be used to help hold the Negroes in slavery; the Negroes were taught to show contempt for the poor white because this would increase the hatred between them and each side could be used by the master to control the other. The real interest of the poor whites and the Negroes were the same, that of resisting the oppression of the master class, but ignorance stood in the way. This race hatred was at first used to perpetuate white supremacy in politics in the South; the poor whites are injured by it as are the Negroes. Further evidence of the hostility of the ruling class towards the Poor White is found in the enactment by several southern states of a poll tax, which required an annual payment of $1.00, to vote, in some cases, or at least payment before voting. The poll tax excluded not only African Americans, but the many Poor Whites, from voting, as they lived in a barter economy and were cash poor.
In the early 20th century, the image of the Poor White was a prominent stereotype in American media. Sherwood Anderson's novel Poor White explored how a poor white youth from Missouri tried to adjust to a middle-class world by moving to the Midwest; the American eugenics movement encouraged the legalization of forced sterilizations. In practice, individuals who came from Poor White backgrounds were targeted institutionalized individuals and fertile women; the drafting and recruitment of physically fit individuals in the First World War revealed the first practical comparisons between the Appalachian region, the South, the rest of the country. The Poor Whites were unequal in terms of income and medical treatment than other White Americans. New Deal rural life programs such as the Resettlement Administration, the Farm Security Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority helped create new jobs for the rural poor during the Great Depression in the South. In the late 1960s under the President Lyndon B. Johnson administration, the Appalachian Regional Commission was founded to deal with persistent poverty in the region.
The Second World War led to new e
White trash is a derogatory American English slur referring to poor white people in the rural southern United States. The label signifies a low social class inside the white population and a degraded standard of living; the term has been adopted for people living on the fringes of the social order, who are seen as dangerous because they may be criminal and without respect for political, legal, or moral authority. The term is used by urban and middle-class whites as a class signifier, but may be used self-referentially by working class whites to jokingly describe their origins or lifestyle. In common usage, "white trash" overlaps in meaning with "cracker", used of people in the backcountry of the Southern states; the primary difference is that "redneck", "cracker", "Okie", "hillbilly" emphasize that a person is poor and uneducated and comes from the backwoods with little awareness of and interaction with the modern world, while "white trash" – and the modern term "trailer trash" – emphasizes the person's moral failings.
Scholars from the late 19th to the early 21st century explored generations of families who were considered "disreputable", such as The Jukes family and The Kallikak Family, both pseudonyms for real families. In the popular imagination of the mid-19th century, "poor white trash" were a "curious" breed of degenerate, haggard people who suffered from numerous physical and social defects, they were dirty, ragged, cadaverous and emaciated, had feeble children with distended abdomens who were wrinkled and withered and looked aged beyond their physical years, so that 10-year-olds' "countenances are stupid and heavy and they become dropsical and loathsome to sight," according to a New Hampshire schoolteacher. The skin of a poor white Southerner had a "ghastly yellowish-white" tinge to it, like "yellow parchment", was waxy looking, or they were so white they appeared to be albinos, they were listless and slothful, did not properly care for their children, were addicted to alcohol. They were looked on with contempt by upper-class Southerners.
Harriet Beecher Stowe described a white trash woman and her children in Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp, published in 1856: Crouched on a pile of dirty straw, sat a miserable haggard woman, with large, wild eyes, sunken cheeks, disheveled matted hair, long, lean hands, like a bird's claws. At her skinny breast an emaciated infant was hanging, with its little skeleton hands, as if to force nourishment which nature no longer gave; the whole group huddled together, drawing as far away as possible from the new comer, looking up with large, frightened eyes, like hunted wild animals. Poor white trash were only able to locate themselves on the worst land in the South, since the best land was taken by the slaveholders and small, they lived and attempted to survive on land, sandy or swampy or covered in scrub pine and not suited for agriculture. These "hard-scratch" inhabitants were seen to match their surroundings: they were "stony and shrubby, as they land they lived on."Restricted from holding political office due to property qualifications, their ability to vote at the mercy of the courts which were controlled by the slave-holding planters, poor whites had few advocates within the political system or the dominant social hierarchy.
Although many were tenant farmers or day laborers, other white trash people were forced to live as scavengers and vagrants, but all, employed or not, were ostracized by "proper" white society by being forced to use the back door when entering "proper" homes. Slaves looked down on them: when poor whites came begging for food, the slaves called them "stray goats."Northerners claimed that the existence of white trash was the result of the system of slavery in the South, while Southerners worried that these inferior whites would upset the "natural" class system which held that all whites were superior to all other races blacks. People of both regions expressed concern that if the number of white trash people increased they would threaten the Jeffersonian ideal of a population of educated white freemen as the basis of a robust American democracy. In his classic study, Democracy in America, French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville sees the state of poor white southerners as being one of the effects of the slave system.
He describes them as ignorant, prideful, self-indulgent, weak, writes about southern whites in general: From birth, the southern American is invested with a kind of domestic dictatorship... and the first habit he learns is that of effortless domination... the southern American into a haughty, irascible, violent man, passionate in his desires and irritated by obstacles. But he is discouraged if he fails to succeed at his first attempt. Another theory held that the degraded condition of poor white southerners was the result of their living in such close proximity to blacks and Native Americans. Samuel Stanhope Smith, a minister and educator, the seventh president of Princeton College, wrote in 1810 that poor white southerners lived in "a state of absolute savagism," which caused them to resemble Indians in the color of their skin and their clothing, a belief, endemic in the 18th and early 19th century. Smith saw them as a stumbling block in the evolution of mainstream American whites, a view that h
William Lewis Safir, better known as William Safire, was an American author, columnist and presidential speechwriter. He was a long-time syndicated political columnist for The New York Times and wrote the "On Language" column in The New York Times Magazine about popular etymology, new or unusual usages, other language-related topics. Safire was born William Lewis Safir in New York City, New York the son of Ida and Oliver Craus Safir, his family was Jewish, originated in Romania on his father's side. Safire added the "e" to his surname for pronunciation reasons, though some of his relatives continue to use the original spelling. Safire graduated from the Bronx High School of Science, a specialized public high school in New York City, he dropped out after two years. He delivered the commencement address at Syracuse in 1978 and 1990, became a trustee of the university, he was a public relations executive from 1955 to 1960. He had been a radio and television producer and an Army correspondent, he worked as a publicist for a homebuilder who exhibited a model home at an American trade fair at Sokolniki Park in Moscow in 1959—the one in which Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev had their famous Kitchen Debate.
A circulated black-and-white photograph of the event was taken by Safire. Safire joined Nixon's campaign for the 1960 Presidential race, again in 1968. After Nixon's 1968 victory, Safire served as a speechwriter for Spiro Agnew. Safire prepared a speech called In Event of Moon Disaster for President Nixon to read on television if the Apollo 11 astronauts were stranded on the Moon. According to the plans, Mission Control would "close down communications" with the LEM and a clergyman would have commended their souls to "the deepest of the deep" in a public ritual likened to burial at sea. Presidential telephone calls to the astronauts' wives were planned; the speech originated in a memo from Safire to Nixon's chief of staff H. R. Haldeman in which Safire suggested a protocol the administration might follow in reaction to such a disaster; the last line of the prepared text contained an allusion to Rupert Brooke's First World War poem "The Soldier". In a 2013 piece for Foreign Policy magazine, Joshua Keating included the speech as one of six entries in a list of "The Greatest Doomsday Speeches Never Made."He joined The New York Times as a political columnist in 1973.
Soon after joining the Times, Safire learned that he had been the target of "national security" wiretaps authorized by Nixon, after noting that he had worked only on domestic matters, wrote with what he characterized as "restrained fury" that he had not worked for Nixon through a difficult decade "to have him—or some lizard-lidded paranoid acting without his approval—eavesdropping on my conversations."In 1978, Safire won the Pulitzer Prize for Commentary on Bert Lance's alleged budgetary irregularities. Safire's column on October 27, 1980, entitled "The Ayatollah Votes", was quoted in a campaign ad for Ronald Reagan in that year's presidential election. Safire frequently appeared on the NBC's Meet the Press. Upon announcing the retirement of Safire's political column in 2005, Arthur Sulzberger Jr. publisher of The New York Times, said:The New York Times without Bill Safire is all but unimaginable, Bill's provocative and insightful commentary has held our readers captive since he first graced our Op-Ed Page in 1973.
Reaching for his column became a critical and enjoyable part of the day for our readers across the country and around the world. Whether you agreed with him or not was never the point, his writing is delightful and engaging. Safire served as a member of the Pulitzer Prize Board from 1995 to 2004. After ending his op-ed column, he became the full-time chief executive of the Dana Foundation, where he was chairman from 2000. In 2006, Safire was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush. Portions of Safire's FBI file were released in 2010; the documents "detail wiretapping ordered by the Nixon administration, including the tapping of Safire's phone." In addition to his political columns, Safire wrote a column, "On Language", in the weekly The New York Times Magazine from 1979 until the month of his death. Many of the columns were collected in books. According to the linguist Geoffrey Pullum, over the years Safire became less of a "grammar-nitpicker," and Benjamin Zimmer cited Safire's willingness to learn from descriptive linguists.
Another book on language was The New Language of Politics, which developed into what Zimmer called Safire's "magnum opus," Safire's Political Dictionary. Safire described himself as a "libertarian conservative." A Washington Post story on the ending of his op-ed column quotes him on the subject:I'm willing to zap conservatives when they do things that are not libertarian. I was the first to go after George W. on his treatment of prisoners. After voting for Bill Clinton in 1992, Safire became one of the leading critics of Clinton's administration. Hillary Clinton in particular was the target of his ire, he caused controversy in a January 8, 1996, essay when, after reviewing her record, he concluded she was a "congenital liar". She did not respond to the specific instances cited, but said that she didn't feel offended for herself, but for her mother's sake. According to the president's press secretary at the time, Mike McCurry, "the President, if he were not the President, would have delivered a more forceful response to that on the bridge of Mr. Safire's nose".
Safire was one of severa
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, to a lesser extent that of England and of Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally, they derived their name from the word covenant meaning a band, legal document or agreement, with particular reference to the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament. The Covenanters are so named for the series of bands or covenants by which the adherents bound themselves to maintain the Presbyterian doctrine and polity as the sole form of religion of their country; the first "godly band" of the Lords of the Congregation and their followers is dated December 1557. Based on the Scots Confession of Faith of 1560, this document denounced the Pope and the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church in no measured terms, it was adopted by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, signed by King James VI and his household, enjoined on persons of all ranks and classes, was subscribed to again in 1590 and 1596.
In 1637, Scotland was in a state of turmoil. King Charles I and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, met with a reverse in their efforts to impose a new liturgy on the Scots; the new liturgy had been devised by a panel of Scottish bishops, including Archbishop Spottiswoode of St. Andrews, but a riot against its use was orchestrated in St Giles' Cathedral, ostensibly started by Jenny Geddes. Fearing further measures on the part of the king, it occurred to Archibald Johnston to revive the Negative Confession of 1581 in a form suited to the times. Together with the cooperation of Alexander Henderson, this National Covenant was finalized in early 1638. Additional matter intended to suit the document to the special circumstances of the time was added a recital of the acts of parliament against "superstitious and papistical rites" and an elaborate oath to maintain the reformed religion; the Covenant was adopted and signed by a large gathering in the kirkyard of Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, on 28 February 1638, after which copies were sent throughout the country for signing.
The subscribers engaged by oath to maintain religion in the form that it existed in 1580, to reject all innovations introduced since that time, while professing loyalty to the king. It did not reject episcopacy but in effect undermined it; the year 1638 marked an apex of events for the Covenanters, for it was the time of broad confrontations with the established church supported by the monarchy. Confrontations occurred in several parts of Scotland, such as the one with the Bishops of Aberdeen by a high level assembly of Covenanters staging their operations from Muchalls Castle; the General Assembly of 1638 was composed of ardent Covenanters, in 1640 the Covenant was adopted by the Scottish parliament, its subscription being made a requirement for all citizens. Before this date, the Covenanters were referred to as Supplicants, but from about this time the former designation began to prevail; the Covenanters raised an army to resist Charles I's religious reforms, defeated him in the Bishops' Wars.
The crisis that this caused to the Stuart monarchy helped bring about the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the English Civil War, the Scottish Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. For the following ten years of civil war in Britain, the Covenanters were the de facto government of Scotland. In 1642, they sent an army to Ulster in Ireland to protect the Scottish settlers there from the Irish Catholic rebels who had attacked them in the Irish Rebellion of 1641; the Scottish army remained in Ireland until the end of the civil wars, but was confined to its garrison around Carrickfergus after its defeat at the Battle of Benburb in 1646. A further Covenanter military intervention began in 1643; the leaders of the English Parliament, worsted in the English Civil War, implored the aid of the Scots, promised on condition that the Scottish system of church government would be adopted in England. Following considerable debate, a document called the Solemn Covenant was drawn up; this was in effect a treaty between England and Scotland which called for the preservation of the reformed religion in Scotland and the reformation of religion in England and Ireland "according to the word of God and the example of the best reformed churches", the extirpation of popery and prelacy.
It did not explicitly mention Presbyterianism and included some ambiguous formulations that left the door open to Independency. It was subscribed to by many in both kingdoms and in Ireland, was approved by the English Parliament, with some slight modifications by the Westminster Assembly of Divines; this agreement meant that the Covenanters sent another army south to England to fight on the Parliamentarian side in the First English Civil War. The Scottish armies in England were instrumental in bringing about the victory of the English Parliament over the king. In turn, this sparked the outbreak of civil war in Scotland in 1644–47, as Scottish Royalist opponents of the Covenanters took up arms against them. Royalism was most common among Scottish Roman Catholics and Episcopalians, who were opposed to the Covenanters' imposition of their religious settlement on the country; the Covenanters' enemies, led by James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and aided by an Irish expeditionary force and Highland clans led by Alasdair Mac Col
Taylor Alison Swift is an American singer-songwriter. As one of the world's leading contemporary recording artists, she is known for narrative songs about her personal life, which has received widespread media coverage. Born and raised in Pennsylvania, Swift moved to Nashville, Tennessee, at the age of 14 to pursue a career in country music, she signed with the label Big Machine Records and became the youngest artist signed by the Sony/ATV Music publishing house. Her 2006 self-titled debut album peaked at number five on the Billboard 200 and spent the most weeks on the chart in the 2000s; the album's third single, "Our Song", made her the youngest person to single-handedly write and perform a number-one song on the Hot Country Songs chart. Swift's second album, was released in 2008. Buoyed by the success of pop crossover singles "Love Story" and "You Belong with Me", Fearless became the best-selling album of 2009 in the US; the album won four Grammy Awards, with Swift becoming the youngest Album of the Year winner.
Swift was the sole writer of Speak Now. It debuted at number one in the United States and the single "Mean" won two Grammy Awards, her fourth album, yielded the successful singles "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together" and "I Knew You Were Trouble". For her fifth album, the pop-focused 1989, she received three Grammys, became the first woman and fifth act overall to win Album of the Year twice, its singles "Shake It Off", "Blank Space", "Bad Blood" reached number one in the US, Canada. Swift's sixth album and its lead single "Look What You Made Me Do" topped the UK and US charts. Swift is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 50 million albums—including 27.8 million in the US—and 150 million single downloads. As a songwriter, she has received awards from the Nashville Songwriters Association and the Songwriters Hall of Fame, was included in Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time in 2015, she is the recipient of 10 Grammys, one Emmy, 23 Billboard Music Awards, 12 Country Music Association Awards, she holds six Guinness World Records.
She has appeared in Time's 100 most influential people in the world and Forbes' lists of top-earning women in music, 100 most powerful women, Celebrity 100. Her inclusion in the third of these made her the youngest woman on the list, she ranked first in Celebrity 100. Taylor Alison Swift was born on December 1989, in Reading, Pennsylvania, her father, Scott Kingsley Swift, was a stockbroker for Merrill Lynch, her mother, Andrea Gardner Swift, was a homemaker who had worked as a mutual fund marketing executive. Swift was named after the American singer-songwriter James Taylor, she has a younger brother named Austin, an actor. Swift spent the early years of her life on a Christmas tree farm which her father purchased from one of his clients, she attended preschool and kindergarten at the Alvernia Montessori School, run by Franciscan nuns, before transferring to The Wyndcroft School. The family moved to a rented house in the suburban town of Wyomissing, where she attended Wyomissing Area Junior/Senior High School.
At the age of nine, Swift became interested in musical theater and performed in four Berks Youth Theatre Academy productions. She traveled to New York City for vocal and acting lessons. Swift shifted her focus toward country music inspired by Shania Twain's songs, which made her "want to just run around the block four times and daydream about everything", she spent her weekends performing at local events. After watching a documentary about Faith Hill, Swift felt sure that she needed to go to Nashville, Tennessee, to pursue a music career. At the age of eleven, she traveled with her mother to visit Nashville record labels and submitted a demo tape of Dolly Parton and Dixie Chicks karaoke covers. However, she was rejected. So, I kept thinking to myself, I need to figure out a way to be different"; when Swift was about 12 years old, computer repairman and local musician Ronnie Cremer taught her how to play guitar and helped with her first efforts as a songwriter, leading to her writing "Lucky You".
In 2003, Swift and her parents started working with New York-based music manager Dan Dymtrow. With his help, Swift modelled for Abercrombie & Fitch as part of their "Rising Stars" campaign, had an original song included on a Maybelline compilation CD, attended meetings with major record labels. After performing original songs at an RCA Records showcase, Swift was given an artist development deal and began making frequent trips to Nashville with her mother. To help Swift break into country music, her father transferred to the Nashville office of Merrill Lynch when she was 14, the family relocated to a lakefront house in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Swift attended Hendersonville High School, but after two years transferred to the Aaron Academy, which through homeschooling could accommodate her touring schedule, she graduated a year early. In Nashville, Swift worked with experienced Music Row songwriters such as Troy Verges, Brett Beavers, Brett James, Mac McAnally, The Warren Brothers, she formed a lasting working relationship with Liz Rose.
They began meeting for two-hour writing sessions every Tuesday afternoon after school. Rose thought that the sessions were "some of the easiest I've done. I was just her editor. She'd write about, she had such a clear vision of. And sh