A goods shed is a railway building designed for storing goods before or after carriage in a train. A typical goods shed will have a track running through it to allow goods wagons to be unloaded under cover, although sometimes they were built alongside a track with just a canopy over the door. There will be a door to move goods to or from road wagons and vans, this sometimes is parallel to the rail track, or sometimes on the side opposite the rail track. Inside the shed will be a platform and sometimes a small crane to allow easier loading and unloading of wagons; some goods sheds had more than one track. If one were not adjacent to the unloading platform the method of working the second siding would be to first empty the wagons adjacent to the platform, open the doors on their far side to access those on the second track. Planks or portable bridges were provided for this purpose; when no longer required for goods traffic goods sheds have been converted for other uses, such as the booking office at Paignton railway station, or as housing.
When many rural branch lines in New Zealand were closed, goods sheds along the closed branches formed integral parts of the depots of road freight companies that replaced the railway. Transfer sheds, sometimes called transshipment sheds, were provided to transfer goods between two different railways of different gauges, such as the broad gauge and standard gauge on the Great Western Railway in the United Kingdom; those at Exeter and Didcot are still intact. The term can be applied to a shed on a pier in a harbour where cargo is/was transferred from rail cars or trucks to ships and vice versa; the cargo was temporarily stored in the shed. Goods station or goods depot - a facility used for handling goods rather than passengers. Goods yard - one or more sidings near a passenger station, where goods wagons can be loaded and unloaded. There may not be a goods shed, depending on the nature of the regular traffic handled. Goods warehouse - used to denote a larger goods shed with more than one floor; the larger size was used to store goods for longer periods.
Some would be for a specific traffic
Portreath is a civil parish and fishing port on the north coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village is about three miles northwest of Redruth; the village is centred on the harbour and beach. West of the harbour entrance and breakwater are two sandy beaches which are popular with holidaymakers and naturists. Portreath lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. A third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status and protection as a National Park. Separately, in early 2017, the village was looking to be a hedgehog friendly village, it would join Burton Fleming in East Yorkshire as one of a handful of hedgehog friendly villages in the UK. The name Portreath was first recorded in 1485 and tin streaming in the valley was recorded from 1602. Devon contractor Samuel Nott, was engaged to build the first mole in 1713 on the western side of the beach, near Amy's Point; the quay was destroyed by the sea before 1749 and the foundations are seen when the sea washes away the sand.
The village had a fishing fleet for pilchards. The harbour we see today was started in 1760 to service the expanding ore industry in the Camborne and Redruth area; the quay was extended and the inner basin constructed in 1846 and in the 1860s, New Dock, now known as Little Beach, was constructed. In the late 1770s, during the American Revolutionary War, lieutenant-colonel of the North Devon militia, Francis Basset, commanded local miners to fortify the port, which helped counter a Franco-Spanish invasion fleet gathered as part of the European theatre of the war, some of them still standing to this day. By 1827 Portreath was described as Cornwall's most important port and Portreath was, with Devoran on the south coast, one of the main ports for sending the copper ore mined in the Gwennap area to Swansea for smelting; the ships returned with Welsh coal to fire the steam engines used on the mines. The peak of this enterprise was around 1840, when some 100,000 tons of copper ore were shipped out each year.
With a growing population a church was built in 1827, the Portreath Hotel, Methodist Chapel, Basset Arms and the School all followed. A cholera outbreak in 1878 caused the death of half the population; the copper trade collapsed by 1886 and the port was bankrupt, although trade of domestic coal, cement and potatoes continued until after World War Two. In June 1980 the owners, Beynon Shipping Company, donated the harbour to Kerrier District Council and it is now leased to the Portreath Harbour Association by the present owners, Cornwall Council; the Portreath Tramroad, the first railway in Cornwall, was started in 1809 to link the harbour with the copper mines at Scorrier and St Day. By 1812 the tramroad reached Scorrier House, one of the financiers houses, was completed by 1819, it was horse-drawn with wagons on an approximate 4 ft gauge using L-shaped cast iron plates on square granite blocks. The line was little used after the Poldice mine closed in the 1860s and the tramroad was closed in 1865.
The Portreath branch of the Hayle Railway was opened in 1838. To the south of the harbour, on the west side of the valley, are the remains of the old cable-worked incline which linked the harbour to the mainline at Carn Brea; the Portreath incline was, one of four on the Hayle Railway and was 1,716 ft long with a rise of about 240 ft. It was worked by a stationary steam engine, used as the winding engine. Part of the main line of the Hayle Railway was incorporated into the route of the West Cornwall Railway in 1852 and the branch line closed in 1936; the railways and Portreath Tramroad associated with the minerals trade today form the Mineral Tramways Coast to Coast, a long distance cycleway and footpath extending 15 miles from Portreath to the south coast. RRH Portreath, on Nancekuke Common to the north of the village, is now a radar station operated by the RAF, but was built in 1940 to be the RAF's main fighter airfield in Cornwall during WW2. Nance Wood, 1-mile to the south east of the village, is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest for its biological characteristics.
The woods are one of only 2 sites in Britain to contain Irish spurge, a Red Data Book of rare and endangered plant species. Portreath Parish Tram Web Site Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Portreath
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838, it was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft —later widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in —but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard-gauge trains. The GWR was the only company to keep its identity through the Railways Act 1921, which amalgamated it with the remaining independent railways within its territory, it was merged at the end of 1947 when it was nationalised and became the Western Region of British Railways; the GWR was called by some "God's Wonderful Railway" and by others the "Great Way Round" but it was famed as the "Holiday Line", taking many people to English and Bristol Channel resorts in the West Country as well as the far south-west of England such as Torquay in Devon, Minehead in Somerset, Newquay and St Ives in Cornwall.
The company's locomotives, many of which were built in the company's workshops at Swindon, were painted a Brunswick green colour while, for most of its existence, it used a two-tone "chocolate and cream" livery for its passenger coaches. Goods wagons were painted red but this was changed to mid-grey. Great Western trains included long-distance express services such as the Flying Dutchman, the Cornish Riviera Express and the Cheltenham Spa Express, it operated many suburban and rural services, some operated by steam railmotors or autotrains. The company pioneered the use of more economic goods wagons than were usual in Britain, it operated a network of road motor routes, was a part of the Railway Air Services, owned ships and hotels. The Great Western Railway originated from the desire of Bristol merchants to maintain their city as the second port of the country and the chief one for American trade; the increase in the size of ships and the gradual silting of the River Avon had made Liverpool an attractive port, with a Liverpool to London rail line under construction in the 1830s Bristol's status was threatened.
The answer for Bristol was, with the co-operation of London interests. The company was founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1833 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1835. Isambard Kingdom Brunel aged twenty-nine, was appointed engineer; this was by far Brunel's largest contract to date. He made two controversial decisions. Firstly, he chose to use a broad gauge of 7 ft to allow for the possibility of large wheels outside the bodies of the rolling stock which could give smoother running at high speeds. Secondly, he selected a route, north of the Marlborough Downs, which had no significant towns but which offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester; this meant. From Reading heading west, the line would curve in a northerly sweep back to Bath. Brunel surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself, with the help of many, including his solicitor Jeremiah Osborne of Bristol law firm Osborne Clarke who on one occasion rowed Brunel down the River Avon himself to survey the bank of the river for the route.
George Thomas Clark played an important role as an engineer on the project, reputedly taking the management of two divisions of the route including bridges over the River Thames at Lower Basildon and Moulsford and of Paddington Station. Involvement in major earth-moving works seems to have fed Clark's interest in geology and archaeology and he, authored two guidebooks on the railway: one illustrated with lithographs by John Cooke Bourne; the first 22 1⁄2 miles of line, from Paddington station in London to Maidenhead Bridge station, opened on 4 June 1838. When Maidenhead Railway Bridge was ready the line was extended to Twyford on 1 July 1839 and through the deep Sonning Cutting to Reading on 30 March 1840; the cutting was the scene of a railway disaster two years when a goods train ran into a landslip. This accident prompted Parliament to pass the 1844 Railway Regulation Act requiring railway companies to provide better carriages for passengers; the next section, from Reading to Steventon crossed the Thames twice and opened for traffic on 1 June 1840.
A 7 1⁄4-mile extension took the line to Faringdon Road on 20 July 1840. Meanwhile, work had started at the Bristol end of the line, where the 11 1⁄2-mile section to Bath opened on 31 August 1840. On 17 December 1840, the line from London reached a temporary terminus at Wootton Bassett Road west of Swindon and 80.25 miles from Paddington. The section from Wootton Bassett Road to Chippenham was opened on 31 May 1841, as was Swindon Junction station where the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway to Cirencester connected; that was an independent line worked by the GWR, as was the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the first section of which from Bristol to Bridgwater was opened on 14 June 1841. The GWR main line remained incomplete during the construction of the 1-mile-1,452-yard Box Tunnel, ready for trains on 30 June 1841, after which trains ran the 152 miles from Paddington through to Bridgwater. In 1851, the GWR purchased the Kennet and Avon Canal, a competing carrier between London, Reading and Bristol.
London Paddington station
Paddington known as London Paddington, is a Central London railway terminus and London Underground station complex, located on Praed Street in the Paddington area. The site has been the London terminus of services provided by the Great Western Railway and its successors since 1838. Much of the main line station was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Paddington is the London terminus of the Great Western main line, operated today by Great Western Railway, which provides the majority of commuter and regional passenger services to west London and the Thames Valley region as well as long-distance intercity services to South West England and South Wales, it is the terminus for the Heathrow Express and TfL Rail services to and from Heathrow Airport. It is one of 11 London stations managed directly by Network Rail, it is situated in fare zone 1 and has two separate tube stations providing connections to the Bakerloo, Circle and Hammersmith & City lines. The station has been perennially popular for passengers and goods milk and parcels.
Major upgrades took place in the 1870s, the 1910s and the 1960s, each trying to add additional platforms and space while trying to preserve the existing services and architecture as much as possible. Paddington was first served by London Underground trains in 1863, as the original western terminus of the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground railway. In the 20th century and commuter services appeared at Paddington as the urban sprawl of London moved westwards. Despite the numerous upgrades and rebuilding, plus damage sustained in particular during World War II, Brunel's original design is still recognisable; the station complex is bounded at the front by Praed Street and at the rear by Bishop's Bridge Road, which crosses the station throat on Bishop's Bridge. On the west side of the station is Eastbourne Terrace, while the east side is bounded by the Paddington arm of the Grand Union Canal; the station is in a shallow cutting, a fact obscured at the front by a hotel building, but which can be seen from the other three sides.
To the north of the station is the Westway, to the northeast is Edgware Road, to the east and southeast is the London Inner Ring Road. The surrounding area is residential, includes the major St Mary's Hospital and hotels; until there was little office accommodation in the area, most commuters interchanged between National Rail and the London Underground to reach workplaces in the West End or the City. However, recent redevelopment of derelict railway and canal land, marketed as Paddington Waterside, has resulted in new office complexes nearby; the station is in London fare zone 1. In addition to the Underground stations at Paddington, Lancaster Gate station on the Central line is a short walk away to the south. A little further to the south lie the conjoined parks of Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens. Several London Buses routes, including Nos. 23 and 205 serve the station. The National Rail station is named London Paddington, a name used outside London but by Londoners, who call it just Paddington, as on the London Underground map.
This same practice applies except London Bridge. Parts of the station, including the main train shed, date from 1854, when it was built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel as the London terminus for the Great Western Railway, it is one of eleven stations in London managed by Network Rail. After several false starts, Brunel announced the construction of a railway from Bristol to London on 30 July 1833; this became the GWR, he intended it to be the best railway in the country. The GWR had planned to terminate London services at Euston as this allowed them to use part of the London and Birmingham Railway's track into the station, which would have been cost effective; this received government approval in 1835, but was rejected as a long-term solution by Brunel as he was concerned it would allow Liverpool to compete as a port with Bristol if the railway from Birmingham was extended. The first station was a temporary terminus for the GWR on the west side of Bishop's Bridge Road, opened on 4 June 1838; the first GWR service from London to Taplow, near Maidenhead, ran from Paddington in 1838.
After the main station opened, this became the site of the goods depot. Brunel did not consider that anything less than a grand terminus dedicated to the GWR would be acceptable, this was approved in February 1853; the main station between Bishop's Bridge Road and Praed Street was designed by Brunel, enthusiastic at the idea of being able to design a railway station himself, although much of the architectural detailing was by his associate Matthew Digby Wyatt. He took inspiration from the München Hauptbahnhof; the glazed roof is supported by wrought iron arches in three spans spanning 68 feet, 102 feet and 70 feet. The roof is 699 feet long, the original roof spans had two transepts connecting the three spans, it is believed that these were provided by Brunel to accommodate traversers to carry coaches between the tracks within the station. However recent research, using early documents and photographs, does not seem to support this belief, their actual purpose is unknown; the original station used four platforms, 27-foot -wide and 24-foot-6-inch -wide departure platforms, a 21-foot arrival platform, a 47-foot combined arrival platform and cab road.
A series of nineteen turnplates were sited beyond the ends of the platforms for horse and coach traffic. The first GWR service from the new station departed on 16 January 1854, though the roof had not been finished at this point a
Camborne railway station
Camborne railway station serves the town of Camborne, England. The station is 313 miles from London Paddington via Bristol Temple Meads, it is located on Trevu Road in the town, adjacent to the Railway Hotel. It has been in use since 1843 and is managed by Great Western Railway. Services are provided by CrossCountry; the Hayle Railway opened on 23 December 1837. It was designed to move goods to and from local mines and the harbours at Hayle and Portreath but a passenger service started on 26 May 1843; the West Cornwall Railway took over the Hayle company on 3 November 1846. It extended the line westwards to Penzance railway station and opened a new, more convenient, Redruth railway station on 11 March 1852; that year the line was continued eastwards to a temporary station at Truro Highertown, was completed to a station at Newham Wharf in 1855. The station buildings have been replaced by some in the style used by the Great Western Railway circa 1900; the railway was just a single track with a passing loop in the station.
In 1895 a second line was laid to the east, in 1900 to the west. Goods sidings were laid on both sides of the station, with a goods shed behind the westbound platform; the sidings on the north side of the station were removed in 1937 which allowed the eastbound platform to be lengthened. The sidings on the south side, along with the goods shed, were taken out of use in 1965 and this platform was extended in 1980. Signals in the area are controlled by a signal box at Roskear Junction to the east of the town, where the signalman can oversee an adjacent level crossing; this was opened circa 1895 and contained 29 levers. The lever frame has been removed and the box now contains individual switches on the block shelf, its signals are identified by the code letter'R'. A signal box at Camborne station had been built on the eastbound platform next to the level crossing in 1895 and but closed on 8 June 1970, since when the signalman at Roskear Junction has monitored the level crossing at Camborne by CCTV.
The reason for retaining this signal box was that it controlled the goods branch line to North Roskear, but this closed in July 1983. A level crossing passes over the line at the east end of the two platforms; the main station buildings are situated on platform 2, the one nearest the town centre. There is a small car park behind the station buildings, which contain a booking office and waiting room with toilets. Platform 2 is served by eastbound trains to Truro and London. Platform 1 is for westbound trains to St Erth and Penzance. There is parking alongside this platform and at the end the car park is an old railway goods shed, although it is no longer used for its original purpose. Camborne is served by most Great Western Railway trains on the Cornish Main Line between Penzance and Plymouth with 1 train per hour in each direction. 9 trains a day run through to London Paddington with 8 trains returning from London Paddington, 9 on Fridays. This includes the mid-morning Cornish Riviera. One extra through service to London Paddington is provided in each direction during the summer months.
CrossCountry operate 3 trains a day to and from Birmingham New Street with 1 continuing to Manchester Piccadilly and 2 to Glasgow Central. 1 train returns from Aberdeen and 2 from Glasgow Central. CrossCountry provide one service in each direction from Plymouth-Penzance
CrossCountry is a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by Arriva UK Trains, operating the New Cross Country franchise. It operates intercity and other long-distance trains across the country, but does not serve Greater London, it operates the UK's longest direct rail service from Aberdeen in the north-east of Scotland to Penzance in the south-west of England. It is one of only two franchised train operating companies that does not operate any stations, the other being Caledonian Sleeper. All routes terminate at Birmingham New Street. In June 2006 the Department for Transport announced its intention to restructure a number of franchises. Included was a New Cross Country franchise that would incorporate the existing InterCity Cross Country franchise run by Virgin CrossCountry, less the West Coast Main Line services with the Birmingham to Scotland services transferring to Virgin Trains West Coast and the Manchester to Scotland services transferring to First TransPennine Express; some services from the Central Trains franchise were to be added.
In October 2006 the Department for Transport issued the Invitation to Tender to the shortlisted bidders, FirstGroup, National Express and Virgin Rail Group. On 10 July 2007 the Department for Transport announced that Arriva had won the New Cross Country franchise with the services operated by Virgin CrossCountry transferring to CrossCountry on 11 November 2007 along with the Cardiff to Nottingham and Birmingham to Stansted Airport services from Central Trains. After taking over the franchise, CrossCountry continued to operate the existing timetable including the West Coast Main Line services for four weeks; when the new timetable commenced on 9 December 2007, the Birmingham to Edinburgh and Glasgow services transferred to Virgin Trains West Coast and the Manchester to Edinburgh and Glasgow services transferred to First TransPennine Express. The tender did not require retention of the services beyond Guildford after December 2008, so the services to Gatwick Airport and Brighton ceased; as a result, all CrossCountry services now avoid Greater London.
From December 2008 a daily Nottingham to Bournemouth service was introduced. From December 2010 a number of services from Newcastle were extended from Reading to Southampton. From May 2011 a number of services were extended from Edinburgh to Glasgow to replace East Coast services. Due to conclude on 31 March 2016, the franchise has been extended until December 2019. An Invitation to Tender was to be issued in October 2018 for the next franchise, but in September 2018 the competition was cancelled to allow the recommendations from a report into the franchise system to be incorporated. In November and December 2017, CrossCountry on-board train managers and senior conductors affiliated with the National Union of Rail and Transport Workers staged five 24-hour and two 48-hour strikes in an industrial dispute regarding staff rostering, in particular in relation to working on Sundays. Further strikes were planned for January 2018, these were cancelled after CrossCountry and the RMT came to an agreement over staff working conditions on 11 January.
Separate strike action was threatened by the Transport Salaried Staffs' Association union that month, with strikes planned for 26 January. These were in relation to CrossCountry staff being offered a 1% pay rise, compared to a 3.3% pay rise for staff at other Arriva-owned train operating companies. The planned industrial action by the TSSA was cancelled, after CrossCountry agreed to match their demands for an equal pay rise; the company operates medium- and long-distance services that run outside of the London area. The network is centred at Birmingham, all routes either terminate or pass through Birmingham New Street station. Services can be categorised into two types: Inter-City: long-distance, fast services between the South West of England and the North of England or Scotland via Birmingham; these are operated by Turbostars. CrossCountry's official website does show a distinction between the two types of services, but does not explicitly call them Inter-City and Regional; as of December 2018, the Monday-Saturday daytime services, with frequencies in trains per hour, include: These services combine to provide higher frequencies on the following sections: Birmingham to Bristol: two trains per hour Birmingham to Leicester: two trains per hour Birmingham to Manchester: two trains per hour Birmingham to Newcastle: two trains per hour Cheltenham to Birmingham: three trains per hour Reading to Birmingham: two trains per hour Birmingham to Derby: four trains per hourThe Sunday service is similar to the weekday service, except that the hourly Birmingham - Nottingham services do not run, while the other services do not start until late morning or early afternoon, have a different stopping pattern.
The above table shows the basic service pattern. CrossCountry extended some of its Bournemouth services to Weymouth for