click links in text for more info


In physics, redshift is a phenomenon where electromagnetic radiation from an object undergoes an increase in wavelength. Whether or not the radiation is visible, "redshift" means an increase in wavelength, equivalent to a decrease in wave frequency and photon energy, in accordance with the wave and quantum theories of light. Neither the emitted nor perceived light is red. Examples of redshifting are a gamma ray perceived as an X-ray, or visible light perceived as radio waves; the opposite of a redshift is energy increases. However, redshift is a more common term and sometimes blueshift is referred to as negative redshift. There are three main causes of redshifts in astronomy and cosmology: Objects move apart in space; this is an example of the Doppler effect. Space itself is expanding, causing objects to become separated without changing their positions in space; this is known as cosmological redshift. All sufficiently distant light sources show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase in their distance from Earth, known as Hubble's law.

Gravitational redshift is a relativistic effect observed due to strong gravitational fields, which distort spacetime and exert a force on light and other particles. Knowledge of redshifts and blueshifts has been used to develop several terrestrial technologies such as Doppler radar and radar guns. Redshifts are seen in the spectroscopic observations of astronomical objects, its value is represented by the letter z. A special relativistic redshift formula can be used to calculate the redshift of a nearby object when spacetime is flat. However, in many contexts, such as black holes and Big Bang cosmology, redshifts must be calculated using general relativity. Special relativistic and cosmological redshifts can be understood under the umbrella of frame transformation laws. There exist other physical processes that can lead to a shift in the frequency of electromagnetic radiation, including scattering and optical effects; the history of the subject began with the development in the 19th century of wave mechanics and the exploration of phenomena associated with the Doppler effect.

The effect is named after Christian Doppler, who offered the first known physical explanation for the phenomenon in 1842. The hypothesis was tested and confirmed for sound waves by the Dutch scientist Christophorus Buys Ballot in 1845. Doppler predicted that the phenomenon should apply to all waves, in particular suggested that the varying colors of stars could be attributed to their motion with respect to the Earth. Before this was verified, however, it was found that stellar colors were due to a star's temperature, not motion. Only was Doppler vindicated by verified redshift observations; the first Doppler redshift was described by French physicist Hippolyte Fizeau in 1848, who pointed to the shift in spectral lines seen in stars as being due to the Doppler effect. The effect is sometimes called the "Doppler–Fizeau effect". In 1868, British astronomer William Huggins was the first to determine the velocity of a star moving away from the Earth by this method. In 1871, optical redshift was confirmed when the phenomenon was observed in Fraunhofer lines using solar rotation, about 0.1 Å in the red.

In 1887, Vogel and Scheiner discovered the annual Doppler effect, the yearly change in the Doppler shift of stars located near the ecliptic due to the orbital velocity of the Earth. In 1901, Aristarkh Belopolsky verified optical redshift in the laboratory using a system of rotating mirrors; the earliest occurrence of the term red-shift in print appears to be by American astronomer Walter S. Adams in 1908, in which he mentions "Two methods of investigating that nature of the nebular red-shift"; the word does not appear unhyphenated until about 1934 by Willem de Sitter indicating that up to that point its German equivalent, was more used. Beginning with observations in 1912, Vesto Slipher discovered that most spiral galaxies mostly thought to be spiral nebulae, had considerable redshifts. Slipher first reports on his measurement in the inaugural volume of the Lowell Observatory Bulletin. Three years he wrote a review in the journal Popular Astronomy. In it he states that "the early discovery that the great Andromeda spiral had the quite exceptional velocity of –300 km showed the means available, capable of investigating not only the spectra of the spirals but their velocities as well."

Slipher reported the velocities for 15 spiral nebulae spread across the entire celestial sphere, all but three having observable "positive" velocities. Subsequently, Edwin Hubble discovered an approximate relationship between the redshifts of such "nebulae" and the distances to them with the formulation of his eponymous Hubble's law; these observations corroborated Alexander Friedmann's 1922 work, in which he derived the Friedmann–Lemaître equations. They are today considered strong evidence for the Big Bang theory; the spectrum of light that comes from a single source can be measured. To determine the redshift, one searches for features in the spectrum such as absorption lines, emission lines, or other variations in light intensity. If found, these features can

Karla Bigham

Karla Bigham is an American politician and member of the Minnesota Senate, representing District 54. She is a former Washington County Commissioner and former member of the Minnesota House of Representatives, she is a member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party. Bigham graduated from Park High School in Cottage Grove in 1997, she went on to Winona State University in Winona, earning a B. S. in paralegal with a sociology and political science minor. She has worked as a union organizer and is a paralegal in the Property Crimes Division of the Hennepin County Attorney's Office in Minneapolis, she was a member of the Cottage Grove City Council from 2005 to 2007 and served as chair of the Cottage Grove Public Safety and Welfare Commission. She has worked as a public affairs coordinator for Northern Tier Energy. Bigham was elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives in 2006, where she represented District 57A, which included portions of Dakota and Washington counties in the southeastern Twin Cities metropolitan area.

She was re-elected in 2008. Bigham did not seek re-election to a third term in 2010. During her tenure, Bigham served as vice chair of the House Public Safety Policy and Oversight Committee, she served on the House Environment Policy and Oversight Committee and the Finance subcommittees for the Public Safety Finance Division and the State Government Finance Division. After Dan Schoen resigned from the Minnesota Senate following allegations of sexual harassment, Bigham announced her intention to run in the special election for the seat, she faced former Republican State Representative Denny McNamara and Libertarian candidate Emily Mellingen. Bigham won the special election. Senator Bigham serves on the following committees: Environment and Natural Resources Finance Human Services Reform Finance and Policy Veterans and Military Affairs Finance and Policy Karla Bigham is married to John Stechmann and they reside in Cottage Grove, Minnesota. Karla Bigham at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Official Senate website Official campaign website Minnesota Public Radio Votetracker: Rep. Karla Bigham Project Votesmart - Rep. Karla Bigham Profile

1968 Australian Championships

The 1968 Australian Championships was a tennis tournament that took place in the outdoor Kooyong Stadium in Melbourne, Australia from 19 to 29 January. It was the 56th edition of the Australian Championships, the 16th held in Melbourne, the first Grand Slam tournament of the year, it was the last Grand Slam tournament to be restricted to amateurs. The singles titles were won by American Billie Jean King. William Bowrey defeated Sr. 7 -- 5, 2 -- 6, 9 -- 7, 6 -- 4 It was Bowrey's only Grand Slam title. Billie Jean King defeated Margaret Court 6–1, 6–2 It was King's 13th Grand Slam title. Dick Crealy / Allan Stone defeated Terry Addison / Ray Keldie 10–8, 6–4, 6–3 It was Crealy's 1st Grand Slam title, it was Stone's 1st Grand Slam title. Karen Krantzcke / Kerry Melville defeated Judy Tegart / Lesley Turner 6–4, 3–6, 6–2 It was Krantzcke's only Grand Slam title, it was Melville's 1st Grand Slam title. Dick Crealy / Billie Jean King defeated Allan Stone / Margaret Court by Walkover It was Crealy's 2nd Grand Slam title.

It was King's 14th Grand Slam title. Phil Dent Lesley Hunt Australian Open official website

Gouverneto Monastery

Gouverneto Monastery or Our Lady of the Angels is a Greek Orthodox monastery in the Akrotiri peninsula of the Chania regional unit of Crete, located about 5 kilometres north of the Agia Triada Monastery. Dated to 1537, the monastery is a Venetian style fortress with towers at each end with some Baroque influences added later, it measures 40 metres by 50 metres and contains some 50 monks’ cells on two floors. It is reputed to be one of the oldest monasteries in Crete, a 1637 census, recorded shortly before the Turkish invasion, revealed that at the time there were 60 monks living in Gouverneto Monastery making it one of the largest in Crete at the time; the courtyard is rectangular shaped and is dominated by a dome church dedicated to the virgin and has an ornate Venetian facade. The chapel in the courtyard is reported to have some of the oldest frescoes in Crete. To the west side of the monastery is the narthex, contains chapels dedicated to St John the Hermit and the Ten Holy Martyrs. There are some notable monsters carved in relief on the front of the church.

A cave called Arkouditissa or Arkoudia, is located in the vicinity where the goddess Artemis was once worshiped. During World War II, the Germans established a guardhouse in the monastery to regulate the area and since 2005 it has undergone restoration work by the monks; the monastery has strict rules, forbids smoking and photography inside the monastery and is closed on Wednesdays and Fridays


Nkisi or Nkishi are spirits, or an object that a spirit inhabits. It is applied to a variety of objects used throughout the Congo Basin in Central Africa in the Territory of Cabinda that are believed to contain spiritual powers or spirits; the term and its concept have passed with the Atlantic slave trade to the Americas. The current meaning of the term derives from the root, *-kitį- referring to a spiritual entity, or material objects in which it is manifested or inhabits in Proto-Njila, an ancient subdivision of the Bantu language family. In its earliest attestations in Kikongo dialects in the early seventeenth century it was transliterated as "mokissie", as the mu- prefix in this noun class were still pronounced, it was reported by Dutch visitors to Loango, current territory of Cabinda, in the 1668 book Description of Africa as referring both to a material item and the spiritual entity that inhabits it. In the sixteenth century, when the Kingdom of Kongo was converted to Christianity, ukisi was used to translate "holy" in the Kikongo Catechism of 1624.

In the eighteenth century, the mu- prefix evolved into a simple nasal n-, so the modern spelling is properly n'kisi, but many orthographies spell it nkisi. Close communication with ancestors and belief in the efficacy of their powers are associated with minkisi in Kongo tradition. Among the peoples of the Congo Basin the Bakongo and the Songye people of Kasai, exceptional human powers are believed to result from some sort of communication with the dead. People known as banganga work as healers and mediators who defend the living against black magic and provide them with remedies against diseases resulting either from witchcraft or the demands of bakisi, emissaries from the land of the dead. Banganga harness the powers of the dead by making minkisi. Minkisi are containers - ceramic vessels, animal horns, bundles, or any other object that can contain spiritually-charged substances. Graves themselves, as the home of the dead and hence the home of bakisi, can be considered as minkisi. In fact, minkisi have been described as portable graves, many include earth or relics from the grave of a powerful individual as a prime ingredient.

The powers of the dead thus allow the nganga to control it. The metal objects pounded into the surface of the power figures represent the minkisis' active roles during ritual or ceremony; each nail or metal piece represents a vow, a signed treaty, efforts to abolish evil. These figures most represent reflections upon unacceptable behaviors and efforts to correct them; the substances chosen for inclusion in minkisi are called "bilongo" or "milongo" a word translated as "medicine." However, their operation is not pharmaceutical, as they are not applied to or ingested by those who are sick, bilongo is more translated as "therapeutic substances". Rather they are chosen for metaphoric reasons, for example, bird claws in order to catch wrongdoers, or because their names resemble characteristics of spirits in question. Among the many common materials used in the minkisi were fruit and mushrooms. Minerals were collected from various places associated with the dead, such as earth collected from graves and riverbeds.

White clay was very important in the composition of minkisi due to the symbolic relationship of the color white and the physical aspects of dead skin as well as their moral rightness and spiritual positivity. White contrasted with the color of negativity; some minkisi use red ochre as a coloring agent. The use of red is symbolic of the mediation of the powers of the dead. Minkisi serve many purposes; some are used in divination practices, rituals to eradicate evil or punish wrong-doers, ceremonies for protective installments. Many are used for healing, while others provide success in hunting or trade, among other things. Important minkisi are credited with powers in multiple domains. Most famously, minkisi may take the form of anthropomorphic or zoomorphic wooden carvings. Minkisi and the afflictions associated with them are classified into two types; the above minkisi are associated with the sky and thunderstorms. The below minkisi are associated with waters on land; the above minkisi were considered masculine and were tied to violence and violent forces.

The minkisi of the above were used to maintain order, serve justice, seal treaties. Birds of prey, lightning and fire are all common themes among the minkisi of the above, they affected the upper body. Head and chest pains were said to be caused by these nkisi figures; some figures were in the form of animals. Most these were dogs. Dogs are tied to the spiritual world in Kongo mythology, they live in two separate worlds. Kozo figures were portrayed as having two heads – this was symbolic of their ability to see both worlds. Nkondi are a subclass of minkisi; because many of the nkondi collected in the nineteenth century were activated by having nails driven into them, they were called "nail fetishes" in travel writing, museum catalogs, art history literature. Many nkondi feature reflective surfaces, such as mirrors, on their stomach areas or

Godfrey Ince

Sir Godfrey Herbert Ince was a senior British civil servant. During World War II, he was Director-General of Manpower. After the war, he served in several different positions, including Chairman of Cable and Wireless and Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Labour. Godfrey Herbert Ince was born at Reigate to G. A. R. Ince on 25 September 1891, his schooling took place at Reigate Grammar School and London University. He gained many honours in his education, 1912 – Sherbrooke University Mathematical Scholar 1913 – Mayer de Rothschild Scholar in Pure mathematics 1913 – Ellen Watson Memorial Scholar in Applied mathematics 1913 – Senior Mathematics Prizeman 1914 – Joseph Hume Scholar in Political economy 1914 – Senior Physics Prizeman, University College He was an organiser and captain of the first University of London football team, they were the first team to play at Moscow and Prague. He played cricket for University College. Ince served with the Yorkshire Regiment, the East Lancashire Artillery and was attached to the Royal Engineers during the First World War.

Following injury in France, his mathematical skill was used in during his attachment where he carried out a field survey of the Royal Engineers. Ince joined the Civil Service in 1919 in the Ministry of Labour where he was appointed an assistant principle; the following year he became Private Secretary to the Chief Labour Adviser. He served several Ministers of Labour in this capacity, including the first female Cabinet Minister, Margaret Bondfield. In 1933 Ince was made Assistant Secretary to the Ministry as well as Chief Insurance Officer under the Unemployment Insurance Act; this latter role saw him spend over a year in Australia and New Zealand to advise their Social insurances. This work culminated in his authoring a report on Unemployment Insurance in Australia. Following his return to the UK he was made Principal Assistant Secretary to the Ministry in 1938. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, Ince became Under-Secretary to the Ministry of Labour. In this position he had special responsibility for National service.

Ince was seconded to the Production Executive Secretariat in 1941. He was acquainted with the chair of the secretariat, Ernest Bevin, with whom Ince had met while secretary to Lord Shaw's dock enquiry in 1920. At the age of 49, Ince was appointed to the newly created post of Director-General of Man Power in June 1941, he had responsibility over the recruitment of service personnel as well as workers for factories. Towards the end of the war in 1944 he was appointed to the post of Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Labour, a position he held until 1956. In 1956 he served as chairman of a committee appointed by the Postmaster-General looking into allegations of bias in news reporting on the Welsh language service of the BBC; the committee found no evidence to support the claim. However, they did find that there were, "...some errors of judgement and lack of balance in the news broadcast on the B. B. C. Welsh service and suggest the less reliance should be placed on information supplied by outside contributors".

Following his retirement Ince moved into business as chairman of Wireless. He died on 20 December 1960 at hospital in the Wimbledon area of London. Ince married his wife Iris in 1918 with. For his service Ince a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1941, a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1943, a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1960. BBC's WW2 archive The Old Reigatian Association National Portrait Gallery: Photographs of Sir Godfrey, taken by Rex Coleman