St Mary's Church, Wythall
The Former Church of St Mary, Wythall is a Grade II listed redundant parish church in the Church of England in Wythall, Worcestershire. The church was built in 1862 by Frederick Preedy; the landmark tower was added in 1908 by William Bidlake, the gift of the Misses Mynors in memory of their parents. The font was installed in the 1960s from Immanuel Church, Birmingham when this church was demolished; the building closed for worship in 1986, the building is now owned by a firm of electrical contractors. From 1987-2014 the congregation met in local school halls, most Coppice Primary School. At Easter 2014 the new St Mary's Church was opened on Shawhurst Lane in Hollywood, on the Coppice school site. More information on the history of the church and its building can be found at Wythall Church The organ dates from 1908 by Nicholson and Co.. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register; the churchyard contains the war graves of eight Commonwealth service personnel of World War II
Swaffham Prior is a village in East Cambridgeshire, England. Lying 5 miles west of Newmarket, two miles south west of Burwell, the village is paired with its neighbour Swaffham Bulbeck, are collectively referred to as'The Swaffhams'. Swaffham Prior was known as Great Swaffham in past centuries, it should not be confused with the town of Swaffham in Norfolk. The village is dominated by its twin churches that have served the parish since at least the 12th century – the Church of St Mary, the Church of St Cyriac and St Julitta. In 1667 a parliamentary order combined the churches under a single parish; the church of St Mary was first built in Norman times, over its history has at times been allowed to fall into ruin, only being restored at the start of the 20th century and now serving as the parish church. It contains a rood screen, has a series of stained glass windows showing scenes from World War I; the original church of St Cyriac and St Julitta was built prior to 1200, may have existed before 1066.
The present chapel is a plain Gothic-style church, consisting of a small chancel and nave with three small transeptal chapels. The tower contains 6 bells. Having fallen into disuse, in 1878 an order was received that the church be demolished, but the order was never carried out, it now serves as a hall for other functions. Scottish poet Edwin Muir is buried here. John George Witt, the barrister and Q. C./K. C. was born in 1836 at Denny Abbey, Waterbeach and was a son of James Maling Witt, a prosperous farmer at Waterbeach and at Queens' College Farm, Swaffham Prior. J. G. Witt lived at Swaffham Prior during much of early manhood, he died in London in 1906. J. G. Witt's uncle, Dr. George Witt, was born at Swaffham Prior and died at 22 Princes' Terrace, Hyde Park, London, he was buried at Swaffham Prior. Just a mile or so north of Swaffham Prior is the Anglo-Saxon defensive earthwork known as the Devil's Dyke, blocking a land route through the fens. Swaffham Prior is an old village, is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as possibly'Great Swaffham', with Swaffham Bulbeck being'Little Swaffham'.
There are houses in the village dating back several centuries, with the 17th century being most prominent. Though a trading village, today it could be described as a'dormitory' village looking back on its busier past. Local facilities include The Red Lion pub. There's a village hall, hosting village feasts, village fêtes, etc. Swaffham Prior is known for its two windmills which are symbols of the village, seen on the village sign on Cage Hill. Children attend the Swaffham Prior Church of England Primary School in the village and then go on to Bottisham Village College, a few villages across. Swaffham Prior chalk escarpment, observable only in a few places within the village is physically hidden from view; this local geological feature of the landscape is the chalk escarpment of Swaffham Prior and it runs the full length of this East Cambridgeshire village dating back to Anglo-saxon times. The more modern sections of the village are built along the top of the escarpment with the older houses nestling below the cliff face backing on to the high street.
The chalk escarpment straddles two different local eco-systems- the Cambridgeshire Fens to the west, where the land slopes down and the chalk heathland to the east, known locally as Swaffham Prior heath, part of the Greater Newmarket chalk heath, where the land height increases and plateaus into a larger area towards the east. In a few places, the ridge of the escarpment is exposed, although within private property. A fraction of it can be seen opposite the parish play area. Census counts for the village have been paired with Reach at various times; these pairings due to boundary changes have been excluded from the table below. Swaffham Prior – 2001 Census World War I commemorative stained glass A history of Swaffham Prior's churches The Swaffham Crier – Swaffham Prior's Village Magazine Swaffham Prior in A Vision of Britain
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
City of London
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders; the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, it is a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom; the City of London is referred to as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi in area. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being based in the City; the name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City.
London most denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888; the local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries; the Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, as of November 2018, is Peter Estlin; the City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008; the insurance industry is focused around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles to the east.
The City work there. About three quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial and associated business services sectors; the legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. Known as "Londinium", the Roman legions established a settlement on the current site of the City of London around 43 AD, its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."At its height, the Roman city had a population of 45,000–60,000 inhabitants.
Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. The Romans built the London Wall some time between 190 and 225 AD; the boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's Ludgate, the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline north of the City's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as 50 AD, near to today's London Bridge. By the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, it faced problems of plague and fire; the Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts and Saxon raiders; the decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, in 410 AD the Romans withdrew from Britain.
Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, after the formal withdrawal the city became uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic, a settlement to the west in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area. During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex and Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in 604 AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex and arguably the first king of the "English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of Englan
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Wythall is a village and civil parish in the Bromsgrove District, in the north-east corner of the county of Worcestershire, England. Wythall parish borders Solihull and Birmingham, had a population of 11,377 in the UK census of 2001. Wythall village is around 7 miles south of Birmingham City Centre along Alcester Road. There are many 18th century buildings on this road including the old post office and school building; the Wythall Institute is still the home of the WI today. The civil parish of Wythall includes Drake's Cross and Headley Heath. Wythall village itself is the area covered by the Wythall South ward, population 1,400, however this area includes the subsidiary settlements of Inkford and Tanner's Green; the easternmost section of Wythall village, around the railway station, was traditionally referred to as Grimes Hill. St Mary's Anglican church has a roof and stair turret added by W. H. Bidlake. There are two primary schools within Wythall parish, the Coppice Primary School in Drakes Cross, now headed by Bill Heptinstall, who started in 2007 and Meadow Green Primary School in Wythall village, now headed by Nathan Jones, who started in September 2009.
There was a school in Silver Street from circa 1875 to 1992. This catered for all school children in Wythall and the surrounding area, after the initial primary age, until a growing population required more school development. Woodrush High School in Drakes Cross opened in the 1958 for children aged 11 and over, Shawhurst Infants School opened around 1967, leaving what was by now called Silvermead School as a junior school. Meadow Green School opened in the early 1960s to give additional infant provision. During 1991-92 an extension was built on Shawhurst Infants School, its development became the Coppice Primary School; the Silvermead site was closed, although many of its buildings have been converted into homes as Silvermead Court. The Coppice Primary School became an Academy in December 2011 and now is the largest primary school in the area and in 2012 started to develop into a three form entry school; the local secondary school, the Woodrush High School, has an Astroturf and playing fields backing on to the Coppice Primary School.
Until 2002 a private school, Innisfree House, existed in Station Road. Its primary purpose was the education of the children of officers of the RAF station, in the years post-World War II was attended by the young Bruce Chatwin whose parents were living on a smallholding at Umberslade some 3 miles away. From 1939 to 1959 Wythall was home to a Royal Air Force station housing a barrage balloon facility, latterly, 1952–57, a Joint Services School of Applied Linguistics, training men from the RN and RAF in Russian military terminology and the use of radios for Signals Intelligence purposes. Part of the site is now occupied by the Transport Museum, Chapel Lane, which has a collection of historic buses and battery electric vehicles. A sawmill named Davies Timber Ltd. has been in operation for over 100 years and was steam powered at some point in its history, maps from 1838 show a brickyard opposite the site. There is now a brand new hub with a gym library. Location of the Wythall and Hollywood fun run races 10 km, 5 km and 1.5 km http://www.wythall-hollywood-funrun.org.uk/W Wythall Parish Council Wythall History Society Photographs of Wythall Transport Museum, Wythall http://www.wythall-hollywood-funrun.org.uk/ http://www.daviestimber.co.uk Map sources for Wythall
Wharram Percy is a deserted medieval village on the western edge of the chalk Wolds of North Yorkshire, England. It is about 1 mile south of Wharram-le-Street and is signposted from the B1248 Beverley to Malton road. Wharram Percy was part of the East Riding of Yorkshire until the 1974 boundary changes. Wharram Percy is a significant English DMV, although there are remains of others in a good state of preservation; the earthworks of the village have been known for many years, outlines of house platforms were drawn onto the first Ordnance Survey six-inch maps of Yorkshire published in 1854. The site was researched each summer by combined teams of archaeologists and botanists, from about 1950 to 1990 after it was singled out for study in 1948 by Professor Maurice Beresford of the University of Leeds. Although the site seems to have been settled since prehistory, the village appears to have been most active from the 10th to the 12th centuries; the Domesday Book of 1086 records it as'Warran' or'Warron'.
The suffix'Percy' stems from the prominent, aristocratic family that owned the area during the Middle Ages. The Black Death of 1348–49 does not seem to have played a significant part in the desertion of Wharram Percy, although the large fall in population in the country as a whole at that time must have encouraged relocation to larger settlements. In 1402 or 1403, the Percy family exchanged their holdings in the area with the Hylton family. Following changes in prices and wages during the 15th century, pastoral farming was more profitable for landowners than cereal farming. Over the century following, the Hylton family devoted more and more land to sheep, as their employment of agricultural labour decreased. During the early 16th century, the last residents of Wharram Percy were evicted and their homes were demolished to make room for more sheep pasture; the site is now in the care of Historic England. Although only the ruined church is visible above ground, much more of the village layout can be seen in the surrounding fields.
English Heritage has installed information panels around the site, provided an audio tour downloadable in mp3 format from the English Heritage website. A study of a sizeable collection of human skeletal remains excavated from the churchyard of the deserted village, published in 2004, reveals details of disease and death in the rural medieval community; this used the latest scientific techniques to make observations about childhood growth duration of breastfeeding, osteoperosis and tuberculosis. The Yorkshire Wolds Way National Trail passes through the site, the Centenary Way long-distance footpath passes to the east of the village. Wrathmell, Susan. Wharram Percy: Deserted Medieval Village. ISBN 978-1-85074-620-1. Wharram Percy in the Domesday Book Wharram Percy by the former chief guide of the Beresford excavation English Heritage - History of Wharram Percy Investigation history English Heritage's investigation of the site in 2002 Abandoned communities..... Wharram Percy BBC Radio 4 programme on Wharram Percy