Reebok International Limited is an American footwear and apparel company, a Independent subsidiary of German sporting goods giant Adidas since 2005. Reebok produces and distributes fitness and CrossFit sportswear including clothing and footwear, it is the official footwear and apparel sponsor for Ultimate Fighting Championship, CrossFit, Spartan Race. In 1958, Reebok was established as a companion company to J. W. Foster and Sons, founded in 1895 in Bolton, England. From 1958 until 1986, all Reebok apparel featured the Union Flag, to signify the company's British origins; the Union Flag is featured on Reebok's "Classic" line of apparel. The company's global headquarters are located in Boston, Massachusetts, U. S. with regional offices in Amsterdam, Hong Kong, Mexico City. In November 2016, Reebok announced they would be moving their headquarters from the Boston suburb of Canton to the innovation and design building in the seaport district of South Boston; the reasons for the move, according to the company, were to be located in an urban environment, more desirable to millennial workers and to “clarify the roles” of United States offices.
The move was completed in autumn of 2018. In 1895, Joseph William Foster at the age of 14 started work in his bedroom above his father's sweatshop in Bolton and designed some of the earliest spiked running shoes. After his ideas progressed, he founded his business'J. W. Foster' in 1900 he joined with his sons and changed the company name to J. W. Foster and Sons. Foster opened a small factory called Olympic Works, became famous among athletes for his "running pumps". For pioneering the use of spikes, the company's revolutionary running pumps appear in the book, Golden Kicks: The Shoes that changed Sport; the company began distributing shoes across the Union Jack flag. They were made famous by 100m Olympic champion Harold Abrahams in the 1924 Summer Olympics held in Paris. In 1958, in Bolton, two of the founder's grandsons and Jeff Foster, formed a companion company "Reebok," having found the name in a South African dictionary won in a running race by Joe Foster as a boy; the name is Afrikaans for a type of African antelope.
In 1979, at the Chicago International Sneaker Trade show an American businessman, Paul Fireman, took notice of Reebok. Fireman was working for team sports and negotiated a deal to license and distribute the Reebok brand in the United States; the division was called Reebok USA Ltd. That year, Fireman introduced three new shoes to the market at $60. By 1981, Reebok reached more than $1.5 million in sales. In 1982, Reebok debuted the Reebok Freestyle aerobics shoe, the first athletic shoe designed for women. Fitness professional Gin Miller became the face of "Step Reebok," the company's aerobics fitness campaign and program; the following year, Reebok's sales were $13 million. The company began expanding from tennis and aerobics shoes to running and basketball throughout the mid to late 1980s, the largest segments of the athletic footwear industry at the time. Fireman bought the British-based parent company in 1984. In 1985, Reebok had its initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol RBK.
In 1986, Reebok switched its logo from the Union Jack flag it had since its founding, to the Vector logo - an abstract Union Jack streak across a race track - which mirrored the design of the side flashes of its shoes The switch signaled the transition of the company into a performance brand as it began licensing deals with professional athletes in the NBA and NFL. During the 1980s, Reebok began introducing sports clothing and accessories, along with a new line of children's athletic shoes at the end of 1980. By the end of the year, Reebok's sales were about $1 billion. One of the company's most signature technologies, the Reebok Pump, debuted in 1989 with more than 100 professional athletes wearing the footwear by 1992, including Shaquille O'Neal. Reebok named Carl Yankowski president and chief executive officer of the brand in 1998, replacing former president Robert Meers. Yankowski stepped down one year to accept an executive position at another company. Reebok chairman and CEO Paul Fireman took over as president for the first time in 12 years.
Reebok signed Venus Williams after winning singles titles at the 2000 Summer Olympics. In December 2000, Reebok signed a 10-year licensing agreement with the NFL for the exclusive rights to manufacture and sell NFL licensed merchandise, including uniforms and footwear, for all 32 teams. In 2001, Reebok became the exclusive apparel outfitter for the 29 teams in the NBA, 16 WNBA teams for ten years beginning in the 2004-2005 season; the deal added the Reebok vector logo to the 2004 U. S. Olympic basketball team's uniforms. In 2001, Jay Margolis was named as Reebok's president and COO. After launching retail flagship stores in China, London, Los Angeles, New York and Tokyo, Margolis resigned in October 2004. Fireman took over as president after signing a new long-term employment agreement with the Reebok board of directors. In 2003, Reebok became the official uniform and apparel provider for the Canadian Football League, which took effect in 2004. Reebok acquired official National Hockey League sponsor CCM in 2004.
The company began manufacturing ice hockey equipment under the Reebok brands. Reebok phased out the CCM name on NHL authentic and replica jerseys, using the Reebok logo since 2005. CCM became Reebok-CCM Hockey in 2007. Reebok moved most of its hockey equipment lines to CCM after 2015. In August 2005, Adida
Pedro Félix Vicuña Aguirre was a Chilean journalist and one of the founders in 1827 of the newspaper El Mercurio de Valparaíso, the oldest existing newspaper in Spanish language. He was a liberal writer and politician. Vicuña was born of Mariana de Aguirre y Boza. Vicuña's father served two brief terms as acting president of Chile in 1829, was considered as the head of the Liberal party. Pedro Félix Vicuña received an excellent education. From a young age he showed an interest in letters, in journalism. In 1825, at the age of 20, he moved from Santiago to Valparaíso, where he bought a printing press and began publishing El Telégrafo Mercantil y Político; this periodical was founded October 3, 1826, 89 issues were published. In 1826, he married Carmen Mackenna, daughter of Brigadier Juan Mackenna, they had thirteen children. In 1827, at the age of 21, he founded the newspaper El Mercurio de Valparaíso, together with typographers Thomas Wells and Ignacio Silva; the first issue appeared September 12, 1827.
It was published only on Wednesdays and Saturdays, but in 1829 it became a daily. That same year, Vicuña sold his interest in the newspaper and moved back to Santiago Back in the capital, he worked as editor for the newspaper La Ley y la Justicia, he participated in El Censor and the magazine Paz Perpetua a los Chilenos. As the result of ideas he expressed in Paz perpetua, he gained the enmity of Conservative Interior Minister Diego Portales. Vicuña Aguirre was considered a revolutionary. In 1831 Vicuña was elected deputy from La Serena, but his election was annulled by the Chamber of Deputies, dominated by the Conservatives; the same year his son Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna, a future journalist and historian, was born to him and his wife. Disillusioned, he returned to rural life. In 1840 he supported the candidacy of Francisco Antonio Pinto a Liberal, opposed Manuel Bulnes. In 1842 he published El Observador, in 1845 El Republicano, both of which supported the candidacy of liberal general Ramón Freire.
As a result, he was exiled, went to Peru. In Peru he wrote the book Ocho meses de destierro o cartas sobre el Perú, it was published in 1847 after his return to Chile. He aided the revolutionaries of 1851, was named intendente of Concepción during the armed rebellion, he fought government troops in the Battle of Loncomilla. Although he was defeated, he refused to sign the Treaty of Purapel. In 1852 he wrote El porvenir del hombre, considered his greatest work. In 1853 he published Memorias Íntimas, he was again elected to the Chamber of Deputies, for La Serena in 1864 and for Ovalle in 1867. He supported three important reform projects — reform of the constitution, creation of a national bank, organization of a mining tribunal. In his 1867 term he introduced a bill to end imprisonment for debt, passed by the Congress. In 1870 he was elected senator for the first of two terms, he died in 1874 in Santiago. Vicuña family
Clemente Spera was an Italian painter of the Baroque period principally active in Milan. He was a specialist architectural painter who created capricci, i.e. architectural fantasies, placing together buildings, archaeological ruins and other architectural elements in fictional and fantastical combinations together with figures. He was a frequent collaborator with the prominent painter Alessandro Magnasco and painted for him the scenic background architectural elements and ruins. Little is known for certain about Clemente Spera's life, he is believed to have been born in Piedmont. He was trained in Milan in the workshop of Giovanni Ghisolfi, he was active in Milan throughout his career. Spera made a name in particular of classical ruins and capricci, he was sought after by eminent figure painters to paint in the architectural elements of their compositions. Spera’s collaborations with Magnasco are the best-known. Spera painted the architectural elements ruins of sumptuous classical buildings that supported the wild scenes depicted by Magnasco.
A typical example of such a collaboration is the Feast of Satyrs. In this picture the artists seems to have intended to accentuate the caricatural aspects of the behavior of the feasting satyrs. Architecture and sky are used to express the internal state of the various figures. Bizarre, crumbling remnants of sublime architecture provide the backdrop for the funny goings-on of the satyrs. In rhythmic repetition three successively staggered, large arches with feathery vegetation divide the space of the composition; the center of the space is occupied by a broken column shaft. The figures seem reduced to casual narration and yet their turbulence and drunkenness are reflected in the moving, bizarre ruins; the viewer is kept at a distance from the carousing satyrs. One sleeping drunkard on the left and another with a goat on the right only show their bare backsides. A third satyr who clings to the large column shaft appears to have no good intentions. Only at second glance it becomes clear that the apparent disorder is organized by a strict ordering principle, since all three satyrs embrace the center in the form of an equilateral triangle.
Spera collaborated with other leading figure painters. A collaboration with Venetian painter Sebastiano Ricci is known from their composition Antique ruins with figures; this collaboration needs to be situated during Ricci’s visit to Milan in 1694-1695. The ruins painted by Spera in this composition do not attempt to depict any known classical ruins; the figures by Ricci show an elongated morphology, which anticipates a development in Ricci’s style. In the centre of the composition a young man dressed as a nobleman indicates something to a peasant, about to climb the ruins. On the left some men are engaged in conversation in front of a person bowing over a well. Media related to Clemente Spera at Wikimedia Commons