Fluting in architecture consists of shallow grooves running along a surface. The term refers to the grooves running vertically on a column shaft or a pilaster, but need not be restricted to those two applications. If the hollowing out of material meets in a point, the point is called an arris. Fluting promotes a play of light on a column which helps the column appear more round than a smooth column; as a strong vertical element it has the visual effect of minimizing any horizontal joints. Greek architects viewed rhythm as an important design element; as such, fluting was used on buildings and temples to increase the sense of rhythm. It may be incorporated in columns to make them look thinner and more elegant. There is debate as to whether fluting was used in imitation of ancient woodworking practices, mimicking adze marks on wooden columns made from tree trunks, or whether it was designed to imitate plant forms. Either way, it was not invented by the Greeks who popularized it, but rather learned from the Mycenaeans or the Egyptians.
Fluted columns styled under the Doric order of architecture have 20 flutes. Ionic and Composite columns traditionally have 24. Fluting is never used on Tuscan order columns. Fluting is always applied to the shaft of the column, may run either the entire shaft length from the base to the capital, or only on the upper two thirds of the column shaft; the latter application is used to compliment the entasis of the column, which begins one third of the way up from the bottom of the shaft. Fluting might be applied to freestanding, structural columns, as well as engaged columns and decorative pilasters. If the lower third of the hollowed-out grooves appear to have been re-filled with a cylindrical element, it may be referred to as "cabled fluting"; this decorative element is not used in Doric order columns. Cabled fluting may have been used to prevent wear and damage to the sharp edges of the flutes along the bottom part of the column. While Greek temples employed columns for load-bearing purposes, Roman architects used columns more as decorative elements.
Fluting was used in both Roman architecture. Persian style columns do not follow the Classical orders, but were developed during the Achaemenid Empire in ancient Persia; these columns are characterized as fluted columns with long capitals featuring two decorated animals. Examples can be most seen in the ruins of Persepolis, Iran. One of the earliest remaining examples of fluting in columns can be seen at Djoser's necropolis in Saqqara, built by Imhotep in the 27th century BC; these columns are made of limestone and used fluting with the intention of looking like bundles of plant stems. Renaissance Architecture, built between the 14th and 17th centuries in Europe, centered on a revival of classical architectural elements, including Classical order columns; the Neoclassical is a Classical revival continuing today. This style is exemplified throughout many government buildings and monuments in the United States, as it was popular during the American Revolution. Fluting Column Pilaster Classical order Gadrooning Molding University of Pittsburgh - "fluting" from the Medieval Art and Architecture glossary
Splines are ridges or teeth on a drive shaft that mesh with grooves in a mating piece and transfer torque to it, maintaining the angular correspondence between them. For instance, a gear mounted on a shaft might use a male spline on the shaft that matches the female spline on the gear; the splines on the pictured drive shaft match with the female splines in the center of the clutch plate, while the smooth tip of the axle is supported in the pilot bearing in the flywheel. An alternative to splines is a key, though splines provide a longer fatigue life. There are several types of splines: Parallel key spline where the sides of the spaced grooves are parallel in both directions and axial. Involute spline where the sides of the spaced grooves are involute, as with an involute gear, but not as tall; the curves increase strength by decreasing stress concentrations. Crowned splines where the sides of the spaced grooves are involute, but the male teeth are modified to allow for misalignment. Serrations where the sides of the spaced grooves form a "V".
These are used on small-diameter shafts. Helical splines where the spaced grooves form a helix about the shaft; the sides may be involute. This can either minimize stress concentrations for a stationary joint under high load, or allow for rotary and linear motion between the parts. Ball splines where the "teeth" of the outer part are implemented with a ball bearing to allow for free linear motion under high torque. Drive shafts on vehicles and power take-offs use splines to transmit torque and rotation and allow for changes in length. Splines are used in several places on bicycles; the crank arm to BB shaft interfaces that are splined include ISIS Drive, Truvativ GXP and Howitzer, Shimano's Octalink and many others, most of which are proprietary. Some cranksets feature modular spiders. Cassettes engage the freehub via a spline that has one groove wider than the others to enforce a fixed orientation. Disc brake mounting interfaces that are splined include Centerlock, by Shimano. Aircraft engines may have a spline upon.
There may be a master spline, wider than the others, so that the propeller may go on at only one orientation, to maintain dynamic balance. This arrangement is found in larger engines, whereas smaller engines use a pattern of threaded fasteners instead. There are two types of splines and external. External splines may be broached, milled, rolled, ground or extruded. There are fewer methods available for manufacturing internal splines due to accessibility restrictions. Methods include those listed above with the exception of hobbing. With internal splines, the splined portion of the part may not have a through-hole, which precludes use of a pull / push broach or extrusion-type method. If the part is small it may be difficult to fit a milling or grinding tool into the area where the splines are machined. To prevent stress concentrations the ends of the splines are chamfered; such stress concentrations are a primary cause of failure in poorly designed splines. Hirth joint Keyed joint Reeding Coupling Robert Rich Robins.
"Tooth Engagement Evaluation of Involute Spline Couplings". Brigham Young University. Retrieved 2010-07-08
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae; the Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms. The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’. Before the 19th century, pines were referred to as firs. In some European languages, Germanic cognates of the Old Norse name are still in use for pines—in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, German Föhre—but in modern English, fir is now restricted to fir and Douglas fir. Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall; the smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, the tallest is an 81.79 m tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest.
Pines are long lived and reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some more. The longest-lived is Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old; this tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old, it was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly; the branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls" a tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year; the spiral growth of branches and cone scales may be arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; these "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the vigour of the trees.
Pines have four types of leaf: Seed leaves on seedlings are borne in a whorl of 4–24. Juvenile leaves, which follow on seedlings and young plants, are 2–6 cm long, green or blue-green, arranged spirally on the shoot; these are produced for six months to five years longer. Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, are small and not photosynthetic, arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves. Needles, the adult leaves, are green and bundled in clusters called fascicles; the needles can number from one to seven per fascicle, but number from two to five. Each fascicle is produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf; these bud scales remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist depending on species. If a shoot is damaged, the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can replace the lost leaves. Pines are monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious, with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex.
The male cones are small 1–5 cm long, only present for a short period, falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long; each cone has numerous spirally. The seeds are small and winged, are anemophilous, but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, are bird-dispersed. At maturity, the cones open to release the seeds, but in some of the bird-dispersed species, the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds; the most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire. Pines are gymnosperms; the genus is divided into two subgenera, which can be distinguished by cone and leaf characters: Pinus subg. Pinus, the yellow, or hard pine group with harder wood and two or three needles per fascicle Pinus subg.
Strobus, the white, or soft pine group with softer wood and five needles per fascicle Pines are native to the Northern Hemisphere, in a few parts of the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere. Most regions of the Northern Hemisphere host some native species of pines. One species crosses the equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, various species occur in regions at latitudes from as far north as 66°N to as far south as 12°N. Pines may be found in a large variety of environments, ranging from semi-arid desert to rainforests, from sea level up to 5,200 metres, from the coldest to the hottest environments on Earth, they occur in mountainous areas with favorable soils and at least some water. Various species have been introduced to temperate and subtropical regions of both hemisp
The art of chainsaw carving is a fast-growing form of art that combines the modern technology of the chainsaw with the ancient art of woodcarving. The oldest chainsaw artist records go back to the 1950s, which include artists Ray Murphy and Ken Kaiser. In 1952 Ray Murphy used his father's chainsaw to carve his name into a piece of wood. In 1961 Ken Kaiser created 50 carvings for the Trees of Mystery. Many new artists began to experiment with chainsaw carving, including Brenda Hubbard, Judy McVay, Don Colp, Cherie Currie, Susan Miller, Mike McVay, Lois Hollingsworth. At this time chainsaw carvers started loading up their carvings in the back of their trucks, functioning as traveling galleries. In the 1980s the art form began to grow with Art Moe getting much exposure for the craft at the Lumberjack World Championships held in Hayward, Wisconsin; this event was broadcast nationally. The addition of carving contests from the west coast to the east coast brought carvers together to test their skills and learn from each other.
The first Chainsaw Carving World Championships was held in 1987 and won by 24-year-old Barre Pinske. The 1980s saw the development of the Cascade Chainsaw Sculptors Guild and their newsletter, The Cutting Edge, mailed out to many members throughout the Pacific Northwest and the rest of the United States; the 80's brought the first book on chainsaw carving and Profitable Chainsaw Carving by William Westenhaver and Ron Hovde, published in 1982. Other books soon followed, including a book by Hal MacIntosh published in 1988 titled Chainsaw Art and in 2001 Chainsaw Carving: The Art and Craft, he published material on chainsaw carving. The first booking agency dedicated to promoting and preserving the integrity of performance chainsaw art was founded by Brian Ruth in 1992, it was appropriately named Masters of the Chainsaw. The company has represented some of the most respected artists in the U. S. such as Brian Ruth, Ben Risney, Josh Landry, Mark Tyoe and Marty Long, as well as select artists from other countries.
In 2007, Masters of the Chainsaw, under the direction of Jen Ruth, created the first international group of female sculptors under the name Chainsaw Chix. Featured in this all-female team are greats like Stephanie Huber, Angela Polglaze, Lisa Foster, Alicia Charlton, Uschi Elias, Sara Winter. Brian Ruth introduced the art as a performance art to Japan in 1995. Since he has established a division of Masters of the Chainsaw and a chainsaw carving school in Tōei, Japan. Although the general impression of the public is that it is performance art, there are a few chainsaw carvers now producing stunning works of art; these works can be produced in a fraction of the time that would be expected if only conventional tools such as mallet and gouges were used. Although many carvers continue to use other tools alongside the chainsaw, the chainsaw remains the primary tool. With the growth of the Internet, chainsaw carving has become a worldwide phenomenon with chainsaw carvers all over the world. In the United Kingdom, the English Open Chainsaw Competition draws thousands of visitors annually.
In 1989 Duncan Kitson was the first British carver, with notable success, to represent Wales and The UK in international competition. His work is recognized for its individual and tactile qualities. English chainsaw artist Matthew Crabb has carved the largest wooden statue of the Virgin Mary in the world, at 9 meters high, in Schochwitz, Germany. Welsh veteran, Harry Thomas of Thomas Carving is respected in the industry and specialises in bears, along with his son Danny Thomas. Harry has appeared on ITV's Daybreak, where he carved Queen Elizabeth II's head, in celebration of her Diamond Jubilee. In Canada, many wooden statues produced by the chainsaw artist Pete Ryan decorate the small town of Hope, British Columbia. Glenn Greensides, another Canadian artist, branched out into Japan in 1995 and visited Japan each year for 12 consecutive years to create one 5 meter tall sculpture from an exported British Columbia log depicting the upcoming year's Japanese zodiac symbol. In Japan, the Toei Chainsaw Art Club established the World Chainsaw Art Competition, the first chainsaw carving competition in the country.
The 2011 World Chainsaw Art Competition at the Toei Dome was to be dedicated to raising money for disaster relief due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that has affected the country.1999 marked the first year of the Ridgway Chainsaw Carving Rendezvous. Every February hundreds of carvers go to a small town in the mountains of Pennsylvania for this event; the Chainsaw Carver Rendezvous is the biggest gathering of chainsaw carvers in the world and takes over the small town of Ridgway, Pennsylvania. In 2010 American sculptor Bob King was awarded a "Star/Sprocket" on the Carvers Walk of Fame in Mulda, the location of the World Cup competition; this award confirms Bob has won more carving competitions than any other carver in the world to date. In 2013, American chainsaw carver, Josh Landry, was awarded first place at the "Rally in the Valley" chainsaw carving competition. In previous years, Josh Landry was the youngest chainsaw carver participating in national and international chainsaw carving competitions.
As the art has evolved, special chainsaw blades and chains have been developed for carving. In Finland such equipment is affectionally called konepuukko; the chainsaw "blades" are technically known as "guide bars". For chainsaw carving these bars have small noses; this enables the artist to create detail in the carving that would be impossible with a standard guide bar. The chains that a
Marquetry is the art and craft of applying pieces of veneer to a structure to form decorative patterns, designs or pictures. The technique may be applied to case furniture or seat furniture, to decorative small objects with smooth, veneerable surfaces or to freestanding pictorial panels appreciated in their own right. Marquetry differs from the more ancient craft of inlay, or intarsia, in which a solid body of one material is cut out to receive sections of another to form the surface pattern; the word derives from a Middle French word meaning "inlaid work". The veneers used are woods, but may include bone, turtle-shell, mother-of-pearl, brass or fine metals. Marquetry using colored straw was a specialty of some European spa resorts from the end of the 18th century. Many exotic woods as well as common European varieties can be employed, from the near-white of boxwood to the near-black of ebony, with veneers that retain stains well, like sycamore, dyed to provide colors not found in nature; the French cabinet maker Andre-Charles Boulle specialized in furniture using metal and either wood or tortoiseshell together, the latter acting as the background.
The simplest kind of marquetry uses only two sheets of veneer, which are temporarily glued together and cut with a fine saw, producing two contrasting panels of identical design. Marquetry as a modern craft most uses knife-cut veneers. However, the knife-cutting technique requires a lot of time. For that reason, many marquetarians have switched to scroll saw techniques. Other requirements are a pattern of some kind, some brown gummed tape, PVA glue and a base-board with balancing veneers on the alternate face to compensate stresses. Finishing the piece will require fine abrasive paper always backed by a sanding block. Either ordinary varnish, special varnishes, modern polyurethane -oil or water based- good waxes and the technique of French polish are different methods used to seal and finish the piece. Sand shading is a process used to make. A piece of veneer to be incorporated into a picture is submerged into hot sand for a few seconds. Another process is engraving fine lines into a picture and filling them with a mixture of India ink and shellac.
Furniture inlaid with precious woods, metals and stones is known from the ancient world and Roman examples have been recovered from the first century sites of Pompeii and Herculaneum demonstrating that the technique was advanced. The revival of the technique of veneered marquetry had its inspiration in 16th century Florence and at Naples from classical inspiration. Marquetry elaborated upon Florentine techniques of inlaying solid marble slabs with designs formed of fitted marbles and semi-precious stones; this work, called opere di commessi, has medieval parallels in Central Italian "Cosmati"-work of inlaid marble floors and columns. The technique is known in English as pietra dura, for the "hardstones" used: onyx, cornelian, lapis lazuli and colored marbles. In Florence, the Chapel of the Medici at San Lorenzo is covered in a colored marble facing using this demanding jig-sawn technique. Techniques of wood marquetry were developed in Antwerp and other Flemish centers of luxury cabinet-making during the early 16th century.
The craft was imported full-blown to France after the mid-seventeenth century, to create furniture of unprecedented luxury being made at the royal manufactory of the Gobelins, charged with providing furnishings to decorate Versailles and the other royal residences of Louis XIV. Early masters of French marquetry were the Fleming Pierre Golle and his son-in-law, André-Charles Boulle, who founded a dynasty of royal and Parisian cabinet-makers and gave his name to a technique of marquetry employing tortoiseshell and brass with pewter in arabesque or intricately foliate designs. Boulle marquetry was revived in the 1780s. In the decades between matched quarter-sawn veneers sawn from the same piece of timber were arranged symmetrically on case pieces and contrasted with gilt-bronze mounts. Floral marquetry came into favor in Parisian furniture in the 1750s, employed by cabinet-makers like Bernard van Risenbergh, Jean-Pierre Latz and Simon-François Oeben; the most famous royal French furniture veneered with marquetry are the pieces delivered by Jean Henri Riesener in the 1770s and 1780s.
The Bureau du Roi was the most famous amongst these famous masterpieces. Marquetry was not ordinarily a feature of furniture made outside large urban centers. Marquetry was introduced into London furniture at the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, the product of immigrant Dutch'inlayers', whose craft traditions owed a lot to Antwerp. Panels of elaborately scrolling "seaweed" marquetry of box or holly contrasting with walnut appeared on table tops and long-case clocks. At the end of the 17th century, a new influx of French Huguenot craftsmen went to London, but marquetry in England had little appeal in the anti-French, more Chinese-inspired high-style English furniture after ca 1720. Marquetry was revived as a vehicle of Neoclassicism and a'French taste' in London furniture, starting in the late 1760s. Cabinet-makers associated with London-made marquetry furniture, 1765–1790, include Thomas Chippendale and less familiar names, like John Linnell, the French craftsman Pierre Langlois, the firm of William Ince a
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal regions of the Earth. Spruces are large trees, from about 20–60 m tall when mature, have whorled branches and conical form, they can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by their needles, which are four-sided and attached singly to small persistent peg-like structures on the branches, by their cones, which hang downwards after they are pollinated. The needles are shed. In other similar genera, the branches are smooth. Spruce are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, such as the eastern spruce budworm, they are used by the larvae of gall adelgids. In the mountains of western Sweden, scientists have found a Norway spruce, nicknamed Old Tjikko, which by reproducing through layering, has reached an age of 9,550 years and is claimed to be the world's oldest known living tree; the word spruce comes from a Middle English adjective spruse which meant from Prussia.
The adjective comes from an unknown alteration of an Old French form of Prussia - Pruce, which itself comes from New Latin, which adapted it from Old Prussian. Spruce and Sprws seem to have been generic terms for commodities brought to England by Hanseatic merchants, the tree thus was believed to be particular to Prussia, which for a time was figurative in England as a land of luxuries. DNA analyses have shown that traditional classifications based on the morphology of needle and cone are artificial. A recent study found that P. breweriana had a basal position, followed by P. sitchensis, the other species were further divided into three clades, suggesting that Picea originated in North America. Spruce has been found in the fossil record from the early Cretaceous, 136 million years ago. Thirty-five named species of spruce exist in the world; the Plant List has 59 accepted spruce names. Basal species: Picea breweriana – Brewer's spruce, Klamath Mountains, North America. Beyond that, determination can become more difficult.
Intensive sampling in the Smithers/Hazelton/Houston area of British Columbia showed Douglas, according to Coates et al. that cone scale morphology was the feature most useful in differentiating species of spruce. Daubenmire, after range-wide sampling, had recognized the importance of the 2 latter characters. Taylor had noted that the most obvious morphological difference
History of wood carving
Wood carving is one of the oldest arts of humankind. Wooden spears from the Middle Paleolithic, such as the Clacton Spear, show that people have engaged in utilitarian woodwork for millennia. Indeed the beginnings of the craft go so far back that, at least where timber is present, the use of wood exists as a universal in human culture as both a means to create or enhance technology and as a medium for artistry; the North American Indian carves his wooden fish-hook or his pipe stem just as the Polynesian works patterns on his paddle. The native of Guyana decorates his cavassa grater with a well-conceived scheme of incised scrolls, while the native of Loango Bay distorts his spoon with a design of figures standing up in full relief carrying a hammock. Wood carving is present in architecture. Figure-work seems to have been universal. To carve a figure/design in wood may be not only more difficult but less satisfactory than sculpting with marble, owing to the tendency of wood to crack, to be damaged by insects, or to suffer from changes in the atmosphere.
The texture of the material, too proves challenging to the expression of features in the classic type of youthful face. On the other hand, magnificent examples exist of the more rugged features of age: the beetling brows, the furrows and lines neutralizing the defects of the grain of the wood. In ancient work the surface may not have been of such consequence, for figures as a rule being painted for protection and color, it is not always realized at the present day to what extent color has from the most ancient times been used to enhance the effect of wood-carving and sculpture. The modern colour prejudice against gold and other tints is because painted work has been vulgarized; the arrangement of a proper and harmonious scheme of colour is not the work of the house painter, but of the specially trained artist. In the early 20th century, the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, on which much of this entry is based, commented, "Of late years carving has gone out of fashion; the work is slow and requires substantial skill, making the works expensive.
Other and cheaper methods of decoration have driven carving from its former place. Machine work has much to answer for, the endeavor to popularize the craft by means of the village class has not always achieved its own end; the gradual disappearance of the individual artist, elbowed out as he has been, by the contractor, is fatal to the continuance of an art which can never flourish when done at so much a yard." This statement has proven untrue, as the continued survival of the art and craft of woodcarving can be demonstrated by the large number of woodcarvers who have carried on or advanced the tradition in different parts of the world. The extreme dryness of the climate of Egypt accounts for the existence of a number of woodcarvings from this remote period; some wood panels from the tomb of Hosul Egypt, at Sakkarah are of the III. Dynasty; the carving consists of Egyptian hieroglyphs and figures in low relief, the style is delicate and fine. A stool shown on one of the panels has the legs shaped like the fore and hind limbs of an animal, a form common in Egypt for thousands of years.
In the Cairo museum may be seen the statue of a man from the period of the Great Pyramid of Giza 4000 B. C; the expression of the face and the realism of the carriage have never been surpassed by any Egyptian sculptor of this or any other period. The figure is carved out of a solid block of sycamore, in accordance with the Egyptian custom the arms are joined on; the eyes are inlaid with pieces of opaque white quartz, with a line of bronze surrounding to imitate the lid. The IV. V. and VI. dynasties cover the finest period of Egyptian sculpture. The statues found in the tombs show a freedom of treatment, never reached in times, they are all portraits, which the artist strove his utmost to render like his model. For these are not, like mere modern statues works of art, but had a religious signification; as the spirits of the deceased might inhabit, these Ka statues, the features and proportions were copied. There are to be found in the principal museums of Europe many Egyptian examples: mummy cases of human beings with the face alone carved, animal mummy cases, sometimes boxes, with the figure of a lizard carved in full Mummy relief standing on the lid.
Sometimes the animal would be carved in its hollowed body used as the case itself. Of furniture, folding seats like the modern camp stool, chairs with legs terminating in the heads of beasts or the feet of animals, Furniture still exist. Beds supported by lions paws XI. and XII. dynasties, from Gebelein, now in the Cairo Museum), headrests, 6 or 8 in. High, shaped like a crutch on a foot like those used by the native of New Guinea today, are carved with scenes, etc. in outline. In the British Museum may be seen a tiny little coffer, 4 in. by 21/2 in. with delicate figures carved in low relief. This little box stands on cabriole legs 3/4 of an inch long with claw feet, quite Louis Quinze in character. There are incense ladles, the handle representing a bouquet of lotus flowers, the bowl formed like the leaf of an aquatic plant with serrated edges from Gurnah during the XVIII. Dynasty.