A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. The first known public exhibition of projected sound films took place in Paris in 1900, but decades passed before sound motion pictures were made commercially practical. Reliable synchronization was difficult to achieve with the early sound-on-disc systems, amplification and recording quality were inadequate. Innovations in sound-on-film led to the first commercial screening of short motion pictures using the technology, which took place in 1923; the primary steps in the commercialization of sound cinema were taken in the mid- to late 1920s. At first, the sound films which included synchronized dialogue, known as "talking pictures", or "talkies", were shorts; the earliest feature-length movies with recorded sound included effects. The first feature film presented as a talkie was The Jazz Singer, released in October 1927. A major hit, it was made with Vitaphone, at the time the leading brand of sound-on-disc technology.
Sound-on-film, would soon become the standard for talking pictures. By the early 1930s, the talkies were a global phenomenon. In the United States, they helped secure Hollywood's position as one of the world's most powerful cultural/commercial centers of influence. In Europe, the new development was treated with suspicion by many filmmakers and critics, who worried that a focus on dialogue would subvert the unique aesthetic virtues of soundless cinema. In Japan, where the popular film tradition integrated silent movie and live vocal performance, talking pictures were slow to take root. Conversely, in India, sound was the transformative element that led to the rapid expansion of the nation's film industry; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as the concept of cinema itself. On February 27, 1888, a couple of days after photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge gave a lecture not far from the laboratory of Thomas Edison, the two inventors met. Muybridge claimed that on this occasion, six years before the first commercial motion picture exhibition, he proposed a scheme for sound cinema that would combine his image-casting zoopraxiscope with Edison's recorded-sound technology.
No agreement was reached, but within a year Edison commissioned the development of the Kinetoscope a "peep-show" system, as a visual complement to his cylinder phonograph. The two devices were brought together as the Kinetophone in 1895, but individual, cabinet viewing of motion pictures was soon to be outmoded by successes in film projection. In 1899, a projected sound-film system known as Cinemacrophonograph or Phonorama, based on the work of Swiss-born inventor François Dussaud, was exhibited in Paris. An improved cylinder-based system, Phono-Cinéma-Théâtre, was developed by Clément-Maurice Gratioulet and Henri Lioret of France, allowing short films of theater and ballet excerpts to be presented at the Paris Exposition in 1900; these appear to be the first publicly exhibited films with projection of both image and recorded sound. Phonorama and yet another sound-film system—Théâtroscope—were presented at the Exposition. Three major problems persisted, leading to motion pictures and sound recording taking separate paths for a generation.
The primary issue was synchronization: pictures and sound were recorded and played back by separate devices, which were difficult to start and maintain in tandem. Sufficient playback volume was hard to achieve. While motion picture projectors soon allowed film to be shown to large theater audiences, audio technology before the development of electric amplification could not project satisfactorily to fill large spaces. There was the challenge of recording fidelity; the primitive systems of the era produced sound of low quality unless the performers were stationed directly in front of the cumbersome recording devices, imposing severe limits on the sort of films that could be created with live-recorded sound. Cinematic innovators attempted to cope with the fundamental synchronization problem in a variety of ways. An increasing number of motion picture systems relied on gramophone records—known as sound-on-disc technology. In 1902, Léon Gaumont demonstrated his sound-on-disc Chronophone, involving an electrical connection he had patented, to the French Photographic Society.
Four years Gaumont introduced the Elgéphone, a compressed-air amplification system based on the Auxetophone, developed by British inventors Horace Short and Charles Parsons. Despite high expectations, Gaumont's sound innovations had only limited commercial success—though improvements, they still did not satisfactorily address the three basic issues with sound film and were expensive as well. For some years, American inventor E. E. Norton's Cameraphone was the primary competitor to the Gaumont system. In 1913, Edison introduced a new cylinder-based synch-sound apparatus known, just like his 1895 system, as the Kinetophone; the phonograph was connected by an intricate arrangement of pulleys to the film projector, allowing—under ideal conditions—for synchronization. However, conditions were ra
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen. Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination and sound devices, are present in movie cameras; the first movie projector was the Zoopraxiscope, invented by British photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion; the stop-motion images were painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. A second series of discs, made in 1892–94, used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically colored by hand. Kazimierz Prószyński, born in Warsaw, was a Polish inventor active in the field of cinema, he patented his first film camera, called Pleograph, before the Lumière brothers, went on to improve the cinema projector for the Gaumont company, as well as invent the used hand-held Aeroscope camera. A more sophisticated movie projector was invented by Frenchman Louis Le Prince while working in Leeds.
In 1888 Le Prince took out a patent for a 16-lens device that combined a motion picture camera with a projector. In 1888, he used an updated version of his camera to film the first motion picture, the Roundhay Garden Scene; the pictures were exhibited in Hunslet. The Lumière brothers invented the first successful movie projector, they made their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, in 1894, publicly screened at L'Eden, La Ciotat a year later. The first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films happened in Paris on 28 December 1895; the cinematograph was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. At the Exhibition, films made by the Lumière Brothers were projected onto a large screen measuring 16 by 21 meters. In 1999, digital cinema projectors were being tried out in some movie theatres; these early projectors played the movie stored on a computer, sent to the projector electronically. Due to their low resolution compared to digital cinema systems, the images at the time had visible pixels.
By 2006, the advent of much higher 4K resolution digital projection reduced pixel visibility. The systems became more compact over time. By 2009, movie theatres started replacing film projectors with digital projectors. In 2013, it was estimated that 92% of movie theatres in the United States had converted to digital, with 8% still playing film. In 2015, numerous popular filmmakers—including Quentin Tarantino and Christopher Nolan—lobbied large studios to commit to purchase a minimum amount of 35 mm film from Kodak; the decision ensured. Although more expensive than film projectors, high-resolution digital projectors offer many advantages over traditional film units. For example, digital projectors contain no moving parts except fans, can be operated remotely, are compact and have no film to break, scratch or change reels of, they allow for much easier, less expensive, more reliable storage and distribution of content. All-electronic distribution eliminates all physical media shipments. There is the ability to display live broadcasts in theaters so equipped.
In 1912 Max Wertheimer discovered the phi phenomenon. In each the brain constitutes an experience of apparent movement when presented with a sequence of near-identical still images; this theory is said to account for the illusion of motion which results when a series of film images is displayed in quick succession, rather than the perception of the individual frames in the series. Persistence of vision should be compared with the related phenomena of beta movement and phi movement. A critical part of understanding these visual perception phenomena is that the eye is not a camera, i.e.: there is no frame rate for the human eye or brain. Instead, the eye/brain system has a combination of motion detectors, detail detectors and pattern detectors, the outputs of all of which are combined to create the visual experience; the frequency at which flicker becomes invisible is called the flicker fusion threshold, is dependent on the level of illumination. The frame rate of 16 frames per second is regarded as the lowest frequency at which continuous motion is perceived by humans.
This threshold varies across different species. Because the eye and brain have no fixed capture rate, this is an elastic limit, so different viewers can be more or less sensitive in perceiving frame rates, it is possible to view the black space between frames and the passing of the shutter by blinking ones eyes at a certain rate. If done fast enough, the viewer will be able to randomly "trap" the image between frames, or during shutter motion; this will not work with cathode ray tube displays due to the persistence of the phosphors nor with LCD or DLP light projectors because they refresh the image with no blackout intervals as with film projectors. Silent films were not projected at constant speeds, but rather were varied throughout the show at the discretion of the projectionist with some notes provided by the distributor; this was more a function of hand-cranked projectors than the silence. When the electric motor supplanted hand cranking in both movie cameras and projectors, a more uniform frame rate became possible.
Speeds ranged from about 18 frame/s on up - sometimes faster than modern sound film speed. 16 frame/s - though sometimes used as a camera shooting speed - was inadvisable for projection, due to the high risk of the nitrate-base pri
University of California Press
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. It was founded in 1893 to publish books and papers for the faculty of the University of California, established 25 years earlier in 1868, its headquarters are located in California. The University of California Press publishes in the following general subject areas: anthropology, ancient world/classical studies and the West, cinema & media studies, environmental studies and wine, music, psychology, public health and medicine and sociology, it is a non-profit publishing arm of the University of California. Of its authors 25% are affiliated with the University of California, it publishes on average 175 new books and 30 multi-issue journals in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences. It maintains 4,000 book titles in print, it is the publisher of Collabra and Luminos open access initiatives. The Press commissioned as its corporate typeface University of California Old Style from type designer Frederic Goudy from 1936-1938, although it no longer always uses the design.
Language As Symbolic Action, Kenneth Burke The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, Carlos Castaneda Technicians of the Sacred: A Range of Poetries from Africa, Asia and Oceania, Jerome Rothenberg The Mysterious Stranger, Mark Twain Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution The Making of a Counter Culture, Theodore Roszak Self-Consuming Artifacts: The Experience of Seventeenth-Century Literature, Stanley Fish The Ancient Economy, Moses I. Finley Joan of Arc: The Image of Female Heroism, Marina Warner Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age, Benjamin R. Barber Art in the San Francisco Bay Area, Thomas Albright Religious Experience, Wayne Proudfoot The War Within: America's Battle over Vietnam, Tom Wells George Grosz: An Autobiography, George Grosz Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, Kevin Bales Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn, Karen McCarthy Brown A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America, Michael Barkun Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, Norman G. Finkelstein Autobiography of Mark Twain: Volume One, Mark Twain Collabra Collabra is University of California Press's open access journal program.
The Collabra program publishes two open access journals, Collabra: Psychology and Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, with plans for continued expansion and journal acquisition. Luminos Luminos is University of California Press’s open access response to the challenged monograph landscape. With the same high standards for selection, peer review and marketing as its traditional book publishing program, Luminos is a transformative model, built as a partnership where costs and benefits are shared; the University of California Press re-printed a number of novels under the California Fiction series from 1996–2001. These titles were selected for their literary merit and for their illumination of California history and culture; the Ford by Mary Austin Thieves' Market by A. I. Bezzerides Disobedience by Michael Drinkard Words of My Roaring by Ernest J. Finney Skin Deep by Guy Garcia Fat City by Leonard Gardiner Chez Chance by Jay Gummerman Continental Drift by James D. Houston The Vineyard by Idwal Jones In the Heart of the Valley of Love by Cynthia Kadohata Always Coming Home by Ursula K.
Le Guin The Valley of the Moon by Jack London Home and Away by Joanne Meschery Bright Web in the Darkness by Alexander Saxton Golden Days by Carolyn See Oil! by Upton Sinclair Understand This by Jervey Tervalon Ghost Woman by Lawrence Thornton Who Is Angelina? by Al Young Books portal California portal Official website Frugé, August. A Skeptic Among Scholars: August Frugé on University Publishing. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993. California Digital Library – University of California Libraries Free Online - UC Press E-Books Collection Mark Twain Project Online "Mark Twain's Biography Flying Off the Shelves", The New York Times, Nov. 19, 2010
A fishing reel is a cylindrical device attached to a fishing rod used in winding and stowing line. Modern fishing reels have fittings aiding in casting for distance and accuracy, as well as retrieving line. Fishing reels are traditionally used in the recreational sport of competitive casting, they are attached to a fishing rod, though some specialized reels are mounted directly to boat gunwales or transoms. The fishing reel was invented in Song dynasty China, where the earliest known illustration of a fishing reel is from Chinese paintings and records beginning about 1195 AD. Fishing reels first appeared in England around 1650 AD, by the 1760s, London tackle shops were advertising multiplying or gear-retrieved reels; the first popular American fishing reel appeared in the U. S. around 1820. In literary records, the earliest evidence of the fishing reel comes from a 4th-century AD work entitled Lives of Famous Immortals; the earliest known depiction of a fishing reel comes from a Southern Song painting done in 1195 by Ma Yuan called "Angler on a Wintry Lake," showing a man sitting on a small sampan boat while casting out his fishing line.
Another fishing reel was featured in a painting by Wu Zhen. The book Tianzhu lingqian, printed sometime between 1208 and 1224, features two different woodblock print illustrations of fishing reels being used. An Armenian parchment Gospel of the 13th century shows a reel; the Sancai Tuhui, a Chinese encyclopedia published in 1609, features the next known picture of a fishing reel and vividly shows the windlass pulley of the device. These five pictures mentioned are the only ones which feature fishing reels before the year 1651; the first English book on fishing is "A Treatise of Fishing with an Angle" in 1496. However, the book did not mention a reel. A primitive reel was first cited in the book, "The Art of Angling" 1651. Fishing reels first appeared in England around a time of growing interest in fly fishing; the fishing industry became commercialized in the 18th century, with rods and tackle being sold at the haberdashers store. After the Great Fire of London in 1666, artisans moved to Redditch which became a centre of production of fishing related products from the 1730s.
Onesimus Ustonson established his trading shop in 1761, his establishment remained as a market leader for the next century. He received a Royal Warrant from three successive monarchs starting with King George IV; some have credited Onesimus with the invention of the fishing reel - he was the first to advertise its sale. Early multiplying reels were wide and had a small diameter, their gears, made of brass wore down after extensive use, his earliest advertisement in the form of a trading card date from 1768 and was entitled To all lovers of angling. A full list of the tackles he sold included artificial flies, and'the best sort of multiplying brass winches both stop and plain'; the commercialization of the industry came at a time of expanded interest in fishing as a recreational hobby for members of the aristocracy. Modern reel design had begun in England during the latter part of the 18th century, the predominant model in use was known as the'Nottingham reel'; the reel was a wide drum which spooled out and was ideal for allowing the bait to drift along way out with the current.
Tackle design began to improve from the 1880s. The introduction of new woods to the manufacture of fly rods made it possible to cast flies into the wind on silk lines, instead of horse hair; these lines allowed for a much greater casting distance. A negative consequence of this, was that it became easy for the much longer line to get into a tangle; this problem spurred the invention of the regulator to evenly spool the line out and prevent tangling. Albert Illingworth, 1st Baron Illingworth a textiles magnate, patented the modern form of fixed-spool spinning reel in 1905; when casting Illingworth's reel design, the line was drawn off the leading edge of the spool, but was restrained and rewound by a line pickup, a device which orbits around the stationary spool. Because the line did not have to pull against a rotating spool, much lighter lures could be cast than with conventional reels. Geared multiplying reels never caught on in Britain, but had more success in the United States, where models were modified by George Snyder of Kentucky into his bait-casting reel, the first American-made design in 1810.
The American, Charles F. Orvis and distributed a novel reel and fly design in 1874, described by reel historian Jim Brown as the "benchmark of American reel design," and the first modern fly reel; the founding of The Orvis Company helped institutionalize fly fishing by supplying angling equipment via the circulation of his tackle catalogs, distributed to a small but devoted customer list. A fly reel is a single-action reel operated by stripping line off the reel with one hand, while casting the rod with the other hand; the main purpose of a fly reel is to store line, provide smooth uninterrupted tension when a fish makes a long run, counterbalance the weight of your fly rod when casting. When used in fly fishing, the fly reel or fly casting reel has traditionally been rather simple in terms of mechanical construction, little has changed from the design patented by Charles F. Orvis of Vermont in 1874. Orvis first introduced the idea of using light metals with multiple perforated holes to construct the housing, resulting in a lighter reel that allowed the spooled fly line to dry more than a conventional, solid-sided design.
Early fly reels placed. Most had no drag mechanism, but were fitted with a cl
Cave diving is underwater diving in water-filled caves. It may be done as an extreme sport, a way of exploring flooded caves for scientific investigation, or for the search for and recovery of divers lost while diving for one of these reasons; the equipment used varies depending on the circumstances, ranges from breath hold to surface supplied, but all cave diving is done using scuba equipment in specialised configurations with redundancies such as sidemount or backmounted twinset. Recreational cave diving is considered to be a type of technical diving due to the lack of a free surface during large parts of the dive, involves decompression. In the United Kingdom, cave diving developed from the locally more common activity of caving, its origins in the United States are more associated to recreational scuba diving. Compared to caving and scuba diving, there are few practitioners of cave diving; this is due in part to the specialized equipment and skill sets required, in part because of the high potential risks due to the specific environment.
Despite these risks, water-filled caves attract scuba divers and speleologists due to their unexplored nature, present divers with a technical diving challenge. Underwater caves have a wide range of physical features, can contain fauna not found elsewhere; the procedures of cave diving have much in common with procedures used for other types of penetration diving. They differ from open water procedures in the emphasis on navigation, gas management, operating in confined spaces, that the diver is physically constrained from direct ascent to the surface during much of the dive; as most cave diving is done in an environment where there is no free surface with breathable air allowing an above-water exit, it is critically important to be able to find the way out before the breathing gas runs out. This is ensured by the use of a continuous guideline between the dive team and outside of the flooded cave, diligent planning and monitoring of gas supplies. Two basic types of guideline are used: permanent lines, temporary lines.
Permanent lines may include a main line starting near the entrance/exit, side lines or branch lines, are marked to indicate the direction to the nearest exit. Temporary lines include exploration lines and jump lines. Decompression procedures may take into account that the cave diver follows a rigidly constrained and defined route, both into and out of the cave, can reasonably expect to find any equipment such as drop cylinders temporarily stored along the guideline while making the exit. In some caves, changes of depth of the cave along the dive route will constrain decompression depths, gas mixtures and decompression schedules can be tailored to take this into account. Most open-water diving skills apply to cave diving, there are additional skills specific to the environment, to the chosen equipment configuration. Good buoyancy control and finning technique help preserve visibility in areas with silt deposits; the ability to navigate in total darkness using the guideline to find the way out is a safety critical emergency skill.
Line management skills required for cave diving include laying and recovering guide lines using a reel, tie-offs, the use of a jump line to cross gaps or find a lost guide line in silted out conditions, identifying the direction along the guideline leading to the exit, the skills of dealing with a break in a guideline. Emergency skills for dealing with gas supply problems are complicated by the possibility of the emergency occurring in a confined space and low visibility or darkness. Cave diving training includes equipment selection and configuration, guideline protocols and techniques, gas management protocols, communication techniques, propulsion techniques, emergency management protocols, psychological education. Cave diver training stresses the importance of risk management and cave conservation ethics. Most training systems offer progressive stages of certification. Cavern training covers the basic skills needed to enter the overhead environment. Training will consist of gas planning, propulsion techniques needed to deal with the silty environments in many caves and handling, communication.
Once certified as a cavern diver, a diver may undertake cavern diving with a cavern or cave certified "buddy", as well as continue into cave diving training. Introduction into cave training builds on the techniques learned during cavern training and includes the training needed to penetrate beyond the cavern zone and working with permanent guidelines that exist in many caves. Once intro to cave certified, a diver may penetrate much further into a cave limited by 1/3 of a single cylinder, or in the case of a basic cave certification, 1/6 of double cylinders. An intro cave diver is not certified to do complex navigation. Apprentice cave training serves as the transition from intro to full certification and includes the training needed to penetrate deep into caves working from permanent guide lines as well as limited exposure to side lines that exist in many caves. Training covers complex dive decompression procedures used for longer dives. Once apprentice certified, a diver may penetrate much further into a cave limited by 1/3 of double cylinders.
An apprentice diver is allowed to do a single jump or gap during the dive. An apprentice diver has one year to finish full cave or must repeat the apprentice stage. Full cave training serves as the final level of basic training and includes the training needed to penetrate deep into the cave working from both permanent guidelines and sideli
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
A developing tank is a light-tight container used for developing film. A developing tank allows photographic film to be developed in a daylight environment; this is necessary because most film is panchromatic and therefore can not be exposed to any light during processing. Depending upon the size and type, a developing tank can hold one to many sheet films. Famous brands include Paterson, Yankee and Nikor. A film reel holds roll films in a spiral shape; the film is held evenly spaced. General tank support 110,126,135,120,620 format films Developing tanks and film reels for roll films come in two varieties: plastic and stainless steel. With stainless steel reels, the film is clipped to the center and gently pinched while the reel is turned so that the film falls into the reel's grooves. With a plastic reel, the film is loaded from the outside and wound onto the reel by rotating the reel with a back-and-forth motion. Minox dayling development tank. Minox format film can be loaded in broad daylight without the use of darkroom.
Meopta 16mm development tank. Used for 16mm film only. Film must be loaded in darkroom. Agfa Rondinax 35 and 60. Used for 135 and 120 film formats. Can be loaded in broad daylight without the use of a changing bag or darkroom; the user begins by separating the film from a paper backing. The film is loaded onto a film reel in a dark environment. Care must be taken during this step, as improperly loading the film may result in parts of the film not getting developed. Once the film is on the reel it is put into the developing tank, a lid is placed on the developing tank; because the lid prevents light from reaching the film, the rest of the film developing process may be carried out in daylight. In addition to protecting the film from light, the lid contains an opening for pouring liquids into and out of the developing tank. A separate cap seals the canister, which prevents the contents of the tank from spilling when agitated by inverting the tank, but the tank should be cleaned by water every time after development as any residual fixer may not lead to proper development of the next film.
Media related to Developing tank at Wikimedia Commons