Reel-to-reel audio tape recording called open-reel recording, is the form of magnetic tape audio recording in which the recording medium is held on a reel, not permanently mounted in an enclosed cassette. In use, the supply reel containing the tape is placed on a hub. Reel-to-reel systems use tape, 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1, or 2 inches wide, which moves at 3 3⁄4, 7 1⁄2, 15 or 30 inches per second. All standard tape speeds are derived as a binary submultiple of 30 inches per second; the tape in a compact cassette is 0.15 inches wide and moves at 1 7⁄8 inches per second. By writing the same audio signal across more tape, reel-to-reel systems give much greater fidelity, at the cost of much larger tapes. In spite of the larger tapes, less convenience, more expensive media, reel-to-reel systems, which first started in the early 1940s, remained popular in audiophile settings into the 1980s, are filling a widening niche in the new millenium. Reel-to-reel tape was used in early tape drives for data storage on mainframe computers and in video tape recorders.
Magnetic tape was used to record data signals for instrumentation purposes, beginning with the hydrogen bomb tests of the early 1950s. Studer and Denon still produced reel to reel tape recorders in the 1990s, but as of 2017, only Mechlabor continues to manufacture analog reel-to-reel recorders. There are two companies that manufacture magnetic recording tape: ATR Services of York and Recording the Masters in Paris, France; the reel-to-reel format was used in the earliest tape recorders, including the pioneering German-British Blattnerphone machines of the late 1920s which used steel tape, the German Magnetophon machines of the 1930s. This format had no name, since all forms of magnetic tape recorders used it; the name arose only with the need to distinguish it from the several kinds of tape cartridges or cassettes such as the endless loop cartridge developed for radio station commercials and spot announcements in 1954, the full size cassette, developed by RCA in 1958 for home use, as well as the compact cassette developed by Philips in 1962 for dictation.
The earliest machines produced distortion during the recording process which German engineers reduced during the Nazi Germany era by applying a "bias" signal to the tape. In 1939, one machine was found to make better recordings than other ostensibly identical models, when it was taken apart a minor flaw was noticed. Instead of DC, it was introducing an AC bias signal to the tape, this was adapted to new models using a high-frequency AC bias that has remained a part of audio tape recording to this day; the quality was so improved that recordings surpassed the quality of most radio transmitters, such recordings were used by Adolf Hitler to make broadcasts that appeared to be live while he was safely away in another city. American audio engineer Jack Mullin was a member of the U. S. Army Signal Corps during World War II, his unit was assigned to investigate German radio and electronics activities, in the course of his duties, a British Army counterpart mentioned the Magnetophons being used by the allied radio station in Bad Nauheim near Frankfurt.
He acquired two Magnetophon recorders and 50 reels of I. G. Farben recording tape and shipped them home. Over the next two years, he worked to develop the machines for commercial use, hoping to interest the Hollywood film studios in using magnetic tape for movie soundtrack recording. Mullin gave a demonstration of his recorders at MGM Studios in Hollywood in 1947, which led to a meeting with Bing Crosby, who saw the potential of Mullin's recorders to pre-record his radio shows. Crosby invested $50,000 in a local electronics company, Ampex, to enable Mullin to develop a commercial production model of the tape recorder. Using Mullin's tape recorders, with Mullin as his chief engineer, Crosby became the first American performer to master commercial recordings on tape and the first to pre-record his radio programs on the medium. Ampex and Mullin subsequently developed commercial stereo and multitrack audio recorders, based on the system invented by Ross Snyder of Ampex Corporation for their high-speed scientific instrument data recorders.
Les Paul had been given one of the first Ampex Model 200 tape decks by Crosby in 1948, ten years ordered one of the first Ampex eight track "Sel Sync" machines for multitracking. Ampex engineers, who included Ray Dolby on their staff at the time, went on to develop the first practical videotape recorders in the early 1950s to pre-record Crosby's TV shows. Inexpensive reel-to-reel tape recorders were used for voice recording in the home and in schools, along with dedicated models expressly made for business dictation, before the Philips compact cassette, introduced in 1963 took over. Cassettes displaced reel-to-reel recorders for consumer use. However, the narrow tracks and slow recording speeds used in cassettes compromised fidelity. Ampex produced pre-recorded reel-to-reel tapes for consumers of popular and classical music from the mid-1950s to the mid-'70s, as did Columbia House from 1960 to 1984. Following the example set by Bing Crosby, large reel-to-reel tape recorders became the main recording forma
Bugs vs. Daffy: Battle of the Music Video Stars is a 1988 animated television special broadcast on CBS on October 21, 1988; the story revolves around two competing television stations that show music videos from classic Looney Tunes shorts. The stations are hosted by Daffy Duck; this special aired. It was one of the first specials produced by Warner Bros. where new animation was both traditionally and digitally inked and painted. It can be found in the Adventures section of the Space Jam 2-disc box set. After the title is announced, we cut to a VJ Bugs at the end of "In Old Indiana", he runs the successful music video TV station WABBIT. He plays his "highly requested" song "Home on the Range". We leave the city where WABBIT is to the woods, where Daffy's music video TV station KPUT is. Daffy plays "Sunrise in Nutzville" displays his disgust for WABBIT because they have higher ratings. On a television screen, a hand changes the station to WABBIT. After the commercial break and Daffy deliver their signature songs "What's Up, Doc?" and "Oh, People Call Me Daffy!".
Bugs presents "The Songs of the 1930's", which displays songs from the 1930s Looney Tunes. He plays "Those Were Wonderful Days" and describes how some of the best music came from Vaudeville, using a song from the Bunny Sisters as an example. On his break, Daffy is clueless at watching Bugs do his radio show with "no panache, no charisma", he sees "We're in the Money" his break is over. He has free copy of his disco album, he rips off WABBIT on KPUT by presenting his own golden oldie "We Watch the Skyways" before the same hand changes the channel. Bugs presents a back-to-back tribute to Porky Pig with his debut single "Porky's Poppa Has a Farm", his imaginative videos, Naughty Neighbors and his duet with Petunia Pig. Watching this, Daffy is disgusted, he delivers a trivia question: "Whose musical talent combined the upper-beat level of bluegrass music with the intoxicating Latin rhythm of salsa?" He is the answer to that, plays the song "Banjo Chicky-Boom", the song for said answer. He is dead last in his competition ratings shows lament before the same hand changes the channel again.
After the commercial break, Bugs displays "The Songs of WWII" with songs "We Did It Before" and "Any Bonds Today?". Daffy rips off WABBIT once more, saying that "those bigshots at WABBIT would have you believe that us ducks did nothing but sit on our tail feathers during World War II", he plays "We're In to Win" before being changed by the hand. Bugs plays "Gee Whiz Willigans", which infuriates Daffy, he jams WABBIT with a drum solo of his from The Bugs Bunny Show. Bugs jams KPUT right back with "The Old Soft Shoe", with a confused Daffy jamming Bugs back with "I Can't Get Along, Little Dogie" by Yosemite Sam, they jam each other back-to-back with songs by Tweety and Sylvester. They resort to holidays like Valentine's Day, Columbus Day, St. Patrick's Day, The 4th of July, Christmas; the Nielsen Family Ratings come in, Daffy announces the show canceled. But he asks who the Nielsen Family is; the hand switches to WABBIT. The family is revealed to be a family of rabbits. Bugs gives a shout-out to the Nielsens, saying, "It helps to have a lot of relatives".
The Old Soft Shoe video plays over the end credits. The theme music for WABBIT is the "What's Up, Doc?" Score that played over numerous Bugs Bunny cartoon title cards. The Nielsen family spoofs the Nielsen ratings for television; the only video sources that appear twice are Yankee Doodle Daffy, The Fair-Haired Hare, the short-lived program The Bugs Bunny Show. The 6 minutes of new animation were digitally painted by Allied Visual Artists, using three of the first low-cost electronic paintboxes in the industry, manufactured by the now defunct Inovion company of Utah, USA. Paintbox output was transferred to film via a Polaroid Freeze Frame and experimental Double M film recorder; this digital setup did not offer any camera motion. Robot Rabbit The Fair-Haired Hare Dough for the Do-Do What's Up, Doc? Boobs in the Woods Those Were Wonderful Days Shake Your Powder Puff Bosko's Picture Show Yankee Doodle Daffy Polar Pals Porky's Poor Fish Naughty Neighbors The Fifth-Column Mouse Any Bonds Today? Scrap Happy Daffy Hot Cross Bunny Tweet Tweet Tweety Tweety's Circus A Scent of the Matterhorn Have You Got Any Castles?
Al Sadu, or Sadu, describes an embroidery form in geometrical shapes hand-woven by Bedouin people. Sadu House in Kuwait was established by the Al Sadu Society in 1980 to protect the interests of the Bedouins and Sadu weaving. Al Sadu traditional weaving skills in the United Arab Emirates is contained in the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. Al Sadu is said to be an ancient tribal weaving craft that artistically portrays Arabian nomadic peoples’ rich cultural heritage and instinctive expression of natural beauty. Woven geometric and figurative patterns and symbols reflect the traditional tribal lifestyle, the desert environment and the weavers’ creative self-expression; the textiles and weaving practice can be seen as an extension of the weaver’s hand, the graceful moving pace of the camel. Camels were used for transportation and food, but for textile production, so their figurative symbolism is important. Camel symbols and tribal animal brandings can create a complex visual code depicted in prized woven Sadu textiles.
With the demise of tribal existence and the decline of associated weaving skills and memories, the demands for tribal camel textiles have ceased, so Al Sadu weaving and nomadic animal husbandry, once crucial and vital, is in decline. There are two main settings for Al Sadu in Kuwait: the desert, the traditional home of the nomadic Bedouin, where weaving was carried out by women; the history of wool weaving in the Arabian desert goes back thousands of years with woven items such as the tent and its colorful dividers, storage bags and animal trappings. In the urban setting of the town, men took on the weaving of cloth for the bisht; the Al Sadu Society of Kuwait is dedicated to preserving and promoting the rich and diverse textile heritage of the Kuwaiti Bedouin, from the nomadic weaving of the desert through to the urban weaving of the town. Begun in 1978, as a private initiative, by a group of concerned Kuwaitis who wished to preserve a fast disappearing, yet intrinsic, cultural identity, the Al Sadu Project was founded.
In 1991, soon after the Liberation of Kuwait, the project was transformed into Al Sadu Weaving Co-operative Society, a venture owned and run by the weavers and artisans themselves. The society runs a gallery, museum and workshop at Sadu House. Al Sadu in the United Arab Emirates is a traditional form of weaving practised by Bedouin women in rural communities. Traditionally men shear goats and camels, the wool is cleaned and prepared by the women; the yarn is spun on a drop spindle dyed using local plant extracts, woven on a floor loom using a warp-faced plain weave. The traditional colours are black, brown and red, with distinctive patterns in the form of narrow bands of geometric designs; the result is colourful products: clothing and horse decorations, Bedouin tents, majlis floor pillows and mats. Traditionally, women gather in small groups to spin and weave, exchanging family news and chanting and reciting poetry; such gatherings are the means of transmitting the tradition: girls learn by watching, are given tasks to do, such as sorting the wool, before learning the more intricate skills involved.
In 2011 at the Sixth Session of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, Al Sadu in the United Arab Emirates was inscribed on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding