Reelin is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that helps regulate processes of neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain by controlling cell–cell interactions. Besides this important role in early development, reelin continues to work in the adult brain, it modulates synaptic plasticity by enhancing the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation. It stimulates dendrite and dendritic spine development and regulates the continuing migration of neuroblasts generated in adult neurogenesis sites like the subventricular and subgranular zones, it is found not only in the brain but in the liver, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, Fallopian tube, breast and in comparatively lower levels across a range of anatomical regions. Reelin has been suggested to be implicated in pathogenesis of several brain diseases; the expression of the protein has been found to be lower in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder, but the cause of this observation remains uncertain, as studies show that psychotropic medication itself affects reelin expression.
Moreover, epigenetic hypotheses aimed at explaining the changed levels of reelin expression are controversial. Total lack of reelin causes a form of lissencephaly. Reelin may play a role in Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy and autism. Reelin's name comes from the abnormal reeling gait of reeler mice, which were found to have a deficiency of this brain protein and were homozygous for mutation of the RELN gene; the primary phenotype associated with loss of reelin function is a failure of neuronal positioning throughout the developing central nervous system. The mice heterozygous for the reelin gene, while having little neuroanatomical defects, display the endophenotypic traits linked to psychotic disorders. Mutant mice have provided insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of the development of the central nervous system. Useful spontaneous mutations were first identified by scientists who were interested in motor behavior, it proved easy to screen littermates for mice that showed difficulties moving around the cage.
A number of such mice were found and given descriptive names such as reeler, lurcher and staggerer. The "reeler" mouse was described for the first time in 1951 by D. S. Falconer in Edinburgh University as a spontaneous variant arising in a colony of mice maintained by geneticist Charlotte Auerbach. Histopathological studies in the 1960s revealed that the cerebellum of reeler mice is decreased in size while the normal laminar organization found in several brain regions is disrupted; the 1970s brought about the discovery of cellular layer inversion in the mouse neocortex, which attracted more attention to the reeler mutation. In 1994, a new allele of reeler was obtained by means of insertional mutagenesis; this provided the first molecular marker of the locus, permitting the RELN gene to be mapped to chromosome 7q22 and subsequently cloned and identified. Japanese scientists at Kochi Medical School raised antibodies against normal brain extracts in reeler mice these antibodies were found to be specific monoclonal antibodies for reelin, were termed CR-50.
They noted that CR-50 reacted with Cajal-Retzius neurons, whose functional role was unknown until then. The Reelin receptors, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, were discovered by Trommsdorff and colleagues, who found that the cytosolic adaptor protein Dab1 interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of LDL receptor family members, they went on to show that the double knockout mice for ApoER2 and VLDLR, which both interact with Dab1, had cortical layering defects similar to those in reeler. The downstream pathway of reelin was further clarified with the help of other mutant mice, including yotari and scrambler; these mutants have phenotypes similar without mutation in reelin. It was demonstrated that the mouse disabled homologue 1 gene is responsible for the phenotypes of these mutant mice, as Dab1 protein was absent or only detectable in these mutants. Targeted disruption of Dab1 caused a phenotype similar to that of reeler. Pinpointing the DAB1 as a pivotal regulator of the reelin signaling cascade started the tedious process of deciphering its complex interactions.
There followed a series of speculative reports linking reelin's genetic variation and interactions to schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and other complex dysfunctions. These and other discoveries, coupled with the perspective of unraveling the evolutionary changes that allowed for the creation of human brain intensified the research; as of 2008, some 13 years after the gene coding the protein was discovered, hundreds of scientific articles address the multiple aspects of its structure and functioning. Studies show that reelin is absent from synaptic vesicles and is secreted via constitutive secretory pathway, being stored in Golgi secretory vesicles. Reelin's release rate is not regulated by depolarization, but depends on its synthesis rate; this relationship is similar to that reported for the secretion of other extracellular matrix proteins. During the brain development, reelin is secreted in the cortex and hippocampus by the so-called Cajal-Retzius cells, Cajal cells, Retzius cells. Reelin-expressing cells in the prenatal and early postnatal brain are predominantly found in the marginal zone of the cortex and in the temporary subpial granular layer, manifested to the highest extent in human, in the hippocampal stratum lacunosum-moleculare and the upper marginal layer of the dentate gyrus.
In the developing cerebellum, reelin is express
Mr. Washington Goes to Town is a 1942 American comedy film directed by Jed Buell and William Beaudine and starring F. E. Miller, Mantan Moreland and Maceo Bruce Sheffield, it was a low-budget film aimed at black audiences, written and shot in six days at a cost of $15,000. F. E. Miller as Wallingford Mantan Moreland as Schenectady Jones Maceo Bruce Sheffield as Brutus Blake Marguerite Whitten as Lady Queenie Edward Boyd as Lonesome Ranger DeForest Covan as Short Man Nathan Curry as Policeman Cleo Desmond as Old Maid Slick Garrison as Man in Barber Chair Clarence Hargrave as Man with Gorilla Henry Hastings as Uncle Utica Charles Hawkins as Goldberg Monte Hawley as Stiletto John Lester Johnson as Tall Man Walter Knox as Man on Crutches Vernon McCalla as Invisible man Clarence Moorehouse as Gorilla Florence O'Brien as Chambermaid Arthur Ray as Blackstone Zerita Steptean as Mrs. Brutus Johnnie Taylor as Magician Sam Warren as Barber Geraldine Whitfield as Young Girl Marshall, Wendy L. William Beaudine: From Silents to Television.
Scarecrow Press, 2005. Mr. Washington Goes to Town on IMDb
Fuat Shamoun Oduncu is a German hematologist and biomedical ethicist. He is professor for medicine at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and known for his work in the fields of oncology, palliative care, medical ethics and health economics. Fuat Shamoun Oduncu was born in Midyat; as Assyrian he belongs to the Christian minority of the Syriac Orthodox Church. His foreign worker family emigrated to Germany in 1974, living in Bavaria since, he studied medicine 1989 -- 95 at the LMU Munich. 1997 he graduated with the medical doctor degree at the medical faculty of the LMU. In parallel he graduated with the master's degree of philosophy at the Jesuit’s University of Philosophy in Munich in 1996. In 2005 he graduated with the degree of doctor of philosophy at the Department of Philosophy of the LMU, he obtained German citizenship in 1998. In 2002 Oduncu completed a postgraduate European Master in Bioethics at the universities of Nijmegen, Madrid and Padova. In 2005 he received his Ph. D. in internal medicine at the medical faculty of the LMU Munich.
In 2004 he was approved as internist, 2005 as hematologist and medical oncologist. In 2007 he became the head of the department of oncology. In 2009 he received his additional certifications for palliative care and for hemostaseology, for medical quality management in 2012. In 2011 Oduncu completed a two-year part-time Master of Business Administration Health Care Management at the Munich Business School in cooperation with the Boston University School of Management. In 2013 he was appointed professor at the LMU Munich; as the general secretary of the Erich-Franck-Society Oduncu promoted the relationship between the medical faculties of the LMU Munich and the University of Istanbul. He supported an exchange program for students and university teachers; as a member of the charity foundation Christlicher Entwicklungsdienst and as a VSO worker Oduncu assists in foreign aid in the poorest regions of India and Africa. Oduncu speaks several languages fluently: Aramaic, Arabic, English, French and Latin.
Oduncu contributed to the understanding und treatment of cancer diseases. It is his stated scientific goal and personal vision to contribute to the development of innovative drugs on the basis of antibody technologies in order to provide a curative treatment for every single cancer patient one day. Hence, together with his research partners, puts efforts on the development of the so-called bi- and trispecific antibodies, i.e. the triplebodies. These molecules present antibody-derivatives and small molecules which bind to the surface antigens of cancer cells and to CD16- or CD3-positive effector cells of the patient. Through this concept of dual targeting the triplebodies are able to identify the tumor cell by binding to two different surface antigens of the same tumor cell and kill the tumor through the stimulation of effector cells. Dual targeting provides selective binding and selective killing of the cancer cells, thus leading to high rates of efficacy and low rates of adverse effects. Thus, the use of triplebody technology with dual targeting provides a considerable potential for a successful personalized cancer therapy with the realistic chance of long-term efficacy and cure for cancer patients.
The research team of Oduncu established the concept of dual targeting using triplebodies first for the in-vitro treatment of leukemia. Besides, Oduncu contributed as a medical ethicist a vast publication body dealing with central ethical and societal issues of the following topics such as dying in dignity, assisted-suicide, palliative care, priority-setting in health care, organ transplantation, embryo and stem cell research. Publication list ResearchGate Publication list PubMed Publication list: Clinic of the LMU 1990–1996 Scholarship by the German National Academic Foundation, Bonn 1995 Award of the International Electrophoresis Conference, Paris 1996 Award of the International Conference on Malignant Lymphomas, Lugano 1996 Theodor-Fontane-Award of the German National Academic Foundation, Bonn 1998 Ethics-Prize of the Deutsches Allgemeines Sonntagsblatt 1999–2000 Grant for Research and Education at the Medical Faculty of the LMU Munich 2000–2001 Fellowship for European Postgraduate Study European Master in Bioethics at the universities of Nijmegen, Madrid and Padua 2001 Walter-Brendel-Transplantation Award of the German Society for Transplantation, Hannover 2002 Grant by theGeschwister Boehringer Ingelheim Stiftung für Geisteswissenschaften 2005 Vincenz-Czerny-Prize for Oncology of the German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology 2008–2011 Grant for the MBA Health Care study at the Munich Business School 2011 m4-Award for Personalized Medicine Clinic of the LMU MUnich: Fuat Oduncu Medizin ohne Grenzen.
Deutsch-türkisches Jahr der Bildung und Innovation 2014 Assistierter-Suizid. Die ethische Verantwortung des Arztes. Ärzteblatt.de Interview with Professor Dr. med. Dr. phil. Fuat S. Oduncu, MA, EMB, MBA Eine Koryphäe mit Herz. fuessenaktuell.de
Munsang College is an EMI college situated in Hong Kong founded by Mr Au Chak Mun, Mr Mok Kon Sang and Dr Ts'o Seen Wan in 1926. It adopts the house system and each student is assigned to 6 to one of the 6 houses namely Love, Chi, Kwan, May. With a huge campus with kindergarten and secondary sections, Munsang College is a well-known school and is regarded as a prestigious or elite school in Hong Kong; the students from Munsang College all come from the Band 1 group. The college adopts "Life" and "All For One, One For All" as its motto, it aims to offer students a holistic education upon Christian principles and nurture in them a positive outlook on life, so that they can be self-motivated, devoted to making valuable contributions to the community, can be prepared for the sublime state of life. In the spirit of Christ, guide Students to learn a model of the perfect life of Jesus Christ. Focus on Love, Intellectual, Physical and Aesthetic development of students. There are six houses namely Love, Chi, Tai and May, to represents the 6 developments.
Let students to lead each houses and societies to develop their leadership ability, the ability to work independently, aspirations for the social services. Preparation Period In 1916, in view of the lack of schools for children in Kowloon City, Dr Ts'o Seen Wan suggested raising funds to build a school. In 1920, Mr Au Chak Mun, one of the two people who reclaimed the land at Kowloon Bay and founded the Kai Tak Investment Company and bequeathed a donation of HK$10,000 to support Dr Ts'o Seen Wan's plan. Mr Mok Kon Sang donated HK$10,000 as the founding fund of the school. Rev. Arthur Dudley Stewart, the Principal of St. Paul's College was entrusted with the work of preparation. In 1924, Mr Rufus Huang, a teacher of St. Stephen's College at Stanley, was appointed as the first principal of the school and he rented a three-storey building at 2 Kai Tak Bun as the school building and the open area near the school building as the playground. In commemoration of the contribution of Mr Au Chak Mun and Mr Mok Kon Sang, the school was named after them as Munsang College.
Beginning Period On 8 March 1926, classes were opened. At that time, there were 18 students. Only boys' junior secondary section was set up. There was one class each in junior 1, 2 and 3. Besides, there were three preparatory classes, Pre A, B and C for children who didn't reach the level of junior one; that winter, the Board of Directors was set up and Dr Ts'o Seen Wan became the chairman of the board. Since 8 March has been the School Anniversary date. In 1927, the kindergarten section was set up. There were 60 students in the secondary section and 17 students in the primary and kindergarten sections. In 1928, the boys' senior secondary section was set up. Owing to the increasing number of students, No 45 and 47 of Kai Yan Road near Kai Tak Bun were rented as school buildings; the ground floor was with classrooms for the primary and kindergarten sections. The second and third floor were used as the students' dormitory. In 1930, the first 3 students graduated in the secondary section. In 1932, a girls' secondary section was set up and the number of students increased to 426.
In 1933, a hall with a capacity of 200 students was built at the back of the main school building at Kai Tak Bun. In 1934, owing to the outstanding performance of Munsang College, the Hong Kong Government started to subsidize the school. In the autumn of 1937, the girls' secondary section was closed and all female students were transferred to Heep Yunn College. In 1938, the first Home-Coming day was held. Campus Relocated Period In the preparation of the 10th anniversary ceremony, it was suggested that a piece of land at the end of Grampian Road should be bought to build a school campus instead of renting houses. HK$11,000 was raised to purchase most of the land for the present campus. In September 1939, the first phase of building the school campus, including a hall and 12 classrooms, at the present location was completed. There were 525 students. On 26 November, the Munsang College Alumni Association was founded. Resuming Period In August 1945, the Japanese army surrendered. However, the school campus was still occupied by the British army.
Civilian houses at Hau Wong Road were rented and the primary school resumed. There were 94 students. In May 1946, the campus at Grampian Road was returned to the school authority but only the primary section resumed; the number of students increased to 200. In 1947, the main road in the school campus and the school gate was rebuilt; the school became a non-profit-making private school. In 1949, a co-ed secondary section was established. In the summer of the same year, one additional classroom was built and in winter, two extra classrooms were built. In 1950, the Student Association was set up and the total number of students increased to 500. In 1953, with the addition of seven classrooms, the secondary school resumed up to S5 and there were 17 classes and 785 students. In 1954, five students participated in the first English HKCEE after the World War II. Expansion Period I In 1955, the kindergarten section resumed and a new building with 6 classrooms for the kindergarten section was completed in January 1956.
The first phase of building the present Block D was completed in November 1957. In 1961, the sports ground was expanded with extra land leased from the Hong Kong Government after the completion of Dumbarton Road and its area was increased to about 20,000 square feet. At the same time Munsang College wa
Brian Vaughn Bradley, Jr. better known by his stage names Astro and The Astronomical Kid, is an American rapper and actor. He is known for being a contestant on the first season of The X Factor USA in 2011. Astro took the judges with his original song shot for looking at his mom, his mentor was Record Company owner and producer L. A. Reid. Astro was seventh place in the competition. After his appearance on The X Factor, he starred in an episode of Person of Interest. In 2014, he co-starred in the major films Earth to Echo and A Walk Among the Tombstones, the Fox series Red Band Society. Astro was born Brian Vaughn Jr. on September 27, 1996 in Brooklyn, New York. There, he lived in a single parent household with his Jamaican mother, younger sister, he began rapping professionally at the age of ten when his mother promised him studio time if he began to do better in school. He soon released his first single, "Stop Looking at My Moms" and created his first mixtape B. O. A.. He started composing instrumentals of his own that pertained to the hip hop music genre.
Some of his musical influences include Marvin Gaye, Jay-Z, Stevie Wonder, Biggie Smalls, Boyz II Men, Mary J. Blige, Fu-Schnickens, Tupac Shakur and other artists from the 80s and 90's time period, his music is inspired by the notable film director and fellow Brooklynite Spike Lee. At the age of 14, Bradley went to audition for The X Factor. For his audition, he performed "Stop Looking at My Moms" and stole America's attention by becoming one of the few rappers to perform on such a show, he proceeded on to the live shows. In the fourth week, he faced Stacey Francis in the sing-off but survived as Reid and Cowell kept him. However, Francis received more votes than Astro meaning if Cowell sent the result to deadlock, Astro would have been eliminated, he got into the top seven before getting eliminated. Astro performed the following songs on The X Factor: After leaving The X Factor, Astro released his fourth mixtape entitled Loser, it was based around his experiences on the show. He put out two beat tapes called "Masterminds" and "New World Art" under the alias of Basquiat.
The tapes included productions from both him and his friend Laron who went under the name of Keith for the tapes. He was nominated for a BET Award in the Young Stars category, asked to present an award at the 43rd Annual NAACP Image Award Show with Keke Palmer, featured in an episode of Person of Interest, he put out many singles. One of them was "Stop Looking at My Moms", released under the name The Astronomical Kid; the music video was released on YouTube. For most of 2012, Bradley went on a hiatus; when in an interview with Sway, he mentioned that he used this time to find himself, musically. He returned releasing a song called "Deadbeat" and another called "Methods" releasing a visual to his song "He Fell Off"; those songs were all included on his mixtape Lazy Lyrics. He made sure to state that the tape would be nothing like what he has done before with a "gritty hip-hop sound that oozed Brooklyn." Bradley made his acting debut with his role as Darren McGrady in Person of Interest. He played Tucker "Tuck" Simms in the sci-fi adventure Earth to Echo, released on July 2, 2014, TJ in A Walk Among the Tombstones, a film with Liam Neeson, released on September 19, 2014.
He was Dash Hosney in the FOX series Red Band Society, which premiered on September 17, 2014. Most he played Calvin Walker in See You Yesterday, an afrofuturist take on ways that time travel can change the effects of police brutality. See You Yesterday was produced by Spike Lee and directed by Stefon Bristol, debuted on Netflix on May 17. 2019. In June 2019, The Hollywood Reporter stated that Bradley was set to play a principal role in HBO's Euphoria, but left the show during filming due to its explicit content. Grade A Frequencies The Astronomical Kid - EP Computer Era Nice 2 Meet You, Again Official Website Astro on IMDb The Astronomical Kid at SoundCloud
IMDb is an online database of information related to films, television programs, home videos, video games, streaming content online – including cast, production crew and personal biographies, plot summaries, trivia and critical reviews, ratings. An additional fan feature, message boards, was abandoned in February 2017. A fan-operated website, the database is owned and operated by IMDb.com, Inc. a subsidiary of Amazon. As of January 2020, IMDb has 6.5 million titles and 10.4 million personalities in its database, as well as 83 million registered users. IMDb began as a movie database on the Usenet group "rec.arts.movies" in 1990 and moved to the web in 1993. The movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users, but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site. Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors; the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Users with a proven track record of submitting factual data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast and other demographics of media product and personalities.
However, name, character name, plot summaries, title changes are screened before publication, take between 24 and 72 hours to appear. All registered users choose their own site name, most operate anonymously, they have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member, as well as personal movie ratings and, since 2015, "badges" are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted. These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos, bios, etc. If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO. There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages. Users are invited to rate any film on a scale of 1 to 10, the totals are converted into a weighted mean-rating, displayed beside each title, with online filters employed to deter ballot-stuffing.
In January 2019, IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive, an ad-supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows. Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting entitled "Those Eyes", by the British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham, about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST" from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the "Actress List". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, but soon retired people were added, so Needham started what was a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists; when these achieved popularity, they were merged back into the lists themselves. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible.
By late 1990, the lists included 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts that could be used to search the four lists, thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database". The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia and plot summaries; the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. In 1993, it moved onto the fledgling World Wide Web under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database; the database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates.
However, the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth. In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom, becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd. founder Col Needham became the primary owner. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising and partnerships. In 1998, Jeff Bezos, owner, CEO of Amazon.com, struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright for $55 million and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company. This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while Amazon.com would be able to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. IMDb continued to expand its functionality.
On January 15, 2002, it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals. IMDbPro was launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival, it provides a variety of services includi